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Acts of Incorporation of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
By-Laws adopted October, 1857, ..... 
Officers of the Society, elected April, 1857, 
Resident Members, in the Order of their Election, 
Honorary and Corresponding Members, .... 






Correspondence in 1774 and 1775 between a Committee of the Town 
of Boston and Contributors of Donations for the Relief of Sufferers 
by the Boston Port Bill, 1 

A Narrative of the Planting of the Massachusetts Colony hi 1628. 
Published by Old Planters, the Authors of the Old Men's Tears, . 279 

The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. By Emory Washburn, . 333 

Letters of Thomas Gushing, from 1767 to 1775, . . . .347 

Queries of George Chalmers, with the Answers of General Gage, in 
relation to Braddock's Expedition, the Stamp Act, and Gage's 
Administration of the Government of Massachusetts Bay, . .367 

Destruction of the Tea in the Harbor of Boston, December 16, 1773, . 373 

Letter from Samuel Adams to James Warren, ..... 390 

Letter from Joseph Hawley to. Thomas Cushing, .... 393 


Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis, 398 

Notice of the Sieur D'Aulnay, of Acadie. By William Jenks, . . 462 

Petition of Roger Williams to the General Court of Massachusetts, . 471 

A Declaration of the Affairs of the English People that first inhabited 
New England. By Phinehas Pratt, . . . . . .474 

Phinehas Pratt's Petition of 1668, 

Phinehas Pratt's Relation. By Increase Mather, 

Memoir of Nathaniel Morton Davis, 

Memoir of Abbott Lawrence, .... 

Memoir of William Parsons Lunt, . . 





A C T F I N C 11 P R A T ION, 


B Y - L A W S 



October Meeting, 1857. — A Committee, consisting of Messrs. Bobbins, 
Hillard, Livermore, Chandler, and Deane, appointed to revise the 
By-Laws of the Society, reported the same in print this day. The Keport, 
as presented, was accepted and adopted. 


Recording Secretary. 


A C T F I N C () 11 P 11 A T I N 

(Commontorulth of |ttassacbiisctts. 

In the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Ninety-four. 

An Act to incorporate a Society, by the name of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. 

Whereas the collection and preservation of materials for a political and 
natural history of the United States is a desirable object, and the institution 
of a Society for those purposes will be of public utility, — 

Be it therefore enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General 
Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, That William Baylies, Esq., 
Jeremy Belknap, D. D., the Rev. Alden Bradford, Peleg Coffin, Esq., Manassch 
Cutler, D. D., John Davis, Esq., Daniel Davis, Esq., Aaron Dexter, Doctor in 
Physic, the Rev. John Eliot, Nathaniel Freeman, Esq., the Rev. James Freeman, 
the Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris, Isaac Lothrop, Esq., George Richards Minot, 
Esq., the Rev. John Mellon, Jan., Thomas Pemberton, William Dandridge Peck, 
the Rev. John Prince, Ezekiel Price, Esq., James Sullivan, Esq., David Sewall, 
Esq., Peter Thacher, D. D., William Tudor, Esq., Samuel Turell, Dudley Atkins 
Tyng, Esq., James Winthrop, Esq., Thomas Wallcut, Redford Webster, and 
William Wetmore, Esq., who have associated for the purposes aforesaid, and 
have requested an Act of Incorporation, be, and hereby are, formed into and con- 
stituted a Society and body politic and corporate, by the name of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society ; and that they and their successors, and such other 
persons as shall be legally elected by them, shall be and continue a body politic 
and corporate, by that name forever. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the members of said 
Society shall have power to elect a President, and all other necessary officers ; 
and that the said Society shall have one common seal, and the same may break, 
change, and renew at pleasure ; and that the same Society, by the name afore- 
said, as a body politic and corporate, may sue and be sued, prosecute and defend 
suits to final judgment and execution. 

And be it further enacted, That the said Society shall have power to make 
orders and by-laws for governing its members and property, not repugnant to the 
laws of this Commonwealth ; and may expel, disfranchise, or suspend any mem- 
ber, who, by his misconduct, shall be rendered unworthy. 

And be it further enacted, That the said Society may, from time to time, estab- 
lish rules for electing officers and members, and also times and places for hold- 
ing meetings ; and shall be capable to take and hold real or personal estate, by 


gift, grant, devise, or otherwise, and the same, or any part thereof, to alien and 
convey : Provided, That the annual income of any real estate, by said Society 
holden, shall never exceed the sum of five hundred pounds ; and that the per- 
sonal estate thereof, besides books, papers, and articles in the Museum of said 
Society, shall never exceed the value of two thousand pounds. 

And be it further enacted, That the members of said Society shall never be 
more than sixty (except honorary members, residing without the limits of this 
Commonwealth), and that James Sullivan, Esq., be, and hereby is, authorized and 
empowered to notify and warn the first meeting of said Society ; and that the 
same Society, when met, shall agree upon a method for calling future meetings, 
and may have power to adjourn from time to time, as may be found necessary. 

And be it further enacted, That either branch of the Legislature shall and may 
have free access to the Library and Museum of said Society. 
[This Act passed Feb. 19, 1794.] 

Commonbealtl) of JJtassadntsctts. 

In the Year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty-Jive. 

An Act in addition to an Act to incorporate the Massachusetts Histor- 
ical Society. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General Court 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : — 

Sect. 1. — The Massachusetts Historical Society is hereby authorized to hold 
real and personal estate, in addition to its Library, to an amount not exceeding 
one hundred thousand dollars. 

Sect. 2. — This Act shall take effect from and after its passage. 
[This Act passed May 19, 1855.] 

Commonfocaltlj of ||Tus$ittbttS£tis. 

In the Year One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty- seven. 

An Act in relation to the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General Court 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : — 

Sect. 1. — Nothing in the Act of Incorporation of the Massachusetts Histo- 
rical Society shall prevent said Society from electing Associate or Corresponding 
Members residing without the limits of this Commonwealth, or Honorary Mem- 
bers residing either within or without said limits, or from having as many as one 
hundred Resident Members, at their discretion. 

Sect. 2. — This Act shall take effect from and after its acceptance by said 

[This Act passed April h 1857.] 




Article 1. — The Regular or Resident Members of the Society 
shall be elected from among the citizens of this Commonwealth, and 
shall cease to be members whenever they cease to be citizens. The 
Associate or Corresponding Members shall be elected from among 
those persons who are not citizens of this Commonwealth, and shall 
cease to be members if at any time they become citizens. Honorary 
members may be elected at large. 

Art. 2. — A book shall be kept by the Recording Secretary, in 
which any Resident Member of the Society may enter the name of 
any person whom he may regard as suitable to be nominated as a Res- 
ident, Corresponding, or Honorary Member ; it being understood that 
each member is bound in honor not to make known abroad the name 
of any person so proposed. But no nomination of any member shall 
be made except by a report of the Standing Committee at a stated 
meeting, nor be acted upon at the same meeting to which it is re- 
ported ; nor shall more than two candidates for membership, of the 
same class, be reported at any one meeting. 

Art. 3. — Nominations of Corresponding or Honorary Members 
shall be accompanied by a brief statement, in writing, of the place of 
residence and qualifications of the person nominated. 

Art. 4. — All members shall be elected by ballot ; and, in balloting 
for members, the law and custom of our forefathers shall be observed, 
by taking the question with Indian com and beans ; the corn express- 
ing yeas, and the beans nays. But no person shall be deemed chosen, 
unless there be twenty members present at the election, nor unless 
three-fourths of all the members present shall have voted affirma- 


gift, grant, devise, or otherwise, and the same, or any part thereof, to alien and 
convey : Provided, That the annual income of any real estate, by said Society 
holden, shall never exceed the sum of five hundred pounds ; and that the per- 
sonal estate thereof, besides books, papers, and articles in the Museum of said 
Society, shall never exceed the value of two thousand pounds. 

And be it further enacted, That the members of said Society shall never be 
more than sixty (except honorary members, residing without the limits of this 
Commonwealth), and that James Sullivan, Esq., be, and hereby is, authorized and 
empowered to notify and warn the first meeting of said Society ; and that the 
same Society, when met, shall agree upon a method for calling future meetings, 
and may have power to adjourn from time to time, as may be found necessary. 

And be it further enacted, That either branch of the Legislature shall and may 
have free access to the Library and Museum of said Society. 
[This Act passed Feb. 19, 1794.] 

Commonfocaltjj of Passarijusctts. 

In the Year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty-five. 

An Act in addition to an Act to incorporate the Massachusetts Histor- 
ical Society. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General Court 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : — 

Sect. 1. — The Massachusetts Historical Society is hereby authorized to hold 
real and personal estate, in addition to its Library, to an amount not exceeding 
one hundred thousand dollars. 

Sect. 2. — This Act shall take effect from and after its passage, 
[This Act passed May 19, 1855.] 

Commonfocattlj of Passadntsctis. 

In the Year One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty- seven. 
An Act in relation to the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in General Court 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : — 

Sect. 1. — Nothing in the Act of Incorporation of the Massachusetts Histo- 
rical Society shall prevent said Society from electing Associate or Corresponding 
Members residing without the limits of this Commonwealth, or Honorary Mem- 
bers residing either within or without said limits, or from having as many as one 
hundred Resident Members, at their discretion. 

Sect. 2. — This Act shall take effect from and after its acceptance by said 

[This Act passed April h 1857,] 




Article 1. — The Regular or Resident Members of the Society 
shall be elected from among the citizens of this Commonwealth, and 
shall cease to be members whenever they cease to be citizens. The 
Associate or Corresponding Members shall be elected from among 
those persons who are not citizens of this Commonwealth, and shall 
cease to be members if at any time they become citizens. Honorary 
members may be elected at large. 

Art. 2. — A book shall be kept by the Recording Secretary, in 
which any Resident Member of the Society may enter the name of 
any person whom he may regard as suitable to be nominated as a Res- 
ident, Corresponding, or Honorary Member ; it being understood that 
each member is bound in honor not to make known abroad the name 
of any person so proposed. But no nomination of any member shall 
be made except by a report of the Standing Committee at a stated 
meeting, nor be acted upon at the same meeting to which it is re- 
ported ; nor shall more than two candidates for membership, of the 
same class, be reported at any one meeting. 

Art. 3. — Nominations of Corresponding or Honorary Members 
shall be accompanied by a brief statement, in writing, of the place of 
residence and qualifications of the person nominated. 

Art. 4. — All members shall be elected by ballot ; and, in balloting 
for members, the law and custom of our forefathers shall be observed, 
by taking the question with Indian corn and beans ; the corn express- 
ing yeas, and the beans nays. But no person shall be deemed chosen, 
unless there be twenty members present at the election, nor unless 
three-fourths of all the members present shall have voted affirma- 


Art. 5. — Each Resident Member shall pay ten dollars at the time 
of his admission, and five dollars annually afterwards, into the treas- 
ury of the Society, for its general purposes ; but any member shall be 
exempted from the annual payment, if, at any time after six months 
from his admission, he shall pay into the treasury sixty dollars in addi- 
tion to what he may before have paid. 

Art. 6. — If any person elected as a Resident Member shall neglect, 
for one year after being notified of his election, to pay his admission- 
fee, his election shall be void ; and, if any Resident Member shall 
neglect to pay his annual assessment for three years after it shall have 
become due and have been demanded, he shall cease to be a member. 
Each person who shall be elected a member shall, when notified of it, 
be furnished by the Corresponding Secretary with an attested copy of 
this Article and the preceding one ; and the Treasurer shall, as cases 
may occur, report to the Society those persons who have neglected to 
pay their admission-fee or their annual assessments, as above required. 

Art. 7. — Diplomas signed by the President, and countersigned by 
the two Secretaries, shall be issued to all persons who have become 
members of the Society. 



Art. 1. — There shall be a Regular Meeting of the Society at noon, 
on the second Thursday of every month, at their rooms in Boston ; 
provided, however, that the Standing Committee shall have authority 
to postpone any such monthly meeting for not exceeding two weeks, 
or to direct it to be held at other rooms, whenever a day of public 
observance shall happen on the second Thursday of any month ; or 
whenever a different time or place shall, for any cause, be obviously 
for the convenience of the members. Special meetings shall be called 
by either of the Secretaries, whenever requested so to do by the Pres- 
ident, or, in case of his absence or inability, by one of the Vice-Pres- 
idents or by the Standing Committee. 

Art. 2. — At all meetings, the President shall take the chair in five 
minutes after the time appointed in the notification ; and the record of 


le preceding meeting shall then be at once read. After which, at 
all Special Meetings, the special business for which the meeting was 

called shall be transacted ; and, at all Regular Meetings, the order of 
business shall be as follows : — 

The Librarian shall make a detailed report of whatever may have 
been received bv him since the last meeting. 

The Cabinet-keeper shall make a similar report. 

The Corresponding Secretary shall read any communications he may 
have received. 

The unfinished business and the assignments of the last meeting 
shall be announced by the Recording Secretary to the President, and 
taken up in their order. 

The Standing Committee shall be called on to report its doings since 
the last meeting. 

The other subsisting committees that may not have reported shall 
be called on for reports. 

The members who have any business to propose shall be desired by 
the President to propose it. 

The members generally shall then be invited, so far as time may 
permit, to make any oral communications on any subject having rela- 
tion to the objects of the Society ; and, for the orderly accomplishment 
of this purpose, the Society shall be divided into three sections as 
nearly equal in numbers as may be, each of which sections, in regular 
sequence, shall be notified by the Recording Secretary, that the Soci- 
ety, at the next following meeting, will desire to receive from it such 
communications as are above suggested ; and the officer presiding at 
the next meeting shall call upon each of the members of such section, 
in his turn, to offer any such communication or propose any such sub- 
ject ; after which, the communication so made, or the subject so pro- 
posed, may be discussed by the Society generally. Provided, how- 
ever, that, if the member proposing such subject prefer to do it in 
writing, the Recording Secretary shall enter it in the Records of the 
Society ; and it may be discussed either at the time when it is pro- 
posed, or at any subsequent meeting. 

Art. 3. — Fifteen members shall be a quorum for all purposes ex- 
cept the election of members, as hereinbefore provided ; and except- 
ing, also, alterations of the By-laws, which shall not be made unless 
twenty persons are present, nor unless the subject has either been dis- 


cussed at a previous meeting, or reported on by a committee appointed 
for the purpose. 

Art. 4. — At the request of any two members present, any subject 
proposed for discussion shall be once deferred to a subsequent meet- 
ing, before it is finally disposed of. 

Art. 5. — All committees shall be nominated by the chair, unless 
otherwise provided for. 



The officers of the Society shall be a President, who shall be, ex 
officio, Chairman of the Standing Committee ; two Vice-Presidents ; 
a Recording Secretary, who shall also be, ex officio. Secretary of the 
Standing Committee ; a Corresponding Secretary ; a Treasurer ; a 
Librarian ; a Cabinet-keeper ; and a Standing Committee of five, — 
all of whom shall be chosen by ballot at the monthly meeting in April, 
and shall hold their respective offices for one year, or until others are 
duly chosen in their stead. But, at the regular monthly meeting pre- 
ceding any election of officers, a Nominating Committee, consisting of 
three persons, shall be appointed by the chair, who shall report to the 
meeting at which the election is to be made a list of members for the 
places to be filled ; no person being deemed eligible to more than one 
of the regular offices of the Society at the same time, and no more 
than three of the Standing Committee being deemed re-eligible. 



The President shall preside in all meetings of the Society when 
present, and, when absent, one of the Vice-Presidents in the order of 
their names. In the absence of all these officers, a President pro tem- 
pore shall be chosen by hand-vote. 




Art. 1. — The Recording Secretary, or, in case of his death or 
I absence, the Corresponding Secretary, shall warn all meetings of the 
I Society, by causing to be sent, through the post-oftice, to all the Res- 
ident Members, notices of each meeting. Notices of the regular 
meetings shall be issued on the Monday preceding. 

Art. 2. — He shall keep an exact record of all the meetings of the 
Society, with the names of the members present ; entering in full all 
reports of committees that may be accepted by the Society, unless 
otherwise specially directed. 
See Chap. VIII., Art. 6. 



Art. 1. — The Corresponding Secretary shall inform all persons of 
their election as members of the Society, sending notice of the terms 
of their election to those chosen to be Resident Members, and issuing 
afterwards the proper diplomas. 

Art. 2. — He shall carry on all the correspondence of the Society 
not otherwise provided for ; and deposit copies of the letters sent and 
the original letters received, in regular files, in the Library. 



Art. 1. — The Treasurer shall collect all moneys due to the Society, 
and shall keep regular and faithful accounts of all the moneys and 
funds of the Society that may come into his hands, and of all receipts 
and expenditures connected with the same, — which accounts shall 
always be open to the inspection of the members ; and, at the regular 


cussed at a previous meeting, or reported on by a committee appointed 
for the purpose. 

Art. 4. — At the request of any two members present, any subject 
proposed for discussion shall be once deferred to a subsequent meet- 
ing, before it is finally disposed of. 

Art. 5. — All committees shall be nominated by the chair, unless 
otherwise provided for. 



The officers of the Society shall be a President, who shall be, ex 
officio, Chairman of the Standing Committee ; two Vice-Presidents ; 
a Recording Secretary, who shall also be, ex officio, Secretary of the 
Standing Committee ; a Corresponding Secretary ; a Treasurer ; a 
Librarian ; a Cabinet-keeper ; and a Standing Committee of five, — 
all of whom shall be chosen by ballot at the monthly meeting in April, 
and shall hold their respective offices for one year, or until others are 
duly chosen in their stead. But, at the regular monthly meeting pre- 
ceding any election of officers, a Nominating Committee, consisting of 
three persons, shall be appointed by the chair, who shall report to the 
meeting at which the election is to be made a list of members for the 
places to be filled ; no person being deemed eligible to more than one 
of the regular offices of the Society at the same time, and no more 
than three of the Standing Committee being deemed re-eligible. 



The President shall preside in all meetings of the Society when 
present, and, when absent, one of the Vice-Presidents in the order of 
their names. In the absence of all these officers, a President pro tem- 
pore shall be chosen by hand-vote. 




Art. 1. — The Recording Secretary, or, in case of his death or 
absence, the Corresponding Secretary, shall warn all meetings of the 
Society, by causing to be sent, through the post-oiHce, to all the Res- 
ident Members, notices of each meeting. Notices of the regular 
meetings shall be issued on the Monday preceding. 

Art. 2. — He shall keep an exact record of all the meetings of the 
Society, with the names of the members present ; entering in full all 
reports of committees that may be accepted by the Society, unless 
otherwise specially directed. 

See Chap. VIII., Art. 6. 



Art. 1. — The Corresponding Secretary shall inform all persons of 
their election as members of the Society, sending notice of the terms 
of their election to those chosen to be Resident Members, and issuing 
afterwards the proper diplomas. 

Art. 2. — He shall carry on all the correspondence of the Society 
not otherwise provided for ; and deposit copies of the letters sent and 
the original letters received, in regular files, in the Library. 



Art. 1. — The Treasurer shall collect all moneys due to the Society, 
and shall keep regular and faithful accounts of all the moneys and 
funds of the Society that may come into his hands, and of all receipts 
and expenditures connected with the same, — which accounts shall 
always be open to the inspection of the members ; and, at the regular 


meeting in April, he shall make a written report of all his doings for 
the year preceding, and of the amount and condition of all the prop- 
erty of the Society intrusted to him. One week before the monthly 
meeting in April of each year, he shall give notice to every member 
of the annual assessment remaining due from him for every preceding 

Art. 2. — He shall pay no moneys, except on vote of the Society, 
or on voucher of an officer or committee acting conformably to its laws 
or orders. 



Art. 1. — The Librarian shall have charge of all the books, tracts, 
maps, manuscripts, and other property of the Society appropriate to a 
library ; and shall cause to be made and kept exact and perfect cata- 
logues of each and all of them, doing whatever may be in his power, 
at all times, to preserve and increase the collections under his care. 

Art. £. — He shall acknowledge each donation that may be made to 
the Library, by a certificate addressed to the person making it. 

Art. 3. — He shall, at every monthly meeting of the Society, report 
all donations made to the Library since the last monthly meeting, with 
the names of the donors ; and, at the annual meeting, shall present a 
statement of the condition and wants of the Library, with a notice of 
the important accessions that may have been made to it during the 

Art. 4. — He shall cause to be kept a regular and exact account of 
all books taken out, with the names of the persons who take them, 
and the dates when they are borrowed and returned. 

Art. 5. — He shall report in writing, at each monthly meeting, the 
name of every book that has been out of the Library for a longer term 
than is permitted by the By-laws, and shall use his discretion in obtain- 
ing the return of such books. 

Art. 6. — There shall be an Assistant Librarian, not a member of 
the Society, appointed by the Standing Committee and the Librarian, 
who shall assist the Librarian in all or any of his duties ; who shall 


also aid the Recording Secretary in notifying meetings, copying reports, 
or in any other way that may be required, and who shall render such 
other services to the Society connected with its Library or its general 
proceedings as the Standing Committee may direct. 

Art. 7. — The Librarian shall be present in the Library, in person 
or by his assistant, at the regular hours, and at such other times as may 
be appointed for keeping it open ; and shall endeavor to render it 
useful to all who may resort to it. 

Art. 8 — Any member of the Society may take from the Library 
three printed volumes at a time, and keep each of them four weeks, 
with a right to renew the loan for four weeks more, unless some other 
member has, in that interval, asked for it in writing ; but, if he retains 
it beyond this second period, he must first obtain the written assent of 
a member of the Standing Committee, permitting him to do so, or he 
shall be fined ten cents a week for each volume so retained. 

Art. 9. — At the written request of any member of this Society, the 
Librarian shall permit any person to visit and use the Library, at such 
times as the Librarian may be in attendance ; such member becoming 
thereby responsible for any injury to the property of the Society that 
may result from such introduction of a stranger. 

Art. 10. — At the written request of any member of the Society, 
the Librarian shall deliver to any one person indicated in such request, 
but to no more than one person at the same time, any book or books 
belonging to the Society, which the member himself could take out ; 
such member, by such request, making himself responsible that all 
the rules relating to the book or books so taken out shall be as fully 
observed by the person authorized to receive them, as if he were a 
member ; and that any injury accruing to the property of the Society, 
in consequence of the privilege thus granted, shall be made good by 
the member at whose request the grant is made. 

Art. 11. — At the meetings in April, July, October, and January, 
the Librarian shall lay before the Society a list of the names of those 
persons, not members, who, during the preceding three months respec- 
tively, may have had access to the Library by permission of individual 
members of 'the Society, with the names of the members at whose 
request the privilege was granted ; adding a statement of each injury 
that may have been sustained by the property of the Society, in 
consequence of granting such permission, and the name of the member 
bound to make it good. 


Art. 12. — The Publishing Committee, for the time being, shall be 
permitted to take such books and manuscripts from the Library as 
they may need, in order properly to perform the duty assigned to them 
by the Society ; but the Librarian shall make an especial entry or 
record of whatever is so taken, and, as soon as the volume they may 
have in charge is published, he shall demand and obtain from said 
Committee whatever they may have so received. 

Art. 13. — All manuscripts of the Society shall be kept under lock 
and key, and be consulted or used only in presence of the Librarian 
or his Assistant. 

Art. 14. — Persons not members of the Society, but engaged in 
historical pursuits, shall be allowed to consult the manuscripts belong- 
ing to the Society, provided an application in writing, stating the 
object or objects of the inquiry, be first made to the Librarian, and 
approved by a member of the Standing Committee, who shall make 
record of the same. 

Art. 15. — No manuscript, and no part of a manuscript, belonging 
to the Society, shall be copied, except on permission granted by vote 
of the Society, after an application in writing, specifying the man- 
uscript, or part thereof, desired to be copied ; and if any manuscript 
belonging to the Society shall, in consequence of such permission, be 
published, in whole or in part, the fact that it was obtained from the 
Society shall be stated in its publication. But nothing herein required 
shall be construed to prevent the publication of names, dates, and 
other chronological memoranda, without special permission obtained as 
above required. 

Art. 16. — Manuscripts of a confidential nature shall be retained in 
a place of special deposit, and shall be consulted only under such reg- 
ulations as may be prescribed in each case by vote of the Society. 

Art. 17. — No maps, newspapers, or books, either of great rarity or 
of constant reference, shall be taken from the Library, except by vote 
of the Society. 

Art. 18. — All members taking books from the Library shall be 
answerable for any injury done to the same, to such amount as may be 
deemed just by the Standing Committee ; and any person neglecting 
to pay any fines, or assessments for damages, one month after he shall 
have received notice of the same from the Librarian, or otherwise 
abusing his privilege to the injury of the Library, shall, by order of 
the Standing Committee, be interdicted from access to the same. 

\\ II 

AltT. 19. — All tracts, books, maps, and manuscripts belonging to 
the Society, shall be distinctly marked as its property ; and any such 
tract, book, &c, that may be presented to the Society, shall be marked 
with the name of the donor, and recorded as his gilt. 

Art. ~0. — The Library shall be open on all week-days, from nine 
o'clock in the forenoon to two in the afternoon, throughout the year, 
except on days of public observance, and also during the fortnight 
before the annual meeting in April, when it shall be closed for exam- 
ination ; and all books that may be lent are hereby required to be 
returned previous to that fortnight, under a penalty of a fine of one 
dollar for each volume not so returned. 



Art. 1. — The Cabinet-keeper shall haye charge of all coins, works 
of art, remains of antiquity, and other articles appropriate to the Soci- 
ety's Museum, and shall make and keep perfect and exact catalogues 
of the same. 

Art. 2. — He shall acknowledge each donation he may receive, by 
letter, to the person making it At every monthly meeting of the 
Society, he shall report whatever may have been added to the collec- 
tion of which he has charge, with the names of the donors ; and, at 
the annual meeting, shall present a full report of the condition of the 



Art. 1. — The Standing Committee, as vacancies may occur in the 
Society by death or otherwise, shall, at their discretion, report nomina- 
tions for Resident Members to fill the same. 


Art. 2. — They shall pay the current expenses of the Society, draw- 
ing on the Treasurer, from time to time, for such sums as may be 
necessary for that purpose. 

Art. S. — They shall annually, in the month of April, make a care- 
ful examination of the Library and Museum of the Society, and also 
of the Dowse Library ; comparing the books, manuscripts, and other 
articles in each, with their catalogues, respectively, and reporting at 
the April meeting, in detail, concerning their condition. 

Art. 4. — They shall record in full, in a book kept by them for the 
purpose, any permission granted by any one of their number for the 
consultation of the manuscripts of the Society, by persons not mem- 

Art. 5. — They shall meet in the Society's rooms one hour previous 
to every regular meeting, for the fulfillment of their appropriate duties, 
and for the purpose of facilitating the transaction of such business as 
will be brought before the Society. 

Art. 6. — They shall, at every meeting, report to the Society all 
their doings since the last meeting, suggesting at the same time such 
business as they may deem advisable to bring before it. 



Immediately after the publication of any volume of the Collections 
of the Society, or at any other time when the Society may order, a 
Committee of not less than three persons shall be appointed by nom- 
ination from the chair, whose duty it shall be to prepare and publish 
another volume ; for which purpose, free use is granted to them of all 
the manuscripts, printed books, and other resources of the Society, 
except the manuscripts deposited as confidential ; said Committee be- 
ing required hereby to return whatever they may have thus received, 
so soon as their use of the same for the purposes of such publication 
shall have ceased. 

In every publication that shall be made from the income of the 
Appleton Fund, there shall be inserted in each volume a notice, in * 
print, that it was made at the charge of that fund. 




At the monthly meeting in March, annually, a Committee shall be 
appointed by nomination from the chair, consisting of not less than 
two persons, whoso duty it shall be to examine the Treasurer's accounts 
for the year preceding, and at the monthly meeting in April to report 
thereon, and on the state of any property of the Society in his hands. 



Art. 1. — The room in which the books are deposited which were 
presented to the Society by Thomas Dowse shall be known for ever as 
the Dowse Library of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Art. 2. — No book shall be taken out of this room. 

Art. 3. — Books may be used in the room by members of the Soci- 
ety, and by others introduced by them in person ; but no book shall 
be taken from the cases except by members, or by the Assistant Libra- 
rian, who shall cause each book to be returned to its proper place 
immediately after it has been used. 

Art. 4. — Meetings of the Society may be held in the Dowse 
Library, at the discretion of the Standing Committee ; but the room 
shall not be used for any other meetings. 




18 5 7-8. 

Hon. Robert C. WiNTHRop, LL. D., of Boston 

Vice- Presidents. 
Jareu Sparks, LL. D., 
Hon. David Sears, A. M., 

of Cambridge, 
of Boston. 

Recording Secretary. 
Rev. Chandler Bobbins, D. D., 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Joseph Willard, A. M., 

Hon. Richard Frothingham, Jr., 

Rev. Samuel K. Lothrop, D. D., 

Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, M. D., 

Standing Committee. 
William Brigham, A. B., 
Francis Parkman, A. B., 
George Livermore, A. M., 
Thomas Aspinwall, A. M., 

of Boston. 

of Boston. 

of Charlestown. 

of Boston. 

of Boston. 

of Boston, 
of Boston, 
of Cambridge, 
of Boston. 

RES I 1) E N T M E M B E R S, 


Hon. Josiah Quiney, LL. I>. 
Hon. James Savage, LL. I). 
Hon. Nathan Halo, LL. D. 
Hon. Edward Everett, LL. D. 
Rev. William Jenks, I). D. 
Jared Sparks, LL. D. 
Joseph E. Worcester, LL. D. 
Joseph Willard, A. M. 
Lemuel Shattuck, Esq. 
6ev. Joseph B. Felt, LL. D. 
Hon. Lemuel Shaw, LL. D. 
Rev. Convers Francis, D. D. 
George Tieknor, LL. D. 
Hon. Nathan Appleton, LL. D. 
Hon. Rufus Choate, LL. D. 
Hon. Daniel A. White, LL. D. 
William H. Presedtt, LL. D. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, LL. D. 
Rev. Alvan Lamson, D. D. 
Hon. Charles F. Adams, A. M. 
Rev. George E. Ellis, D. D. 
Hon. John C. Gray, LL. D. 
Rev. Nath'l L. Frothingham, D. D. 
Hon. George S. Hillard, LL. D. 
Hon. William Minot, A. M. 
Hon. Peleg TV. Chandler, A. M. 
Rev. George TV. Blagden, D. D. 
Rev. Lucius R. Paige, A. M. 
Hon. Solomon Lincoln, A. M. 
Rev. Chandler Robbins, D. D. 
Francis Bowen, A. M. 
John Langdon Sibley, A. M. 
Hon. Richard Frothingham, Jr. 
Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, M. P. 

Henry Wheatland, M. D. 

lion. David Sears, A. M. 
Sylvester Judd, Esq. 
Thomas II. Webb, M. 1). 
Charles Deane, A. M. 
George Livermore, A. M. 
Francis Parkman, A. 1>. 
Ellis Ames, A. M. 
Hon. John II. Clifford, LL. D. 
William Brigham, A. B. 
Hon. Emory Washburn, LL. D. 
Rev. Samuel K. Lothrop, D. D. 
Rev. William Newell, D. D. 
Hon. Lorenzo Sabine, A. M. 
Thomas Aspinwall, A. M. 
Rev. John S. Barry. 
John A. Lowell, LL. D. 
Lucius M. Sargent, A. M. 
Cornelius C. Felton, LL. D. 
J. Lathrop Motley, A. B. 
Nathaniel I. Bowditch, A. M. 
George R. Russell, LL. D. 
Hon. Charles H. Warren, A. M. 
Rev. James Walker, D. D. 
Rev. Edmund H. Sears, A. B. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, M. D. 
Hon. William IT. Sumner, A. M. 
Henry W. Longfellow, A. M. 
Rev. Frederick H. Hedge, D. D. 
Frederick Tudor, Esq. 
Jacob Bigelow, LL. D. 
Hon. George T. Davis, A. B. 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, A. M. 
Henry A. Whitney, A. M. 




This List is believed to contain the names of all the Honorary and Corresponding Member; 

now living. 

Benjamin Silliman, LL. D. 
Rev. Eliphalet Nott, I). D. 
John Wakefield Francis, M. D. 
Baron Alexander von Humboldt. 
Hon. Gulian C. Vorplanck, LL. D. 
Robert Walsh, LL. D. 
Frederic von Adelung. 
Don Manuel Moreno, M. D. 
Don Jose Maria Salazar. 
Rev. John Hutchinson. 
Charles Christian Rafn, P. D. 
Thomas C. Halliburton, Esq. 
Hon. Washington Irving, LL. D. 
Charles Fraser, Esq. 
Sir Francis Palgrave. 
Hon. Lewis Cass, LL. D. 
Theodore Dwight, A. M. 
Hon. William Jay. 
Cesar Moreau. 
Erastus Smith, Esq. 
Hon. James Kirke Paulding. 
Rev. Benjamin Tappan, D. D. 
Joshua Francis Fisher, A. M. 
T. A. Moerenbout. 
Usher Parsons, M. D. 
Hon. George Folsom, A. M. 
Rev. Luther Halsey, D. D. 

John Disney, Esq. 

Rev. Francis Lister Hawks, D. D. 

Rev. Leonard Bacon, D. D. 

Henri Ternaux-Compans. 

George Catlin, Esq. 

John Winthrop, Esq. 

Constantine D. Schinas. 

Joaquim Jose Da Costa de Macedo. 

Hon. Daniel D. Barnard. 

Frederic de Waldeck. 

Israel K. Tefft, Esq. 

Hon. David L. Swain, LL. D. 

Hon. James M. Wayne, LL. D. 

M. Hall McAllister, Esq. 

Rev. William B. Stevens, D. D. 

Henry Black, LL. D. 

Rev. John Lee, D. D. 

Rev. Charles Burroughs, D. D. 

George Atkinson Ward, Esq. 

Rev. Joseph Hunter, F. A. S. 

Richard Almack, Esq. 

Rev. George Oliver. 

Sir Archibald Alison, Bt., D. C. L. 

Col. James D. Graham. 

Robert Lemon, Esq. 

Thomas C. Grattan, Esq. 

Don Pedro de Angelis. 


John Romeyne Brodbead, A. M. 

Major E2. I>. Jarvis. 

Lord Braybrooke, D. C. 1,. 

Iv George Squier, E!sq. 
I Payne Kenyon Kilbourne. 
I Miss Frances Manwaring Caulk im 
, Thomas Donaldson, Esq. 
I Hon. George Bancroft, LL. D. 
I Hon Lncas Aiaman. 
B J. Hammond Trumbull, Esq. 
I Robert Bigsby, LL. I). 
i Rev. Joseph Romilly, A. M. 
I . I aiiirs Kicker, Jr., Esq. 

Henry Bond M. D. 

Henry Stevens, Esq. 

Cyrus Eaton, Esq. 

Baron Maeanlay, I). C. L. 

Henry Hallam, LL. D: 

William Willis, Esq. 
Frederic ( rriffin, Elsq. 
.John Carter Browne, Elsq. 
Hon. Elijah Hayward. 
William 8. Southgate, Elsq. 

Hon. Samuel ( i. Arnold. 

Hon. Charles S. Davies. 

John Gihnary Shea, Esq. 

James Lenox, Esq. 

Ht. Kev. Samuel Wilberforce, D. D. 

Winthrop Sargent, A. M. 

Earl Stanhope. 

Hon. William C. Kivcs. 

Peter Force, Esq. 

Hon. John R. Bartlett. 

Samuel Eliot, A. M. 

G. P. Faribault, Esq. 

William Paver, Esq. 



Francois Pierre Guill. Guizot, LL.D. 
Alexis De Tocqueville, LL. D. 
Lord Lyndhnrst. 

Rev. William B. Sprague, D. D. 
Eev. Samuel Osgood, D I). 
William Durrant Cooper, F. S. A. 
E. B. O'Callaghan, M. D. 
Buckingham Smith, Esq. 
Benjamin F. French, Esq. 
Francis Licbcr, LL. D. 
William H. Trescott, Esq. 


IN 1774 AND 1775, 




. [Among the archives of the Massachusetts Historical Society are two 
Letter Books ; one. containing copies of Letters addressed to the Committee 
appointed by the Town of Boston to reeeive and distribute the Donations 
contributed for the relief of the sufferers by the Boston Port Bill ; and the 
other, containing the Replies to these Letters by the Committee. In some 
instances, no reply to the letters is recorded. This Correspondence is now, 
for the first time, printed. For convenience of reference, the letters of both 
volumes are arranged chronologically — the reply following the letter to which 
it is an answer. On a fly-leaf of one of these volumes, is the following 
memorandum : " This Book contains copies of certain Letters directed to a 
Committee of the Town of Boston, appointed to receive and distribute such 
Donations as might be sent to them, for the Employment or Relief of such 
Tradesmen and others, Inhabitants of said Town, who might become sufferers 
for want of employment in their several occupations, by means of the unpre- 
cedented and cruel Edict of the British Parliament for shutting up the Harbor 
of Boston." 

The Boston Port Bill received the royal assent on the 31st of March, 1774, 
and went into effect on the first of June. The House of Representatives of 
Massachusetts, on the 17th of June, the day it was dissolved by Governor 
Gage, passed the following preamble and resolution : 

" Whereas the towns of Boston and Charlestown are at this time suffering 
under the hand of power, by the shutting up the harbor by an armed force, 
which in the opinion of this house is an invasion of the said towns, evidently 
designed to compel the inhabitants thereof to a submission to taxes imposed 
upon them without their consent : And whereas it appears to this house that 
this attack upon the said towns for the purpose aforesaid is an attack made 
upon this whole Province and Continent, which threatens the total destruction 
of the liberties of all British America : 

" It is therefore Resolved, as the clear opinion of this House, That the in- 
habitants of the said towns ought to be relieved ; and this House do recommend 
to all, and more especially to the inhabitants of this Province, to afford them 
speedy and constant relief, in such way and manner as shall be most suitable 
4tu s. — VOL. II. 1 

2 Colonial Correspondence. 

to their circumstances, till the sense and advice of our sister colonies shall be 
known : In full confidence that they will exhibit examples of patience, forti- 
tude and perseverance, while they are thus called to endure this oppression 
for the preservation of the liberties of their country." 

Subsequently, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress took measures to pro- 
mote contributions ; and, on the 17th of September, the Continental Congress 
"Resolved, unanimously \ That contributions from all the Colonies, for supplying 
the necessities and alleviating the distresses of our brethren at Boston, ought 
to be continued, in such manner, and so long, as their occasions may require." 

The following extracts from the Boston Town Records, of 1774, will show 
the action of the town in relation to the appointment of the Donation Com- 
mittee and the reception of the contributions. 

" On the 13 th of May, moved and voted, nem. con., that Mr. Samuel 
Adams, John Rowe, Esq., Thomas Boylston, Esq., William Phillips, Esq., 
Dr. Joseph Warren, John Adams, Esq., Josiali Quincy, Esq., the Hon. 
Thomas Gushing., Esq., Mr. Henderson Inches, Mr. William Molineux, Mr. 
Nathaniel Appleton, be and hereby are appointed a committee to take the 
several proposals that have been made, and others that may be made, relative 
to our conduct on the present exigency, into their consideration, and report 
as soon as may be their opinion." 

On the 17th of June, it was voted : " Whereas the Overseers of the Poor, 
in the Town of Boston, are a body politic by law, constituted for the receipt 
and distribution of all charitable donations for the use of the poor of said 

" Voted, That all grants and donations to this town and the poor thereof, 
at this distressed season, be paid and delivered into the hands of the Over- 
seers, and by them appropriated and distributed, in concert with the Committee 
lately appointed by this town, for the consideration of the ways and means of 
employing the poor." 

On the 19th of July, the Overseers of the Poor, " for reasons offered by 
them, did desire to be discharged from further services touching the receiving 
and distributing donations, when it was, Voted, That Capt. Fortesque Vernon, 
Captain Edward Proctor, Mr. John White, Mr. Gibbens Sharp, Capt. Wil- 
liam Mackay, Mr. Thomas Greenough, Capt. Samuel Partridge, Benjamin 
Austin, Esq., Mr. Jonathan Mason, Mr. John Brown, Mr. James Richard- 
son, Mr. Thomas Crafts, Jr., Mr. Henry Hill, Mr. Joshua Henshaw, Jr., be 
added to the first-named committee j" i. e. the committee chosen May 13. 

On the 26th of July is the following vote : " Voted, That the gentlemen 
whose names are after mentioned, viz., Mr. Samuel Adams, John Rowe, Esq., 
Mr. Thomas Boylston, William Phillips, Esq., Dr. Joseph Warren, John 
Adams, Esq., Josiah Quincy, Esq., Thomas Cushing, Esq., Mr. Henderson 
Inches, Mr. William Molineux, Mr. Nathan Appleton, Capt. Fortesque 
Vernon, Capt. Edward Proctor, Mr. John White, Mr. Gibbens Sharp, Capt. 
William Mackay, Mr. Thomas Greenough, Capt. Samuel Partridge, Benjamin 
Austin, Esq., Mr. Jonathan Mason, Mr. John Brown, Mr. James Richard- 
son, Mr. Thomas Crafts, Jr., Mr. Henry Hill, Mr. Joshua Henshaw, Jr.* Mr. 
David Jeffries, be, and hereby are appointed the committee to receive all 
donations that have been, or may be made for the employment or relief of 
such inhabitants of this town as may be sufferers for want of employment in 
their several occupations, by means of the act of the British Parliament for 
shutting up the harbor of Boston, and to appropriate, improve, or distribute 

Colonial Correspondence. 3 

the same for the purpose aforesaid, according to their Lest discretion ; the 
said committee to be accountable to the town." 

On the 1 > 1 1 1 of August is the following record : " The committee on ways 
and means for employing the poor, and receiving and applying the donations 
that have and may be made them, at this distressing season, reported verbally, 
1 That it was in their opinion, that the poor of our sister town of Charlestown, 
were suffering with us, under the operation of the Boston Port Bill, ought to 
share with our poor in those donations.' Upon which it was moved, and the 
question was accordingly put, ' Whether our sister town of Charlestown is 
equitably entitled to a certain part of the donations that are and may he 
received for the employment and relief of such persons as arc sufferers hy the 
operation of the Boston Port Bill,' which passed in the affirmative unanimously. 
Also moved, that whereas the town of Charlestown have had encouragement 
from the committee on ways and means, that they were to receive seven per 
cent, out of the donations mentioned above, said committee may now accord- 
ingly be directed to apply for their relief out of said donations, in the pro- 
portion of seven per cent. And the question being put, passed in the 

On the 25th of October, "On a motion made, that ten persons be added 
to the committee of ways and means for employing the poor sufferers by the 
operation of the Boston Port Bill, so called, footed, That Mr. Daniel Waldo, 
Mr. William Whitwell, Capt. John Pulling, Mr. Peter Boyer, Mr. Samuel 
May, Mr. John Avery, Jr., Mr. William Boardman, Mr. John Soley, Capt. 
Nehemiah Soames, Mr. John Preston, be, and hereby are added to the 
committee on ways and means for employing the poor." 

Samuel Adams signs his name as chairman of the Donation Committee, in 
its official letters ; and it is stated that the Town Treasurer, David Jeffries, 
was its Treasurer. The replies to the letters from abroad were evidently from 
different pens. In the Boston archives may be found much matter relative to 
the proceedings of this committee. 

The town records, under the date of the 7th of December, 1774, read : 
" On a motion made, Voted, That a committee be appointed to draught a vote 
of thanks of the Town of Boston expressive of their gratitude for the benev- 
olent assistance which they have received from the other Colonies, during their 
present calamities, and particularly for [the] generous recommendation of the 
respectable Continental Congress for farther support from their sister Colonies, 
during their unhappy struggles, under the arbitrary and oppressive measures 
of the present British administration. 

" Voted, That Jonathan Williams, Esq., Moderator, the Hon. James Otis, 
Esq., Dr. Benjamin Church, Dr. Joseph Warren, Mr. John Pitts, Joseph 
Greenleaf, Esq., Mr. William Cooper, be a committee to prepare said report, 
and report the same at the adjournment." 

On the oOth of December is the following record : " The following vote, 
expressive of the gratitude of the town for the benevolent assistance received 
from the other Colonies under our present calamities, and the kind recommend- 
ation of the late respectable Continental Congress for future support, passed 
nem. con. 

"Whereas the Town of Boston is befortunately become the most striking 
monument of ministerial tyranny and barbarity, as is particularly exhibited in 
the sudden shutting up this port, thereby cruelly depriving the inhabitants of 
this metropolis of the means they have hitherto used to support their families ; 

4 Letter from Windham. 

and whereas our brethren in the other Colonies, well knowing that we are 
suffering in the common cause of America and of mankind, have, from a 
generous and brotherly disposition, contributed largely towards our support in 
this time of our general distress (without which many of our worthy and 
virtuous citizens must have been in imminent danger of perishing with cold 
and hunger) : 

" And whereas the honorable members of the Continental Congress have 
kindly recommended us to our sister Colonies, as worthy of farther support 
from them, while the iron hand of unremitting oppression lies heavy upon us. 

" Voted, That this Town, truly sensible of the generous assistance they have 
received from their sympathizing brethren, return them their earnest and most 
sincere thanks for the same. And they pray that God, whose beneficence 
they so gloriously imitate, may bestow upon them the blessings he has prom- 
ised to all them, who feed the hungry and clothe the naked : And the thanks 
of this Town are accordingly hereby given to our benefactors aforementioned, 
and to the honorable members of the Congress, for their benevolence towards 
us, expressed as aforesaid, which support, if continued, cannot fail of anima- 
ting us to remain steadfast in defending the rights of America." 

The ninth volume of the second series of these Collections contains a List 
of the Donations received in 1775, from January 30 to April 17. It was 
printed from manuscript, and as it goes no further back than January, 1775, 
of course it is incomplete. Before this date, the Boston journals regularly 
acknowledged the receipt of the donations ; and though the list referred to, 
specifies the same contributors which the journals name during the correspond- 
ing period, yet, in many cases, the specification in the journals is more full 
than it is in the list. — B. F., Jr.] 


Windham, Connecticut, 28th June, 1774. 

Tis with pity, mixed with indignation, that we have 
beheld the cruel and unmanly attacks made by the British 
Parliament on the loyal and patriotic Town of Boston, who 
seem destined to feel the force of ministerial wrath, the 
whole weight of parliamentary vengeance levelled at them 
in a manner so replete with cruelty and injustice, as must 
strike every heart with horror, and fill every breast with 

1 The only letter addressed to the Donation Committee which appears in the 
contemporary journals, is that of the town of Windham. The Boston Gazette, 
of July 18, 1774, contains the following letter, bearing on the contributions, 

Letter from Win din on. 6 

rage, that is not entirely void of every sentiment of honor 
and justice, and callous to all the common feelings of hu- 
manity. But when we consider the cause of all these 
calamities, that it is nothing- less, on your part, than a strict 
adherence to the fundamental principles of the Constitution, 

addressed, probably, to the Committee of Correspondence. The Gazette says : 
"The Boston Committee have received the following- spirited letter from the 
Committee of Correspondence of the respectable town of Glastenbury, in the 
patriotic colony of Connecticut." — Ed. 

Glastenbury, in Connecticut, June 23, 1774. 
Gentlemen : 

We cannot but heartily sympathize with you under the gloomy prospects 
which at present are before you, upon account of those oppressive Acts of Par- 
liament which have lately been passed, respecting Boston in particular, and the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay in general. Especially when we consider that 
our liberties and privileges are so nearly and indissolubly connected with yours, 
that an encroachment upon one, at least, destroys all the security of the other. 
It seems the Parliament of Great Britain are determined to reduce America to a 
state of vassalage, and, unless we all unite in the common cause, they will un- 
doubtedly accomplish their design. We are much surprised to find so many of 
the merchants in Boston courting favor of the tools of the ministry, and heaping 1 
encomiums on that enemy to liberty, that traitor to his country, and abettor, if 
not author, of all these evils to America. However, w r e hope the spirit of liberty 
is not entirely fled from Boston, but that you will yet hold out, and to the last 
resist and oppose those who are striving to enslave America. You may depend 
on us, and we believe all Connecticut, almost to a man, to stand by you and 
assist you in the defence of our invaluable rights and privileges, even to the 
sacrificing of our lives and fortunes in so good a cause. You will see the deter- 
minations and resolves of this town, which we have inclosed. A subscription is 
set on foot for the relief of the poor in Boston, and what money or provisions 
shall be collected, we shall forward as soon as possible. We are informed that 
your House of Representatives have appointed a time for the meeting of the 
general Congress, in which we hope all the Colonies will concur, and that a non- 
importation and non-exportation agreement, will be immediately come into, which 
we doubt not will procure the desirpd effect. And notwithstanding the gloomy 
aspect of things at present, we cannot but look forward, with fond hopes and 
pleasing expectations, to that glorious era, when America, in spite of all the 
efforts of her enemies to the contrary, shall rise superior to all opposition, over- 
come oppression, be a refuge for the oppressed, a nurse of liberty, a scourge to 
tyranny, and the envy of the world. 

Then (if you stand firm and unshaken amidst this storm of ministerial ven- 
geance) shall it be told to your everlasting honor, that Boston stood foremost in 
the cause of liberty, when the greatest power on earth was striving to divest 
them of it ; and by their noble efforts, joined with the united virtue of her sister 
Colonies, they overcame, and thereby have transmitted to posterity those invalu- 
able rights and privileges, which their forefathers purchased with their blood. 

And now, Gentlemen, relying on your steadiness and firmness in the common 
cause, we subscribe, your most obedient, humble servants, 

Elizur Talcott, "} 

William Williams, | 

Eben'r Plummer, } Committee. 

Isaac Moseley, 

Josiah Hale, J 

6 Letter from Windham. 

which, when attacked, you dared openly to assert and vin- 
dicate, and stand foremost in the glorious cause of Liberty, 
in which you are contending not only for your own, but 
ours and the common rights of every American. When 
we reflect that it is this for which you are suffering such 
horrid cruelties, for which your streets have been stained 
with blood, and for which you now feel the horrors of a 
military government, we [are] overwhelmed with a conflict of lj 
tumultuous passions, and filled with that manly ardor which 
bids us join you hand in hand, and suffer with you in the 
common cause ; nay, even, if the sad exigence of affairs j 
should ever require it, to determine, in defence of every' 
thing for which life is worth enjoying, to meet that death 
which will be glorious, and infinitely preferable to a life 
dragged on in that low, servile state, which is evidently 
planned for us, and which nothing less than the most heroic 
fortitude, and the highest exertions of every civil and Chris- 
tian virtue can prevent. Give us leave, therefore, Gentle- 
men, to entreat, to beg, to conjure you, by every thing that 
is dear, by every thing that is sacred, by the venerable names 
of our pious forefathers, who suffered, who bled in the de- 
fence of Liberty, not to desert the cause at this trying crisis, 
but to use your utmost influence in pursuing and persever- 
ing in every measure, which may have a tendency to pro- 
duce the desired effect. 

Gentlemen, we hereby assure you that, to the utmost of 
our power, we will assist you in every measure necessary 
for the common safety, not regarding our own private views 
and interests, when in competition with the public good. 

This Town is very sensible of the obligations we, and 
with us, all British America, are under to the Town of Bos- 
ton, who have been, and still are, the generous defenders of 
our common rights and liberties. We know you suffer, and 
feel for you. As a testimony of our commiseration of your 
misfortunes, the Town, on the 23d instant, at a legal and 
very full meeting, unanimously chose a Committee to pro- 
cure subscriptions for your present relief. Accordingly, we 
have procured a small flock of sheep, which at this season 
are not so good as we could wish, but are the best we had, 
and the people of this Town were almost unanimous in 
contributing to this purpose. 

Letter from Groton. 7 

This small present, Gentlemen, we beg you would accept, 
and apply to the relief of those honest, industrious poor, 
who are most distressed by the late arbitrary and oppressive 
Acts. And rest assured that if Parliament does not soon 
afford you relief, and there should in future be any need of 
our assistance, we shall, with the utmost cheerfulness, exert 
our influence to that purpose. 

We arc, Gentlemen, with great respect, 

Your most obedient and very humble servants, 

Samuel Gray, 

Nathaniel Wales, Jr., 

Ebenezer Devotion, 

Ebenezer Mosely, Committee 

Hezekiaii Bissell, \ of 

Joseeii Genings, Correspondence. 

William Durkee, 

John Howard, 

Hezekiah Manning, 

N. B. We have inclosed herewith a copy of the doings of the Town for your 
amusement, which may serve for a specimen of our sentiments. 

To the Selectmen of the Town of Boston. l 

letter from groton. 

Groton, June 28th, 1774. 

The inhabitants of the Town of Groton, in general, 
are deeply affected with a sense of our public calamities, 
and more especially the distresses of our brethren in the 
Capital of the Province, as we esteem the act of blocking 
up the harbor of Boston replete with injustice and cruelty, 
and evidently designed to compel the inhabitants thereof to 
submission of taxes imposed upon them without their con- 
sent, and threatens the total destruction of the liberties of 
all British America. We ardently desire a happy union 
with Great Britain and the Colonies, and shall gladly adopt 

1 This letter was printed in the journals ; but no reply to it is recorded. The 
Boston Gazette, of July 4, says : " Last week were driven to the neighboring- 
town of Roxbury, two hundred and fifty-eight sheep, a generous contribution of 

8 Letter from Groton. 

every measure consistent with the dignity and safety of 
British subjects for that purpose. 

In full confidence that the inhabitants of the Town off 
Boston will, in general, exhibit examples of patience, forti- 
tude and perseverance, while they are called to endure this 
oppression for the preservation of the liberties of their 
country, and in token of our willingness to afford all suit- 
able relief to them in our poAver, a number of the inhabi- 
tants of this Town have subscribed, and this day sent forty 
bushels of grain, part rye and part Indian corn, to be deliv- 
ered to the Overseers of the Poor of said Town of Boston, 
not doubting but the same will be suitably applied for thati 
purpose ; and we earnestly desire you will use your utmost | 
endeavor to prevent and avoid all mobs, riots, and tumults, 
and the insulting of private persons and property. And 
while the farmers are cheerfully resigning part of their sub- 
stance for your relief, we trust the merchants will not 
oppress them by raising upon the goods which they have 
now on hand and heretofore purchased. And may God 
prosper every undertaking which tends to the salvation of 
the people. 

"We are, Gentlemen, your friends and fellow-countrymen. 
In the name and by order of the Committee of Correspond- 
ence for the Town of Groton. 

Oliver Prescott, Clerk. 

To the Overseers of the Town of Boston. 

our sympathizing brethren of the town of Windham, in the colony of Connecticut ; 
to be distributed for the employment or relief of those who may be sufferers by 
means of the act of Parliament called the Boston Port Bill." 

The town acknowledged this contribution by a special vote, passed July 4, in 
the following terms : " Upon a motion made and seconded, Voted, unanimously, 
That the thanks of the town be, and hereby are given to our worthy friends, the 
inhabitants of the town of Windham, in the colony of Connecticut, for the kind 
and generous assistance they have granted this town, under its present distress 
and calamity, in voluntarily sending two hundred and fifty-eight sheep, as a 
present for the relief of the poor, industrious inhabitants of this place, who, by 
a late oppressive and cruel act of Parliament for blocking up the harbor of Bos- 
ton, are prevented getting subsistence for themselves and families. 

" Voted, That the Town Clerk be directed to transmit an attested copy of the 
above vote of thanks to the town of Windham." 

The Boston Gazette, of the 11th of July, says : " The tories give out that the 
present of sheep sent from the generous town of Windham, came only in conse- 
quence of money sent to bring them. How weak, how false, how little and how 
low!"— Ed. 





Reply to Grotoit. 


Boston, July 5th, 1774. 

Your obliging letter directed to the Overseers of the 
Poor of this Town, together with a generous present from 
a number of the inhabitants of the Town of Groton, for 
the relief of such inhabitants of this Town as may be 
sufferers by the Port Bill, is come to hand. In behalf of 
the Committee of this Town, appointed for the reception 
of such kind donations, I am now to return to you and the 
rest of our benefactors the most sincere thanks. The 
gentlemen may be assured their donations will be applied 
to the purpose they intend. We are much obliged to you 
for the wise cautions given in your letter, and we shall use 

our best endeavors that the inhabitants of this Town may 
endure their sufferings with dignity, that the glorious cause 
for which they suffer may not be reproached. We trust 

1 Before the Port Bill went into effect, letters containing assurances of sym- 
pathy and support from other Colonies were printed in the Boston journals. The 
Boston Gazette of May 23, 1774, contains letters from New- York, Westerly, and 
Portsmouth, and the proceedings of a legal town meeting held in Newport, all 
expressing the determination to consider " the attack upon the town of Boston," 

1 "not as an attempt made on that town singly, but upon the whole continent." 
The Gazette of this date has the following article: "We cannot but gratefully 
acknowledge the generous and brotherly interposition of our brethren of the 
other Colonies on the present desperate attack of the British Parliament on the 
Town of Boston. Among our warmest friends we are happy to enumerate the 
respectable inhabitants of the towns of New- York, Hartford, Newport, Ports- 
mouth and Westerly, who have thus early assured us of their readiness to unite 
in every measure of self-denial and hazard to extricate themselves as well as us 
from impending slavery." 

The Gazette announced the commencement of the operation of the Port Bill, 
on the 6th of June, in the following terms : "Tell it in Gath, publish it in Aske- 
lon, that the Boston Port Bill, in all its parts, is now carrying into execution, 
and that Boston is thereby got into greater distress, and is more insulted by an 
English armament than she ever was by a French or Spanish fleet in the hottest 
war, when left without one British ship for her protection. The town is become 
a spectacle to angels and men. God grant that it may not be intimidated by the 
present horrors to make a surrender of the rights of America ; or in any respect 
to dishonor herself at this day of trial or perplexity." 

The Gazette, on the 7th of July, thus describes public sentiment after the 
Port Bill had been one month in force. " There is not a town of any conse- 
quence, on the continent of North America, but is justly alarmed with the pro- 
ceedings of the British Parliament, and are taking necessary steps to strengthen 
the Union of the Colonies, and thereby defeat the cruel designs of arbitrary 
power." — Ed. 

4th s. — vol. ii. 2 

10 Letter from Wrentham. 

that the non-consumption agreement, which we hear is 
making progress in the country, will put it out of the 
power of any of the merchants to take unreasonable ad- 
vantage of raising the prices of their goods. You will, 
however, remember, that many heavy articles, such as nails, 
&c, will be attended with considerable charge in transport- 
ing them from Salem. As the bearer is in haste, I must 
conclude, with great regard for your Committee of Corres- 
pondence and the inhabitants of the Town of Groton. 

Sir, your friend and fellow-countryman, 

Signed by order of the Overseers of the Poor, 

Sam. Partridge. 

To the Committee of the Town of Groton, 

in Connecticut. [Mass.] 


Wrentham, July \th, 1774. 

Filled with the sense of the sad alternative of being 
reduced to the precarious tenor of the will of others, rouses 
our attention and awakens every faculty — shocked with 
those master strokes of politics which mark with infamy 
the present era, the pillars of the Constitution struck asun- 
der, and the whole body politic all in convulsion, which 
call for the aid and assistance of every individual — this 
Province in particular, and the devoted Town of Boston in 
special, is the first mark of ministerial vengeance. 

Permit [us] then, Gentlemen, to assure you we feel the 
heavy hand of power, and claim a share in your sufferings. 
We then, a small number of the inhabitants of this Town, 
being sensible of the difficulties so sudden a stop of all 
trade must reduce a number of families in your Town, beg 
leave thus early to offer you our mite towards relieving our 
more immediate suffering brethren amongst you. We 
therefore send you, by the bearer, Mr. Ezra Ware, one load 
of grain, to be disposed of, for the purpose aforesaid, as 

Reply to Wrentham. 11 

you in your wisdom and prudence shall judge meet, which 
phase to accept as a mark of our sincere regard and entire 
approbation of the peaceable measures begun and going on 
in this and the other Colonies, for our relief. We assure 
you we look on your burthens, ours, and shall at all times 
be ready, both in public and private, (according to our 
ability,) to give you every assistance to preserve our civil 
and religious privileges. 

We are, Gentlemen, with truth and regard, your assured 
friends and fellow-sufferers in one common cause. 

Lemuel Kollock, j *£« $*£ 

To the Overseers of the Poor of the Town 

of Boston and the additional Committee. 

19^ bushels rye, 
1 1 2 bushels corn, 

31 bushels. 


Boston, July 5th, 1774. 

We have to acknowledge your favor of the 4th instant. 
We are obliged to you for your kind expressions of sym- 
pathy and concern for us under our present difficulty. 
We are truly in distress, and suffering under the heavy 
hand of power; and as patience, fortitude and perseverance, 
while we are enduring this oppression for the preservation 
of the rights of America, seem to be expected from us 
by our brethren in the country, you must be sensible great 
numbers of our people must, for want of employ during 
this conflict, be reduced to the utmost distress, unless they 
are relieved from the country. We are glad to find you 
are of this opinion, and kindly thank you for the load of 
grain you have sent by Mr. Ezra Ware, for the relief of 
those who are more immediately suffering by the oppres- 
sion of the Boston Port Bill. 

Signed by order of the Overseers of the Poor. 

Sam. Partridge. 
To Mr. Sam. [Lem. ?] Kollock, at Wrentham. 

12 Letters from Pepper ell — Charlemont. 


Pepperell, July \th, 1774. 

We received the proceedings of Boston the 17th of 
June, with your inclosed covenant, which very near the 
whole of our District have signed, and we are of opinion 
that we have not a man but will sign. We herewith send 
you the proceedings of Pepperell, at their late meeting 
We have collected forty bushels of grain, which you may i 
depend will soon be conveyed to the Overseers of your poor, 
[and] desire you would stand firm in the common cause. 
Depend on it, we will further assist you with provision and 
men, if needful. 

We are, Gentlemen, your sympathizing, humble servants. 
By order of the Committee of Correspondence. 

Wm. Prescott. 
To the Committee of Correspondence in Boston. 

1 f 

letter from charlemont. 

Charlemont, July 9th, 1774. 
Sirs, * 

The inhabitants of Charlemont have considered the 
deplorable situation of the poor people of your Town, and 
like the poor widow, cast in their mite. They committed 
to me two barrels flour, to be sent to you for the relief [of] 
the poor, which I have sent by the bearer, desiring you 
would receive it for that purpose, and please to signify that 
you have received it, and you will oblige your friend and 

Aaron Rice. 
To the Overseers of the Poor of the Town of Boston. 


Letter from Farmington. 13 


Boston, 20th July, 1774. 
f I received your favor of the 19th instant, advising 

that you had sent two barrels of flour for the relief of such 
poor people as do suffer by the shutting up of this Port, 
which flour I have received, and it shall be applied accord- 
ingly. The distresses of this Town begin to come on, and 
I do expect them to be great, but we are not intimidated, 
nor shall we give up any of our liberties, although we are 
surrounded by fleets and armies. Our committee to em- 
ploy the poor are not together, of which I am one, as well 
as one of the Overseers of the Poor, so do, in the name of 
both, return you thanks for your kind donation, and am, 

Gentlemen, your very humble servant, 

Sam. Partridge. 

To Mr. Aaron Rice, Charlemont. 


Farmington, July 25th, 1774. 
Dear Sir, 

This serves to inform you, that for present relief of 
the poor in Boston, we have shipped, per Captain Israel 

1 The Boston Gazette, of July 18, 1774, has the following paragraphs : 
This is now the forty-eighth day since the siege of Boston began ; and not- 
withstanding our accumulating distresses, the inhabitants continue to exhibit 
that calm firmness and unanimity, which astonishes our enemies. 

The inhabitants of this town are greatly supported under the weight of minis- 
terial vengeance, by the kind sympathy, and generous donations of our brethren 
and friends, through the Province and Continent. It indeed seems as if their 
prophecy would soon be verified in Boston's becoming the granary of North 
America. May the behavior of its inhabitants continue to deserve their praise 
and bounty. A whole Continent is now awake and active ; one spirit actuates 
the whole ; and all unite in prayers to the Supreme Disposer of events, that the 
liberties of America may yet be preserved. Last Thursday was a solemn day 
in this Town ; the shops and streets empty, and the churches full. May the day 
be followed with true repentance and amendment of life, and all the ills we 
suffer now, like scattered clouds, shall pass away. — Ed. 

14 Reply to Farming ton. 

Williams, between three and four hundred bushels of rye 
and Indian corn, which we have ordered to be delivered to 
yourself, as per advice of Mr. Cooper in his letter to us. 
which we wish safe to hand, and to satisfaction; and would 1 
also further inform, that we have the subscription still open,ij 
and expect, after harvest, to ship you a much larger quan- 
tity. As our people are open and generous, firm, steady, 
and resolute in the common cause of Liberty, hope the peo- 
ple of Boston remain firm and steady. An answer would? 
be extreme[ly] agreeable. 

With esteem, Sir, I remain your most obedient, humble 
servant. Per order and in behalf of the Commitee. 

Fisher Gay. 
To John Barrett, Esq., Merchant in Boston. 


Boston, July 29th, 1774. 

I am desired by the Committee of the Town of Bos- 
ton, appointed to receive the Donations made by our sym- 
pathizing brethren, for the employment or relief of such 
inhabitants of this Town as are more immediate sufferers 
by the cruel act of Parliament for shutting up this harbor, 
to acquaint you that our friend, Mr. Barrett, has communi- 
cated to them your letter of the 25th instant, advising that 
you have shipped, per Captain Israel Williams, between 
three and four hundred bushels of rye and Indian corn for 
the above mentioned purpose, and that you have the sub- 
scriptions still open, and expect after harvest to ship a 
much larger quantity. Mr. Barrett tells us, that upon the 
arrival of Captain Williams, he will endorse his bill of 
lading or receipt to us. 

The Committee have a very grateful sense of the gener- 
osity of their friends in Farmington, who may depend upon 
their donations being applied agreeable to their benevolent 
intention, as it is a great satisfaction to the Committee to 
find the Continent so united in opinion. The Town of 


Reply to Farmincjton. L5 

rye Boston is now suffering for the common liberties of Amer- 

to ica, and while they are aided and supported by their friends, 

I am persuaded they will struggle through the conflict, 

)uld firm and steady. 

I am, with very great regard, Gentlemen, 

Your friend and countryman, 

)eo ' Samuel Adams. 

1(1 To Fisher Gay, Esq., and the rest of the 

Committee in Farmington, Connecticut. 


Boston, August 4th, 1774. 

Your favor of 25th July, directed to John Barrett, 
Esq., has been laid before the Committee to receive and 
distribute Donations, and has been answered, July 29th, 
which [we] trust you will duly receive. Since which Capt. 
Williams has arrived and delivered to the Committee's 
Treasurer, one hundred and sixteen and half bushels of 
rye, and one hundred and ninety bushels of Indian corn, 
as a donation from our generous, patriotic friends in Far- 
mington. This Committee, in the name of the Town, re- 
turn you and our other friends their most grateful acknowl- 
edgments, and assure [you we] shall do our utmost to 
distribute it, agreeable to the benevolent intentions of the 
contributors. As Capt. Williams brought us no letter, nor 
had any particular directions about the freight of the grain, 
the Committee immediately agreed to pay the same, and 
offered it to Capt. Williams, but he chose rather to suspend 
the receiving of it until further day. You may be assured 
that the friends of Liberty and a righteous government are 
firm and steady to the common cause of American rights. 
We are in hopes to keep our poor from murmuring, and 
that, by the blessing of Heaven, we shall shortly be con- 
firmed in that freedom for which our ancestors entered the 
wilds of America. 

With the greatest respect we are, Sir, your friends and 
fellow-countrymen. By order of the Committee appointed 

16 Letter from Wether sfield. 

to receive Donations for the employment or relief of the 
sufferers by the Boston Port Bill. 

Sam. Adams, Chairman. 
To Fisher Gay, Esq., Farmington, 









Wethersfield, 25th July, 1774. 

We being sometime since, at a Town Meeting held ini 
this place, appointed a Committee to take in a subscription i k 
for the Town of Boston ; and having the most tender sym- \ to\ 
pathy with the inhabitants of your worthy and very respect- - 

— - — . — ■ ' ii 





1 The Colony of Connecticut, by its Legislature, recommended three times a 
general subscription for the relief of the poor of Boston. The public sympathy 
is indicated in the following paragraph from the Boston Gazette of June 20 : 

" The first of June, when the Boston Port Bill took place, was observed by the 
inhabitants of Hartford, in Connecticut, as a day of mourning. The bells began 
to toll early in the morning, and continued till evening ; the town house was 
hung with black, and the Edict affixed thereto ; the shops were all shut, and 
their windows covered with black, and other ensigns of distress." 

The Connecticut Committee of Correspondence, in a letter dated Hartford, 
June 3, 1774, addressed to the Boston Committee of Correspondence, say : — 
" The situation of the Town of Boston, particularly of the poor, and such as must 
now be deprived of employ, and reduced to straits, was considered by both 
Houses of Assembly, and a resolution come into to contribute to their relief, 
which passed both Houses." — Force's Archives, vol. i. 305. A letter in the Essex 
Gazette of June 14, states that the Assembly voted to raise contributions in the 
several religious congregations. The same journal, of August 16, has a letter 
dated Hartford, July 26, which reads : — " The Committee of Correspondence for 
the Town of Hartford, met yesterday, and opened subscriptions according to the 
direction of the inhabitants at their late meeting, for the relief of the industrious 
poor of the Town of Boston, and it is not in the least doubted but that it will 
meet with very general encouragement." The Gazette of September 27, under 
the head of Boston, September 26, has the following: — " We hear the Town of 
Hartford in Connecticut, have contributed 1,400 bushels of grain ; Middletown 
about the same quantity ; Kensington, 600 ; Middle Haddam, 600 ; and other 
towns in that Colony are doing the same for the relief of the poor in this town." 

The Connecticut House of Representatives, October 20, 1774, unanimously 
" Resolved, That contributions from all the towns in this Colony, for supplying 
the necessities and alleviating the distresses of our brethren at Boston, ought to 
be continued, in such manner, and so long as their occasions may require." 

At a legal meeting of the Town of Danbury, Connecticut, on the 12th of De- 
cember, the fifth declaration was : " As we look upon the Town of Boston to be 
suffering in the common cause of American liberty, we would manifest our 
hearty sympathy with them, in their present calamitous state, and readiness to 

Letter from Wether -afield. 17 

able metropolis, under their present severe and unparalleled 
Bufferings in the common cause of American liberty, from 
the cruel and oppressive edicts of a British Parliament, 
most cheerfully undertook the trust, and have been (agree- 
able to the sense of the Town) endeavoring to collect in 
grain, (as was proposed,) a proportion among the inhabi- 
tants, as nearly as might be to the value of 1^/. on the pound 
on the list of the polls and rateable estates, &c. But as 
many people have expended almost or quite all their old 
stores, and have none they can now spare, have not raised 
so much as we flattered ourselves we should have ; but 
supposing what we could now send before harvest, might 
be more acceptable than after, when we trust many other 
towns round about us will be sending, have now forwarded 

administer to the relief of their suffering poor, according to our abilities ; and do 
accordingly recommend to the inhabitants of this town to contribute liberally of 
money or provisions. For this purpose we have appointed Captain Daniel Starr, 
Messrs. John McLean, Zadock Benedict, and Andrew Comstock, a Committee to 
receive such donations, and transmit the same to the Committee appointed to 
receive them in the Town of Boston. Our being so late in contributing to their 
relief hath not arisen from our having been unconcerned spectators of their dis- 
tressed situation ; but hearing of the laudable zeal of others, we were ready to 
conclude there was a sufficient present supply, and that our donations would be 
more needed, and more acceptable at some future time." 

The Boston Gazette of March 27, 1775, has the following preamble and reso- 
lution passed on the 8th of March, 1775, by the House of Representatives of 
Connecticut : 

" Whereas, our brethren of the Town of Boston, have long suffered, and are yet 
suffering under the hand of oppression, grievous and unparalleled hardships and 
distresses, in consequence of their resolution to support the great principles of 
constitutional liberty ; and having endured and yet enduring those sufferings in 
the common cause of America, with most exemplary fortitude and magnanimity, 
the principles of humanity and justice to ourselves and them, require that they 
should not be left to sink under the weight of burdens which, without assistance, 
may become absolutely insupportable : 

" And although many donations have been made them, by this and the other 
Colonies, yet upon authentic intelligence, it appears they are inadequate to the 
real distresses, in which thousands of their innocent and virtuous inhabitants are 
involved by means as aforesaid : 

" This House taking the matters aforesaid into their serious consideration, do 
Resolve, That it be, and it is hereby earnestly recommended to the several towns 
in this Colony, to continue cheerfully and liberally to contribute to the relief of 
their suffering brethren in said Town, according to the several abilities, which 
divine Providence has given them, esteeming it an incumbent duty, and an ac- 
ceptable service in the sight of God and their country. 

"By order of the House. 

"William Williams, Speaker." 
4th s. — vol. ii. 3 [Ed. 

18 Letter from Wether sfield. 

by Captain Israel Williams, (who went last Saturday down 
the river,) as you will see by his receipt enclosed, viz., 34| 
bushels wheat, 248^ of rye, and 390 of Indian corn, which 
small mite, we hope (through the great indulgence of the 
commander of your fleets and armies) may be carried in 
with safety, and for which we shall pay him the freight, at 
one halfpenny per bushel, less than customary, for which he 
was so kind as (besides putting in his proportion) to agree 
to transport it. The whole, as proposed by the Town, 
would amount to the value of twenty or thirty pounds more, 
which we hope, after harvest, to be able to collect and send, 
and if need be, much more. Earnestly wishing you may 
have prudence, wisdom and fortitude, (much of which is 
needed,) so to conduct under the many more insults which 
we expect will be offered, as to prevent the dreadful conse- 
quences of a civil war, and disappoint those at home who, 
we verily believe, wish to have verified, those lies that they 
have so industriously reported and spread among the people 
there — that America is in an actual state of rebellion — and 
in confidence you will never give up the glorious cause in 
which you have hitherto stood foremost, and for which you 
are now only foremost in suffering, unless some measures 
be come into, which we doubt not but may, and hope and 
trust will be, in the General Congress, (which we rejoice to 
find is likely soon to take place,) that shall confound the 
enemies of Boston, America and Great Britain, and bring 
about a happy issue of the present glorious struggle for 
Liberty ; and we trust, notwithstanding the many cruel in- 
vectives thrown out by the common enemy, the Bostonians 
will be remembered with everlasting honor. 

We are, Gentlemen, touched with the most tender sense 
of your really distressed situation, your sincere friends in 
the common cause, and hearty well-wishers, 

Ezekiel Williams, j^Sttl 

P. S. We have directed — in conformity to the vote of the 
Town appointing us, &c. — To the Selectmen or Overseers 
of the Poor in Boston, but have subscribed this to John 
Barrett, Esq., as we understand Farmington were directed 
to do, in case they sent any grain, some of which they pro- 
posed, is now on board Capt. [ 


Reply to Wethersfield. \\) 


Boston, July 29*A, 1774. 

Your verv obliging letter of the 25th instant, directed 
to the Selectmen or Overseers of the Poor of the Town of 
Boston, has been by them communicated to a Committee of 
this Town appointed to receive the donation made for the 
employment or relief of such inhabitants as arc or may be 
more immediate sufferers by the cruel Act of Parliament for 
shutting up our harbor. This, at the desire and in the 
name of this Committee, I am very gratefully to acknowl- 
edge, the generosity of the Town of Wethersfield, in the 
donation made by them, for the purpose above mentioned, 
consisting of 34| bushels of wheat, 248J of rye, and 390 
of Indian corn, which your letter informs is forwarded by 
Capt. Israel Williams, and for their kind intentions still 
further. They may be assured that their beneficence will 
be applied to the purpose for which they have designed it. 
This Town is suffering the stroke of ministerial vengeance, 
as they apprehend, for the liberties of America, and it 
affords them abundant satisfaction to find that they have 
the concurrent sentiments of their brethen in the sister 
Colonies in their favor, evidenced by the most liberal acts 
of munificence for their support. While they are thus 
encouraged and supported, I trust they will never be so 
ungrateful to their friends, as well [as] so lost to a sense of 
virtue, as to " give up the glorious cause." They have need 
of wisdom and fortitude to confound the devices of their 
enemies, and to endure the hard conflict with dignity. 
They rejoice in the approaching general American Con- 
gress, and trust that, by the divine direction and blessing, 
such measures will be taken as will " bring about a happy 

1 Boston, July 28, 1774. " Every part of this extensive continent, as we have 
yet heard, appears to be deeply interested in the fate of this unhappy Town. 
Many and great are the donations we have already received, and many more we 
have good reason to expect. The cry of hunger is not so great as we at first 
expected. Even our poorest people have not suffered for the want of bread. 
May that Being who hath the heart? of all men in his hands, and who turneth 
them as he pleaseth, still dispose our sympathizing brethren to continue their 
benefactions, till we are happily relieved from our present difficulties.'"' — Force's 
Archives, vol. i. 646. [Ed. 

20 Letter from New Jersey. 

issue of the present glorious struggle," and secure the 
rights of America upon the permanent principles of equal 
liberty and truth. 

I am, with very great regard to the Gentlemen of yourr 
Committee, Sir, your friend and fellow-countryman, 

Sam. Adams. 

To Ezekiel Williams, Esq., at Wethersfield. 


Elizabeth Town, (New Jersey,) 28th July, 1774. 

The arbitrary and cruel oppression under which your 
metropolis now labors, from the suspension of commerce, 
must inevitably reduce multitudes to inexpressible difficul- 
ties and distress. Suffering in a glorious and common 
cause, sympathy and resentment, with peculiar energy, fills 
the breasts of your anxious countrymen. As the King of 
kings and Ruler of princes seems in a remarkable manner 
to be inspiring these Colonies with a spirit of union, to 
confound the councils of your unrighteous oppressors, and 
with a spirit of humanity and benevolence towards an 
innocent and oppressed people, so we trust he will also 
inspire your Town with patience, resignation and fortitude, 
until this great calamity shall be overpast. 

We have the pleasure to acquaint you, that on the 21st 

1 The Committee of Correspondence of New Jersey, on the 1st of June, in a 
reply to a communication received from Massachusetts, expressed their sympathy 
with the people of Boston ; and public meetings were called in different places 
throughout the Province, to consider the Port Bill. At a meeting held at New- 
ark on the llth of June, it was proposed that meetings should be held in the 
Counties to appoint Committees to meet together and take measures for acting 
with the other Colonies. — MuJforiTs New Jersey, p. 389. At a meeting of the 
inhabitants of Morris County, in Morristown, on the 27th of June, 1774, it was 
" Voted, That it is the request of this meeting, that the County Committees, when 
met for the purpose aforesaid, do take into their serious consideration the pro- 
priety of setting on foot a subscription for the benefit of the sufferers at Boston, 
under the Boston Port Bill, above mentioned, and the money arising from such 
subscription to be laid out as the Committees so met shall think will best answer 
the ends proposed." 

At a meeting of the inhabitants of Middlesex County, on the 15th of July, 
" Voted, That an immediate subscription be set on foot throughout this County, 
towards the relief of the suffering families in the Town of Boston ; " and a 
meeting of Committees from the Townships of Monmouth County, on the 19th of 
July, expressed "the sincerest sympathy and most cordial commiseration" with 

Letter from New Jersey. 'Jl 

linst, at the City of New Brunswick, the Province of New 
Jersey, with singular unanimity, (72 delegates from the 
several Counties, and ;i majority of the Bouse of Repre- 
sentatives present and approving,) entered into similar 
resolutions with the other Colonies, elected five Deputies for 
the proposed Congress, and the County Committees then 
agreed to promote collections in their respective Counties for 
the relief of such of the unhappy inhabitants of the Town 
of Boston, as may be now reduced to extremity and want. 
To accomplish this purpose with the more acceptation to 
yourselves, we, the Committee of Correspondence for the 
Eastern division, request that, by the return of the post, you 
Would be pleased to advise us in what way we can best 
answer your present necessities — whether cash remitted, or 
what articles of provision, or other necessaries we can fur- 
nish from hence, would be most agreeable, and which we 
hope we shall be able to forward to Boston very soon after 
your advice shall be received. We doubt not gentlemen 
are devising every possible method for the employment of 
those who, by their deplorable situation, are cut off from 
all former means of subsistence. 

We are, Gentlemen, your very humble servants. 

By order. Wm. P. Smith, Chairman. 

Be pleased to direct your letter, in answer, to Wm. P. Smith, at Elizabeth 
Town, New Jersey. 

To the Committee of Correspondence 

for the Town of Boston. 

their " respectpd brethren" of Boston ; and declared that, " as they expect, under 
God, that the final deliverance of America will be owing, in a great degree, to a 
continuance of their virtuous struggle, they esteem themselves bound in duty 
and interest, to afford them every assistance and alleviation in their power ; " 
and they also recommended the Committees of all the Counties to provide for 
subscriptions in every part of the Colony. 

The meeting of the Committees of the several Counties of New Jersey, was 
held at New Brunswick, on the 21st of July, when it was "Resolved, That it 
appears to us, to be a duty incumbent on the good people of this Province, to 
afford some immediate relief to the many suffering inhabitants of the Town of 
Boston. Therefore, the several County Committees do now engage to set on 
foot, and promote collections, without delay, either by subscriptions or otherwise, 
throughout their respective Counties ; and that they will remit the moneys arising 
from the said subscriptions, or any other benefactions, that may be voluntarily 
made by the inhabitants, either to Boston, or into the hands of James Neilson, 
John Dennis, William Ouke, Abraham Hunt, Samuel Tucker, Dr. Isaac Smith, 
Grant Gibbon, Thomas Sinnicks, and John Carey, whom we do hereby appoint a 
Committee for forwarding the same to Boston, in such way and manner as they 
shall be advised will best answer the benevolent purposes designed." — Ed. 

22 Reply to New Jersey. 


Boston, August 22d, 1774. 


The Committee of Correspondence for this Town haveo 
handed to the Committee of Donations a letter from you, j 
of 28th ultimo, which breathes such a spirit of union and! 
hearty concern for the rights of America, as must enkindle 
in every breast the highest opinion of the virtue and firm- 
ness of the inhabitants of New Jersey. With hearts deeply 
impressed with gratitude, we note your kind intentions to -I 
contribute for the relief of the inhabitants of this Town, 
suffering by means of the Boston Port Bill, and desire to 
know " in what way you can best answer our present 
necessities, whether cash remitted or articles of provision." 
For answer, if cash should be equally agreeable to our 
friends, it would be very acceptable at this time, but would 
leave that matter entirely to your convenience. The Chris- 
tian sympathy and generosity of our friends through the 
continent, cannot fail to inspire the inhabitants of this 
Town with patience, resignation and firmness, while we 
trust in the Supreme Ruler of the universe, that he will 
graciously hear our cries, and in his time free us from our i 
present bondage, and make us rejoice in his great salva- 
tion. Please to present our grateful acknowledgment to 
our friends of New Jersey, and be assured we are, with the 
greatest esteem, Sir, your friends and fellow-countrymen, 

Nath. Appleton, per order. 
Mr. William P. Smith, New Jersey. 


Cape Fear, North Carolina, July 29th, 1774. 

"We most heartily sympathize with the distressed 
inhabitants of the Town of Boston, and take the earliest 

1 In North Carolina, subscriptions for the relief of Boston were commenced in 
July. A letter in the Boston Gazette of August 22, dated Wilmington, N. C, July 
20, states that, in a very short time after a subscription had been opened for the 
sufferers by the Port Bill, " a considerable sum was subscribed by several of the 

Letter from Cape Fear. '2:1 

opportunity to assure tlicm that we consider ourselves as 
deeply involved in the misfortunes of that brave people; 
We view the attack made by the Minister upon the Colony 
of the Massachusetts Bay, to be intended to pave the way 
to a general subversion of the constitutional rights of North 
America. It becomes, therefore, the duty of every Amer- 
ican, avIio is not an apostate to his country, to pursue every 
justifiable method that may have a tendency to avert this 
impending calamity. The inclosed Resolves speak the sen- 
timents of the inhabitants of Cape Fear, and, we are well 
assured, of this Province in general. As a testimony of the 
lVa sincerity of our professions and good wishes in behalf of 
your Town, we have loaded a sloop with provisions, which 
we have taken the freedom to address to your care ; and 
we request that you will apply them to the support of the 
indigent inhabitants of Boston, who, by the late oppressive 
Acts of Parliament, are now deprived of the means of pro- 
curing their subsistence by their daily labor and honest 
industry. Although inconsiderable in its value, yet we 
flatter ourselves that, when it is viewed as a testimony of 
the heartfelt share we take in the calamity of that Town, 
and as an earnest of our zealous endeavors to encourage 
them to persist, with prudent and manly firmness, in the 

inhabitants of Cape Fear for that charitable purpose. Parker Quince, Esq., of 
Brunswick, has upon this occasion, offered a vessel to convey the provisions with- 
out a farthing expense to the subscribers, and Captain Budd and his sailors have 
agreed to navigate her to Salem gratis." 

At a meeting of the inhabitants of the District of Wilmington on the 21st of 
July, it was " Resolved, That we consider the cause of the Town of Boston as the 
common cause of British America, and the inhabitants thereof as suffering in 
the defence of the rights of the Colonies in general ; and that therefore we 
have, in proportion to our abilities, sent a supply of provisions for the indigent 
inhabitants of that place, thereby to express our sympathy in their sufferings, 
and as an earnest of our sincere intentions to contribute, by every means in 
our power, to alleviate their distress, and to induce them to maintain, with pru- 
dence and firmness, the glorious cause in which they are at present embarked." 
A committee, raised at this meeting, addressed to the freeholders of the Prov- 
ince a circular letter, in which they tender congratulations, "upon the generous 
contribution of the inhabitants, which has put it in our power to load a vessel 
with provisions, which will sail this week for the port of Salem." An account, 
dated Wilmington, July 27, states that several widow ladies of that town had 
contributed very liberally to this object. 

The Boston Gazette, of Sept. 5, contains the following extract from a letter 
from Wilmington, dated Aug. 2, 1774, addressed to a citizen of Boston: 

"As to public matters I shall likewise please you, when I inform you that a 
patriotic spirit possesses every bosom, which all ranks of persons seem emulous 
to express by actions as well as by words ; even those few from whom another 

24 Letter from Cape Fear. 

cause in which they now suffer, it will not be thought 
altogether unworthy their acceptance. 

In behalf of the inhabitants of Cape Fear, North Caro- j 
lina, permit us to subscribe ourselves, Gentlemen, your a 
most obedient servants, 

James Moore. 

Geo. Hooper. 

H. Howe. 

A. Maclaine. 

Will. Hooper. 

Jno. Ancrum. 

Rob't Hogg. 

Francis Clayton. 
To John Hancock, John Howe, and Samuel Adams, Esquires. 

conduct was expected, have surprised the world by a zeal for the service of our 
suffering- brethren in Boston, and a liberality in contributing to their relief, 
which, till this occasion gave them an opportunity of displaying, scarce any 
body supposed them capable of. A subscription having been set on foot for the 
support of the Bostonians, (suffering nobly in the common cause of America,) a 
very few days, from a few individuals, produced as much as loaded the vessel by 
which this letter comes. And by this time, I have no doubt, enough is collected 
to load another. Nor is this all ; for there is apparent, in almost every individual, 
a proper sense of the injury done to the Colonies, in the tendency of those 
oppressive acts of Parliament, and a determined spirit of opposition and resent- 
ment Avorthy of a human bosom, in the great cause of liberty. 

" A numerous and respectable meeting of the six Counties in the District of 
Wilmington has been had, and they have, without one dissenting voice, resolved 
upon pursuing every legal and rightful measure, to aid and assist their sister 
Colony of the Massachusetts-bay to the utmost of their power, and have sent 
expresses to every County in the Province, strictly recommending a subscription 
in each of them for the same purpose." 

Another letter from Wilmington, dated August 3d, says : " No sooner was a 
subscription put about for the relief of our suffering brethren in Boston, than in 
a few days I am told two thousand pounds our currency were raised, and it is 
expected something very considerable will be contributed at Newbern and Eden- 
ton for the same noble purpose, as subscriptions are set on foot in every County 
in the Province." 

The Provincial Convention of this Colony, held at Newbern, on the 27th of 
August, 1774, " Resolved, That the inhabitants of the Massachusetts Province 
have distinguished themselves in a manly support of the rights of America in 
genera], and that the cause in which they now suffer is the cause of every honest 
American, who deserves the blessings which the constitution holds forth to them. 
That the grievances, under which the Town of Boston labors at present, are the 
effect of a resentment, levelled at them, for having stood foremost in an opposi- 
tion to measures, which must eventually have involved all British America in a 
state of abject dependence and servitude. 

" Resolved, That we view the attempts made by the ministers upon the Town 
of Boston, as a prelude to a general attack upon the rights of the other Colonies, 
and that upon the success of this depends, in a great measure, the happiness of 

Reply to Cape Fear. 28 


Boston, September 1th, 1774. 

Your favor of July 29tli ult., directed to Messrs. Han- 
cock, Rowe, and Adams, came to the hands of the Com- 
mittee of Donations. 

The contents of the bill [of] lading which you inclosed, 
are received and landed here, and shall be applied to the 
purposes for which they were so generously bestowed. The 
fender sympathy and brotherly kindness expressed in your 
letter, and so fully evidenced by the very liberal donations 
of our worthy and patriotic brethren of Cape Fear, are 
truly affecting. Our sincere and grateful acknowledgments 
arc justly their due. They will please kindly to accept this 
testimony thereof; and may they find, to their everlasting 
consolation, the truth of our Lord and Saviour's observation, 
that " it is more blessed to give than to receive." 

But while we are ready to acknowledge the Christian 
charity, yea, munificence, of our friends, Ave should be very 
guilty in the sight of God, if we did not explicitly acknowl- 
edge his superintending providence and gracious attention 
to the state of this distressed Town, manifested by repeated 
and seasonable supplies. He has the hearts of kings, and 
of all their subjects, in his hand, and no creature can either 
help or hurt but by his sovereign direction or permission. 
To him, therefore, both givers and receivers are infinitely 
obliged, and to him they should render their most humble 
and thankful praises. God grant that herein we may all 

It is ordered by God, who can never do any wrong to his 
creatures, that Massachusetts in general, and Boston in 
particular, should receive the first blow, and feel the weight 
of ministerial vengeance/ We have felt the shock. We 
feel it still, but we are not yet intimidated ; we remain 

America, in its present race and in posterity ; and that therefore it becomes our 
duty to contribute, in proportion to our abilities, to ease the burden imposed upon 
that Town, for their virtuous opposition to the revenue acts, that they may be 
enabled to persist in a prudent and manly opposition to the schemes of Parlia- 
ment, and render its dangerous designs abortive." — Ed. 

1 III 8. VOI,. II. 1 

26 Reply to Cape Fear. 

undaunted. Our God supports and sustains us. To him| 
we would continue humbly to look for wisdom, direction, 
firmness, resolution and success. We hope he has' begun 
salvation for us. Our enemy doth not triumph over us. 

The cause in which this people are engaged, and which,] 
God helping us, we are determined to live and die by, we] 
believe to be the cause of truth and righteousness, audi; 
must therefore issue well. " Magna est Veritas et [pre-'jval- 
ebit." All North America is deeply interested in the cause ; 
our political life and death are bound up in the event. 
Our union, firmness and prudence, are our strength and 
hope, and no less the dread and terror of the enemies of 
our civil and religious rights and liberties, and under God 
will be our salvation. 

But after all, it is not for us to know the times or the 
seasons. When these troubles will end, or whether we 
shall not be called to yet greater trials, God only knows. 
He knows when, and what to do ; and of this we may rest I 
satisfied, that he will, by all that takes place, advance his • 
own glory and his people's best interest ; and, when he has i 
answered the ends of his government in this part of his 
most holy and righteous administration, they shall be pro- • 
moted to honor, perhaps in this world, certainly in the 
next ; but his and his people's implacable enemies shall be \ 
covered with confusion, and filled with everlasting con- 

This w T e design by Parker Quince, Esqr., your friend and 
ours. A vessel arrived yesterday at Salem, and, it is said, 
with thirty-three chests of tea, and a mast-ship expected at 
Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, with a very large quan- 
tity. What an insult this, upon the whole Continent ! 
But as Mr. Quince is upon the spot, and doubtless gets 
information of what passes, we think it needless to go into 
a particular detail thereof, and would refer you to him. 

We are, with great affection and esteem, 

Your very obliged, humble servants, 

David Jeffries, ' In behalf of the Com - 

mittee of Donations. 

To Colonel James Moore and others, a Committee 

at Cape Fear, North Carolina. 

Reply to Cape Fear. 27 

Rhode Island, 1 Aug. If)///, 1774. 

I arrived here two days past, in a sloop, with pro- 
vision for the poor of Boston, and should esteem it a favor 
in your advising where will he most suitable to land her 
cargo. If it is equally convenient, I think Providence is 
the nearest place. I shall keep the sloop here, till I have 
the pleasure of a few lines from you by next post, and am, 
Sir, your most obedient servant, 

P. Quince. 
The IlorCble John Hancock, Esq. 

Boston, August 22d, 1774. 

The Committee of Donations have received advice this 
day, of a cargo of provisions from North Carolina, arrived 
at Newport, waiting for our directions. We have ordered 
the master to proceed to Marblehead, and apply to you for 
further advice and directions. 

This is to ask the favor of you to direct the master, after 
regular entry and clearance, to proceed up to Boston, and if 
any expense should be incurred by you, your draft on us 
shall be immediately honored. The kindness this town 
have experienced from our friends of Marblehead, and 
especially from you, encourages us to take the freedom. 
We hope to persevere under our trials and firmly resist the 
hand of oppression, trusting in the Supreme Ruler of the 
universe, that he will in his time extricate us from all our 
troubles, and we shall yet be a free and happy people. 

With the highest esteem and respect, 
We are, Gentlemen, 

Your very obliged friend and servant, 

David Jeffries, j £S2hL 

To Colonel Orne. 

Mr. Elbridge Gerry, of Marblehead. 

1 The four succeeding letters relate to the donation received from Cape Fear. 

28 Reply to Cape Fear. 

Boston, August 22d, 1774. 

Colonel Hancock favored the Committee of Donations 
with a letter from you, 19th instant, advising of the arrival 
of a cargo of provisions from North Carolina, for the relief ] 
of our poor, suffering by means of the Boston Port Bill. 
Said Committee have this day taken the matter into consid- 
eration, and have agreed to request the favor of you to 
order the vessel round to Marblehead, and then apply to 
Colonel Orne and Mr. Elbridge Gerry, for their advice and 
assistance. We stand ready to defray any charges arising 
on the same. This Town are deeply affected with the 
Christian sympathy and generosity of our friends through 
the Continent, and we now, in behalf of the Town, return 
our cordial and grateful acknowledgments to our worthy 
friends and brethren of Carolina, for this instance of their 
readiness to support the common cause of American liberty, 
and the relief of this Town, suffering under the cruel hand 
of oppression. 

Please, Sir, to accept our hearty thanks for the particular 
care you have taken in this matter. 

We wish you and our brethren of Carolina the best of 
Heaven's blessings, and are, with great esteem, your and 
their very obliged friends and fellow-countrymen, 

"NT A ttt't A ppt -i7TT>Ar ) Chairman pro tempore of the 
Hi A 1 H L 2i.rrL.Ll OxM , j Committee of Donations. 

Mr. Parker Quince, at Newport. 

Boston, Sept. 1th, 1774. 

It gives me pleasure to find my small endeavors have 
met with your approbation, and you may rest assured that 
the inhabitants of North Carolina, so far as their senti- 
ments could be had at the time I left the Province, beheld 
with abhorrence the distresses brought on this Town and 
country, by the oppressive Port Bill and others, and unan- 
imously resolved to aid and assist, to the utmost of their 
power, their suffering brethren in Boston, and to join 

Letter from Marblehead. 29 

heartily with all the Colonies in seeking redress of their 
common grievances. 

T am, Gentlemen, your most obliged and very humble 

Parker Quince. 

To the Committee of Donations. 


Marblehcad, July 30th, 1774. 

The unrighteous conduct of the British Parliament 
toward the Town of Boston, in the detested Port Bill, 
merits not only the attention, but the warmest resentment of 
all America ; and it is with the most cordial satisfaction we 
view the greatest part thereof attending to the deplorable 
consequences of it, and at the same time unitedly endeavor- 
ing to counteract. But, above all, we cannot but express 
our sincere approbation of the conduct of the Colonies in 
that beneficence and charity towards the unhappy sufferers 
at Boston, (by means of that oppressive act,) which has 
circulated through the whole. The inhabitants of this 
Town, whose circumstances are at present greatly impaired 
by a reduction of the fishery, as well as distresses arising 
from the small-pox, beg leave, like the widow, to cast in 
our mite, which, please to favor by a kind and friendly 
acceptance of the same. The donation consists of 224 
quintals of good eating fish, such as our inhabitants all of 
them use, except those whose circumstances afford them 
winter fish, — the price of this, if you should have occasion 
to turn into cash, is 1*3/4 at least at this time, and usually 
has been at 14/8 per quintal ; one and f casks of olive oil, 
one of which we presume you have received ere this can 
meet you, and thirty-nine pounds, Hxc shillings and three- 
pence in cash. In justice to the characters of some who 
signed the address to Mr. Hutchinson, and were probably 
misled in that matter, we must acquaint you that Messrs. 
Joseph Lee, Jno. Prince, Robert Ambrose, Ilobert Hooper, 
Junr., and Joseph Swasey, were subscribers to the dona- 

30 Reply to Marblehead. 

tions of this Town before mentioned. We truly wish wei 
could say that the other barely refused subscribing to so 
rational and humane a purpose, but we forbear to pursue 
so disagreeable a subject, and shall conclude by wishing: 
you that support under a burthen (which our enemies 
thought at first view intolerable) which shall finally free 
America from its present bondage. 

We are, Gentlemen, your friends and fellow-countrymen. 
By order and in behalf of the Committee of Correspondence, 

John Gerry, Clerk. 

P. S. — We would also inform you that we find two more 
of the addressers subscribers to the donations, viz. Messrs. 
John Webb and John Stimson, and that the carters who 
bring this donation most generously do it at half price. 

We are, as before, Gentlemen, your friends and fellow- 
countrymen. By order and in behalf of the Committee, 

J. Gerry, Clerk. 


Boston, August 2d, 1774. 

The Committee for Donations yesterday received your 
kind letter, by the hands of Mr. Gatchel, acquainting them 
of the very generous present made to the sufferers in this 

1 The Boston Gazette of August 1, 1774, has the following- article: — "More 
than sixty days have expired, since Boston, by a late Edict of the British Par- 
liament, has been besieged by a British fleet and army, and its trade annihi- 
lated. The inhabitants now receive that insult and damage, which was never 
experienced in the hottest wars we have been engaged in with France and 
Spain, and their allies, the savages of the American woods : The particulars of 
the siege, and the manoeuvres of our enemies, may in future be told by some 
able historian. Suffice it at present to inform the world, that though wood and 
provisions have been allowed us by said Port-Act, the introduction of these 
articles has been attended with such loss of time and unnecessary charges as 
greatly to raise the price of fuel upon the poor inhabitants : No wood can now 
be brought from the rivers and bays included in our harbor, upon which we 
depended for a considerable part of our supply : No goods of any kind are suf- 
fered to be waterborne within a circle of sixty miles : No timber, boards, shin- 
gles, bricks, lime, sand, &c. &c, are to be transported from one wharf to another; 
and so even the tradesmen, not immediately dependent upon shipping, are thrown 
out of business. No barrels of liquors, bread, flour, &c. are suffered to be 
brought a few rods in our row boats, or across our shortest ferries ; and even the 

Reply to Marblehead. 31 

Town by the unrighteous and cruel Act of the British 
Parliament, commonly called the Port Bill. They had 
before received one barrel of olive oil. Mr. Gatchel de- 
livered them £39 Is. 3d. in cash, and this clay the fish in 
eleven carts, and the remainder of the oil came to hand. 
I am desired by that Committee to express their warmest 
gratitude to the gentlemen of Marblehead, who have so 
liberally contributed on this occasion, and to assure them 
that it will be applied in a manner agreeable to the inten- 
tion of the charitable donors. 

It was in all probability the expectation of Lord North, the 
sister Colonies would totally disregard the fate of Boston, 
and that she would be left to suffer and fall alone. Their 
united resolution, therefore, to support her in the conflict, 
will, it is hoped, greatly perplex him in the further prose- 
cution of his oppressive measures, and finally reduce him to 
the necessity of receding from them. While we are thus 
aided by our brethren, you may depend upon it that we 
shall not disgrace the common cause of America, by any 
submissions to the barbarous edict. Our inhabitants still 
wear cheerful countenances, and they will be supported 
by the beneficence of our friends, notwithstanding one 
of your addressers meanly, insinuated to a gentleman 
of South Carolina, at Salem, yesterday, that they would 
receive no benefit from the large donation of rice re- 
ceived from that place. Such an intimation discovers a 
degree of depravity of heart which cannot easily be ex- 

vessels on the stocks, which have for some time past been ready for launching, 
cannot be put into the water, without their being exposed to a threatened seizure. 
Neither is the dry'd table fish and oil, the charity of our Marblehead friends, nor 
rice, the generous present of the Carolinians, nor even house-sand, to be brought 
us by water, but must be encumbered with the great charge of about thirty 
miles. We are also cut off from the advantage and profit of supplying as usual 
an extent of sea-coast on the north and south of more than one hundred leagues, 
even with British merchandise. And when any of these hardships and distresses 
are mentioned to those insolents in office, the Commissioners and their under- 
strappers, we are told it was the design of the Act, and that it is not their intent 
to lessen these difficulties : — This is the treatment meted out by a British min- 
ister to a Town and Province, by whose exertions in a late war, the strong for- 
tress of Louisburgh was taken, which purchased the Peace of Europe, and deliv- 
ered Britons from their terrible apprehensions of an invasion by French flat- 
tjottomod boats. What, further cruelties we are to suffer wo know not ; but 
whether America, or even this single Town, is in this way to be brought to the 
feet of Lord North, with the full surrender of their inestimable rights and liber- 
tics, time only can determine.— Ed. 

32 Letter from New Castle. 

pressed. I have received a letter from your [Committee T\ j 
to our Committee of Correspondence, which I shall lay!; 
before them at their meeting this evening. 

I am, in behalf of the Committee of Donations, Gentle-"'; 
men, your friend and fellow-countryman, 

Sam. Adams. 

P. S. Mr. Phillips, a carter, with about fifteen quintals! 
of fish and the remainder of the oil, is not yet come in, but ! 
is expected every hour. 

The Committee of Correspondence at Marblehead. 


New Castle-on-Delaivare, Aug. 2d, 1774. 

The Committee of Correspondence chosen by the free- 
holders and freemen of the County of Newcastle-upon-Del- 
aware, agreeable to a resolution entered into at a general 
meeting for the said County, have opened a subscription for 
the relief of the poor inhabitants of the Town of Boston, 
and met with some success therein ; but as some of the 

1 The "Gentlemen Freeholders and others," of the County of New Castle, Del- 
aware, were summoned by a circular, dated June 17, 1774, and signed " A Free- 
man," to meet at New Castle on the 29th of June, " to consider of the most 
proper mode of procuring- relief for our dear countrymen and brethren of Boston, 
the redressing the beforementioned grievance, (the legislation of Parliament,) 
&c." The meeting on the 29th of June, was presided over by Thomas McKean ; 
and by the first resolve it is declared, " We consider our brethren of Boston as 
suffering in the common cause of America." A Committee of Correspondence 
of thirteen were chosen, who were instructed as follows : " That the said Com- 
mittee immediately set on foot a subscription for the relief of such poor inhab- 
itants of the Town of Boston as may be deprived of the means of subsistence 
by the Act of Parliament, commonly styled the Boston Port Bill ; the money arising 
from such subscription to be laid out as the Committee shall think will best an- 
swer the ends proposed." On the 20th of July, the inhabitants of Kent county 
met at Dover, and adopted the above cited resolve. On the 23d of July, the 
inhabitants of Sussex county met at Lewistown, and passed resolves, among which 
is the following: "Resolved, That the Committee hereinafter appointed, are hereby 
desired to receive the subscriptions of such charitable persons in this county, 
who shall incline to contribute towards the distressed and suffering inhabitants 

Letter from New Castle. 33 

inhabitants, as well as the Committee, are apprehensive that 
more provisions may be sent to you than may be wanted 
for the purpose intended, and money or raw materials might 
answer better, we are desirous, before any remittance is 
made, to know your sentiments hereon. The Committees 
of Correspondence for the Counties of Kent and Sussex, 
have adopted the same measures with us, and expect your 
answer also. If you are pleased to inclose your letters for 
them to us, we shall take care to forward them. 

We shall be greatly obliged to you, to furnish us with 
an estimate of the number of poor inhabitants in your 
Town, who may be distressed by means of the humane Bos- 
ton Port Bill, and what sum might be necessary to relieve 
them annually. 

We are, Gentlemen, with the utmost regard, your fellow- 
subjects and brethren, the Committee of Correspondence 
for the County of Newcastle, 

And your most obedient, humble servants, 

Thomas McKean. 
John Evans. 
John McKinly. 
James Latimer. 
George Head. 
Alex'r Porter. 
George Monro. 

The Committee of Correspondence for the Town of Boston. 

of the Town of Boston ; and that the money raised by such subscriptions be dis- 
posed of by the said Committee for the use of the said" inhabitants, whom we con- 
sider as suffering in the common cause of America." 

On the 1st of August, the Committees of the three Counties, pursuant to a 
Circular Letter from the Speaker of the House, met at New Castle, in Conven- 
tion. Caesar Rodney was the Chairman. On the 2d of August, the Convention 
passed a series of resolutions, one of which was the following: — "That it is the 
indispensable duty of all the Colonies, not only to alleviate the unexampled dis- 
tresses of our brethren of Massachusetts Bay, who are suffering in the common 
cause of America, but to assist them, by all lawful means, in removing their griev- 
ances, and for re-establishing their constitutional rights, as well as those of all 
America, on a solid and permanent foundation." 

A County Convention, held at New Castle, on the 21st of December, "Re- 
solved, unanimously. That contributions from this County, for supplying the 
necessities and alleviating the distresses of our brethren in Boston, ought to be 
continued in such manner and so long as their occasions may require ; and that 
it is the duty of the Committee of Correspondence of the said County, to collect 
and transmit the same as soon as possible." — Ed. 

4tii s. — vol. iv. 5 

34 Reply to New Castle. 


Boston, August 25th, 1774. 


Your favor of 2d instant came to the hands of the 
Committee of Correspondence this week, and was by them'! 
handed to the Committee of Donations for an answer. 

The state of this once flourishing and highly favored i| 
metropolis, is truly affecting, and we may say alarming ; 
for Boston, though first struck at and oppressed, will hardly ' 
be the only Town, or Massachusetts the only Province, that I 
shall feel the weight of ministerial vengeance. The Town] 
really feels it at this present time, as it already hath almost 
three months, but, through the goodness of our God, who - 
has all hearts in his hand, and can encourage and strength- j 
en, or depress and intimidate as he pleaseth, we remain 
firm and undaunted, and through the kind influence of the 
same Infinite goodness and Almighty power, we shall go 
on and persevere, until we, though more immediate suffer- 
ers, and all our friends and brethren on this widely extended j 
continent, shall reap the fruits, the happy fruits of our 
faith and patience, our zeal and firmness in the glorious 
cause of truth, righteousness and freedom. 

It seems somewhat difficult for us to determine whether ' 
the oppression and cruelty of the Boston Port Bill, or the i 
Christian sympathy and liberality of our dear friends and i 
countrymen, (particularly in New Castle,) be most affecting. . 
We must sum up what we have to offer on this head by 
saying, that you have greatly refreshed our spirits, and ! 
strengthened our hands, and we hope we shall not do any 
thing that shall incur a forfeiture of the love, confidence 
and affection of our brethren in New Castle and elsewhere. , 
Your letter lays us under an additional obligation, by an 
implicit offer to furnish us with cash or raw materials, after 
having heard from us. ' Tis a well known saying, that 
" money answers all things ;" and yet, so it happens, some- 
times, that some particular articles cannot be had for money. 
Either cash, iron, hemp or flax, may be sent, as our friends 
shall find most convenient. It is not easy, on first thought, 
nor indeed after considerable inquiry, to say with any 

Letter to Kent Count*/. 3S 

degree of precision, what may be " the number of poor 
inhabitants distressed by means of the Boston Port Bill, 
and what sum might be necessary to relieve them annn- 

Tims much we can say, that before the Port Bill, the 
annual charge for support of the Towns poor was about 
twenty-four hundred pounds, our lawful money. But the 
number of the poor, by means of the humane Port Bill, is 
doubtless increased in a twofold, if not threefold propor- 
tion, and considerable numbers, who, three months ago, 
Jived very comfortably, arc now spending on the little they 
had laid up against a rainy day, but have not yet made 
their cases known. 

"We have not time to add, save to request your acceptance 
of our most grateful acknowledgments for such expressions 
of benevolence and generosity ; and that you will daily 
supplicate the throne of grace, that God would show us 
his mercy, and cause us to rejoice in his great salvation. 

We are, with great esteem, Gentlemen, 

Your much obliged, humble servants, 

Dayid Jeffries, per order. 

P. S. — You will please to transcribe so much of this 
letter, and forward our brethren of Kent and Sussex Coun- 
ties, as you may think proper. 

To Thomas McKean, Esqr., and others, 

Committee of Correspondence for New Castle. 

— - 1169692 


Boston, August 2oth, 1774. 

A very kind, affectionate, sympathizing letter from the 
Committee of Correspondence for New Castle, Delaware, 
dated August 2d inst, has this week come to hands of the 
Committee of Donations, through the Committee of Corres- 
pondence for this Town, to w r hom said letter w r as directed. 
The Committee of Delaware write that " the Committee of 

36 Letter to Kent County. 

Correspondence for the Counties of Kent and Sussex," 
have adopted the same measures with them, and expect our 
answers also ; and, that if we are pleased to inclose our 
letters for you, to them, they shall take care to forward 

As we are straitened for time, we hope you will excuse 
us if we refer you in part to our letter to said Committee 
for Newcastle, Delaware, and transcribe some part nearly 
of what we wrote to them, as follows : Your letter lays us 
under an additional obligation, by an implicit offer to fur- 
nish us with cash or raw material, after having learned from 
us. ' Tis a well known saying, that " money answers all 
things," and yet, so it happens, sometimes, that some articles 
cannot be had for money. Either cash, iron, hemp, or flax, 
may be sent, as our friends shall find most convenient. It 
is not easy to say, with any degree of precision, what may 
be the " number of poor inhabitants distressed by means 
of the Boston Port Bill, and what sum may be necessary 
to relieve them annually." 

Thus much we can say, that before the Port Bill, the 
annual charges for support of the Town's poor,' were about 
twenty-four hundred pounds, lawful money, but the number 
of poor by means of the humane Port Bill, is doubtless in- 
creased in a twofold, if not threefold proportion, and, con- 
siderable numbers who three months ago lived very com- 
fortably, are now spending on the little they had laid up 
against a rainy day, but have not made their cases known. 

We have not time to add, save to request your acceptance 
of our most grateful acknowledgment for such expressions 
of benevolence and generosity ; and that you will daily 
supplicate the throne of grace, that God would show us 
his mercy, and cause us to rejoice in his great salvation. 

We are, with great esteem, Gentlemen, 

Your much obliged, humble servant, 

David Jeffries, per order. 
To the Committee of Correspondence for the County of Kent. 

N. B. — A copy of this letter was sent to the County of 
Sussex, on Delaware. 

Letter to Brookjield. 31 


Boston, August 3rf, 1774. 


The Committee appointed by this Town to receive 
donations for the relief of our poor, suffering by the 

shutting up this port, have this day received by the hands 
of Mr. Roger Willington, Si Imshels of rye and 10 bushels 
Indian corn, as a donation from several gentlemen of 
Brookfield ; but as we received no letter advising us who 
we are particularly obliged to for this kind present, we 
take this opportunity to request you will please to return 
the sincere thanks of this Town to all those Gentlemen 
that contributed towards this donation. We esteem it a 
confirmation of that union and friendship which subsists 
at this time, and is of the utmost importance to secure 
the rights and liberties of this Province and indeed of all 
America. We shall endeavor to distribute the donations 
of our friends to the best advantage to promote industry 
and harmony in this Town. Wishing you the rewards 
that attend the generous, 

We are, with great respect and gratitude, Sir, your 
friends and servants, 

Sam. Adams. 

Mr. Joseph Gilbert, of Broolcjield. 


Boston, August 3c/, 1774. 

You are desired by the Committee of the Town of 
Boston, appointed to receive and distribute the donations 
for the employment and relief of the sufferers by the Bos- 
ton Port Bill, to ship one hundred casks of the rice ship- 
ped from South Carolina for that purpose, now at Salem, 
to this Town, and to sell the remainder, or any part of it, 
for cash, if you can, at a suitable price. 

By order of the Committee, 

Edw'd L'd Sanders, Clerk. 
Capt. Fortisque Verizon, and Mr. Thomas Crafts, Jun. 

38 Letter from Baltimore. 


Baltimore, Aug. 4:th, 1774. 

By order of the Committee of Correspondence for this ij 
Town, we have shipped on board the sloop America, Per- 
kins Allen, master, three thousand bushels of corn, twenty 
barrels of rye flour, two barrels of pork, and twenty barrels \ 
of bread, for the relief of our brethren, the distressed in- 
habitants of your Town, being in virtue of a subscription 
raised by the inhabitants of Baltimore Town, on that 

1 In Maryland, the intelligence of the passage of the Port Bill, excited general 
indignation. On the 18th of May, at a meeting of " a number of gentlemen " 
at Talbot Court House, it was resolved to unite with their fellow-subjects in any j 
constitutional way " to avert the evils " threatened Boston, by this Act. On the 
25th of May, a meeting of " the inhabitants of the city of Annapolis," resolved 
" it was the unanimous opinion of this meeting, that the Town of Boston is now 
suffering in the common cause of America." Charles Carroll, William Paca, 
and Samuel Chase, were of the Committee chosen at this meeting. 

Public meetings were subsequently held in all the Counties. On the 30th of 
May, the inhabitants of Queen Anne's County declared " that they look upon the 
cause of Boston, in its consequences, to be the common cause of America." On 
the 2d of June, the inhabitants of Kent County, met at Chestertown ; chose 
a large Committee of Correspondence ; and directed this Committee to select 
delegates to meet the delegates from the other Counties, " in one grand Provin- 
cial Committee" at Annapolis. The official account of this meeting reads: — 
" The gentlemen of the Committee, being moved with the most tender sympathy 
for their suffering brethren of Boston, particularly of the laboring poor, who are 
deprived of the means of supporting themselves and families, by the operation of 
the Act for blocking up their harbor, opened a subscription for their relief, which 
in a short time was filled up to a considerable amount, and is left in the hands of 
the chairman to be collected and shipped to them in such articles of provisions as 
may be most wanted, whenever it shall be necessary." At a meeting of the 
inhabitants of Harford County, on the 11th of June, it was " Voted, That we will 
join in an association of the other Counties, to send relief to the poor and dis- 
tressed inhabitants of Boston, to enable them firmly to persevere in defence of 
the common cause." 

The Essex Gazette of June 27, contains the following extract from a letter 
written by a member of the Chestertown Committtee, dated 7th June, 1774 : — 
" The Inhabitants of this County had a general meeting the second instant, and 
it gave much pleasure to see how heartily they sympathized with Boston. 
Twenty-five gentlemen were appointed a Committee of Correspondence, among 
whom I have the honor to be named. After the business was over, a subscription 
was proposed to the Committee, which was most cheerfully adopted, and they 
subscribed, some £20, others £10, and none less than £5, to be laid out in pro- 
visions, and forwarded for the use of such poor people as are reduced to necessity 
by the cruel hand of oppression. My advice was to send off a load of corn, 
without giving any notice of it, which I concluded would be an agreeable sur- 
prise to Boston. Words are said to be cheap, but it is universally allowed, that 

Letter from Baltimore, ;>!) 

Tn the l)ill of lading for said articles, is also included 

one thousand bushels of corn, which wo have purchased 
and shipped for the same account, on the strength of a 
subscription now making by the inhabitants of Annapolis, 
which a gentleman of their Committee has assured us 
should be paid to us, when their collections are made. As 
there was spare room in the vessel, we were glad of an 
opportunity of furthering to you a part of their benevolent 
intentions. We flatter ourselves the good people of this 
Province, who have in general discovered a hearty disposi- 
tion to sympathy in your grievances, will generously con- 
tribute, according to their articles, to maintain and support 

when a man parts with his money, he is in earnest. Subscription papers are sent 
out into the country, and I dare say will be filled up to a large amount. Those 
who cannot give money, can give corn. The people of Boston need not be 
afraid of being starved to a compliance. If they will only give a short notice, 
they may make their Town the granary of America. We all hope they will 
stand to their integrity, and not sully the honor which they have so justly 

The Committees appointed by the several Counties of Maryland, met at 
Annapolis, ninety-two in number, on the 2'2d of June, and chose Matthew 
Tilgham chairman. The proceedings of this Convention appear at length in the 
Essex Gazette of July 11), under the head of, " Resolves of the whole Province 
of Maryland." The first resolve declares, " that the Town of Boston and Prov- 
ince of Massachusetts are now suffering in the common cause of America." 
The eighth resolve is as follows : " Resolved, unanimously. That a subscription 
be opened in the several Counties of this Province, for an immediate collection 
for the relief of the distressed inhabitants of Boston, now cruelly deprived of the 
means of procuring subsistence for themselves and families, by the operation of 
the said Act for blocking up their harbor, and that the same be collected by the 
Committees of the respective Counties, and shipped by them in such provisions 

i may be thought most useful." 

The following letter, taken from Force's Archives, vol. i. p. 504, purports to be 
| From the Committee of Boston, to the Committee of Baltimore." 

Boston, Juhj Id, 1774. 

Gentlemen : — Your important letter of the 27th ultimo, with the inclosures, 
came safe to hand, and were regarded as " good news from a far country." The 
part taken by the Province of Maryland, must henceforth stop the mouths of 
those blasphemers of humanity, who have affected to question the existence of 
public virtue. So bright an example as you have set, cannot fail to animate and 
encourage even the lukewarm and indifferent ; more especially such honest men 
as wish to be assured of support before they engage in so weighty an enterprise. 

The account you give us of the spirit and magnanimity of the people of Vir- 
ginia, confirms us in the opinion we have ever had of that ancient Colony, of 
whose disinterested virtue this Province has had ample experience. The noble 
sacrifice you stand ready to make, of the staple commodity of your Province, so 
materially affecting the revenue of Great Britain, and your generous interposi- 
tion in onr favor, have our warmest acknowledgments. So much honor, wis- 
dom, public and private virtue ; so much readiness in every Colony, to afford 
every species of aid and assistance that the suffering state requires, must evince 

40 Letter from Baltimore. 

every sufferer in your and their common cause. If we can 
be in the least instrumental in furthering any contributions 
made in favor of your inhabitants, it will give us the most 
sincere pleasure, and some opportunity of exercising the 
grateful sense of many obligations which, as individuals, we 
are under to many good people of your Province. We are, 
with the highest respect, 

Gentlemen, your most humble servants, 

Sam'l and Rob't Purviance. 

Committee of Correspondence in the Town of Boston. 

[Per the slocp America, Captain P. Allen.] 

to a venal herd, that notwithstanding they may be utterly unacquainted with the 
meaning of the word patriotism, it has,, however, a substantial existence in North 
America. With the smiles of an all-governing Providence upon the vigorous 
efforts of our inestimable brethren at home and abroad, we promise ourselves a 
final deliverance from the calamities we are now subjected to ; and which, for 
our own, our country, and posterity's political salvation, we resolve, by God's 
assistance, to sustain with fortitude and patience. 

We are, Gentlemen, your friends and fellow-countrymen. I 
Signed by order, 

William Cooper, Town Clerk. 

The Essex Gazette of August 16, has the following article, dated Baltimore, 
Maryland, July 16. " A vessel, we hear, hath sailed from the eastern shore of 
this Province, with a cargo of provisions, as a free gift to our besieged brethren 
at Boston. The inhabitants of all the Counties of Virginia and Maryland, are 
subscribing with great liberality for the relief of the distressed Towns of Boston 
and Charlestown. The inhabitants of Alexandria, we hear, in a few hours, sub- 
scribed £350, for that noble purpose. Subscriptions are opened in this Town, 
for the support and animation of the inhabitants of Boston, under their present 
great conflict for the common freedom of us all, which have already been so suc- 
cessful, that a vessel is now loading with provisions for that place, as a testimony 
of the affection of this people towards their persecuted brethren, now bravely 
contending against ' fraud, power, and the most odious oppression,' which God 
grant may never rise triumphant over 'right, justice, social happiness and free- 
dom.' " 

At a meeting of the Deputies appointed by the several Counties of Maryland, 
at Annapolis, on the 8th of December, 1774, it was unanimously "Resolved, 
That contributions from the several Counties of this Province, for supplying the 
necessities and alleviating the distresses of our brethren at Boston, ought to be 
continued in such manner, and so long, as their occasions may require ; and that 
it is the duty of the Committees of each County, to collect and transmit the same 
as soon as possible." And this recommendation was responded to by public 
meetings in some of the Counties. 

The inhabitants of Charles County, on the 2d of January, 1775, directed their 
Committee " to collect the subscriptions already made to the Town of Boston, 
and also to obtain such additional subscriptions for the relief of the brave suf- 
ferers in that distressed Town, as can be got, and that the whole may be made 
in readiness to be sent as soon as possible." — Ed. 

Letter from Beverly. 41 


Beverly, August 8th, 1774. 

We condole you on this important era, and shudder 
when we think on the savage treatment of our metropolis 
llfrom the parent State. Our earnest desire is, that you and 
Ball the inhabitants of Boston may have that fortitude, reso- 
Iftution, firmness and calmness necessary on this most alarm- 
fcng crisis, that you may hold on and hold out to the last. 
jAVe hope you will, from time to time, receive such aids and 
ft I supports from your Christian brethren on the continent, as 
J will both enable and encourage you thereto. We think, 
Gentlemen, as you are placed in the front rank, if you 
flinch, all will be over. Stand firm, and let your intrepid 
courage show the world you are men and Christians, who 
contend earnestly for the liberties once granted to this 
Province by charter. We rejoice to hear there is such a 
spirit prevailing in the country in general, in sending such 
supplies for the poor of Boston, which we doubt not will 
be great consolation to you ; and will continue until a 
redress of all our grievances are obtained. We are waiting 
impatiently for the result of the Congress, which we hope 
will have a happy tendency to cement the Colonies as one 
man, in those ways and means that shall be conducive of 
their freedom, and deliverance from worse than Egyptian 
bondage, — unity being the only means, in our opinion, to 
obtain that happy event. We recommended to our Town 
the case of the poor of the Town of Boston, and they col- 
lected a small donation, which we have sent. We have 
this day met, in town meeting, for the purpose of raising 
money for defraying the expense of the Congress, which 
was voted nem. con., and forthwith to be transmitted to 
the Honorable Tho's Gushing, Esqr., agreeable to the 
resolves of the late House of Representatives. This con- 
duct of our Town, w T e hope, w r ill convince all that we 
are sincerely engaged in the cause of our Constitutional 

4th s. — vol. iv. G 

42 Letter from Lebanon. 

Liberty, and that we shall comply with the result of the 

We are, Gentlemen, your friends and fellow-sufferers ins 
the cause. By order of the Committee of Correspondence, 

Sam'l Goodridge, Clerk. 

P. S. — We have received several letters from you — the 
last bears date, July 26, 1774 — and still desire corres- 

To the Committee of Correspondence for Boston. 


Lebanon, Aug. 8th, 1774. 

The Province of the Massachusetts Bay, and the Town 
of Boston, (in our opinion,) are entitled to the most grate- 
ful thanks of all English America, for the very important 
part they have acted in the first settlement of this country, 
and for their noble and costly exertions, and the copious 
effusion of their blood in its defence, against her innumer- 
able Indian and French enemies. 

The King and nation of Great Britain are also indebted 
to you for the great hand you have had in enlarging the 
dominions of the one, and greatly increasing the beneficial 
commerce of the other, and neither the one, nor the other, 
of those services, would ever have been effected, but by the 
influence of that very spirit of liberty at which the B . . h 
Adm ... on seem so enraged, and are so determined to 
crush. You have borne your burdens and struggles with- 
out their aid, with the instruments of culture in one hand, 
and the weapons of war in the other, for necessary defence 
while laboring for daily bread, and subduing the rugged 
soil. Your toils and your perils would have been abso- 
lutely insupportable, but for the all-cheering influence of 
the heaven-born maid, that spirit and thirst of religious 
and civil liberty, which inspired your and our fathers with 
divine enthusiasm to attempt, (and blessed be the Lord who 

Letter from Lebanon. 43 

enabled them,) to accomplish the wonders which our eyes 


You had the most cogent reasons to believe that a nation 
renowned throughout the world for its strong and inviolable 
attachments to, and manly struggles in defence of liberty, 
would never suffer that inestimable jewel, for which they 
themselves have shod rivers of blood, to be wrested from 
you by the 4 hand of violence, and more especially as it 
would lay a sure foundation for the destruction of their 
own remaining privileges, and for the vast diminution or 
total loss of their immensely beneficial American com- 

Strange also that a K . . possessed of any just and 
humane sentiments, should be so regardless of the merits 
and rights of h . s American, and the interest and welfare 
of his B . . h su . j . ts, as to attempt to rend out of the 
hands of the former, all the fruits of their unparalleled 
sufferings and hardships, for the pleasure of rul . . g over 
the bodies of slaves, instead of rei . . ng in the hearts of 
freemen most willing to be his loy .1 s . b . . ts forever, 
according to the Constitution of his C . . n and K . . m, 
and even at the immense hazard of obtaining by force, at 
most, far less than what the C . . n and K . . m might 
continue to receive by our free consent. 

But such is the astonishing infatuation of the times, that 
the lust of ty . . ny is revived, and risen high in G. B., and 
liberty is to be hunted from the globe and quit the dwell- 
ings of men. 

A more finished and perfect definition and picture of 
D . po . sm cannot be drawn by the skill of man, than is 
portrayed in the famous Declar . . ry B . 11 or A . t of the 

B . . h P t, passed a few years since, nor can that 

be carried into more complete and perfect execution, (save 
in extent of its operation only,) than by that prodigy of 
op . . n and inj . . ce, the Boston Port Bill, and by two 
other Acts dis . . tr . ng the ancient Charter and Constitu- 
tional rights of your Colony. 

Well might the short sighted M . . r think, the blows 
were so sudden and severe, had done the work, and that 
unless blood and dismal carnage prevented, he had effectu- 
ally subjugated you, and that the rest would fall an easy 

44 Letter from Lebanon. 

But he was totally ignorant of your and the virtuous^ 
spirit and knowledge of America, while he confidently 
believed that you would first lie down and kiss his feet, and 
that the rest would patiently see you in that humble pos- 
ture, and deem you solely aimed at, and justly punished fori 
suffering the destruction of private property in your harbor, 
and some paltry wretches to be dressed in tar and feathers. 
But America sees with other eyes, and perfectly knows that 
you are only designed for the first victim in the hecatomb 
of sacrifice to be offered to the G . d of op . . s . on, and 
will not therefore willingly suffer you to bleed at the 
shrine of his brazen altar, until we all bleed and die to- 

This Town, sensible of the extreme distress to which 
multitudes of your innocent, virtuous inhabitants are, must, 
and were intended to be reduced by the aforesaid Act, caus- 
ing an almost total stagnation of business by which they 
procured their daily bread, and as a token of our most 
cordial sympathy, under your unparalleled sufferings in the 
common cause of American liberty, have, by voluntary 
subscriptions, cheerfully sent you, as we compute them, 
three hundred and seventy-six fat sheep for the relief of' 
those who are most unable to support themselves and fam- 
ilies, in your distressed situation, which we hope you will 
receive in good condition by the trusty hands of Capt. 
Elijah Hyde, one of the subscribers, with the friendly 
assistance of Mr. Titus Richardson and Eben'r West. We 
have also on hand, for the same purpose, which could 
not be now conveniently sent, about or near the value of 
thirty pounds, lawful money, which we shall soon send in 
beef cattle. We dare also encourage you to expect that 
this Town will repeat their quota of assistance, as long as 
your distresses continue, and we have any property at our 
own disposal. 

We earnestly wish you to hold on, and hold out, in 
the virtuous resolution and firmness which inspired your 
fathers, and are conspicuous in you, and to wait and hope, 
in a prudent and a patient use of proper means, and with 
a truly religious trust in God, for his salvation, whose 
wonders for us have heretofore been marvelous in our 



Letter from Norwich. tfl 

We arc, Gentlemen, with tender feelings for your cruel 
) r bufferings in the best and most important cause, its hearty 
(friends, and yours, with great esteem, 

Wm. Williams, 
Velch Williams, 
Jon a. Trumbull, Jun'r. 
Elijah Hyde, Jun'r. 
James Pennio, Jun'r. 
Pelatiaii Marsh, 

P. S. — The doings of our town meeting the 18th of July, 
in consequence of which our small collection is made, 
being inserted in the New London Gazette of the next 
week, we beg leave to refer you [to] that, if it should be 
thought worthy of your attention. 

As you have printed some letters, &c., if any of this 
should be thought worthy of notice, (which we don't de- 
sire,) and as the issue of things is not absolutely certain, 
and this town the residence of the Governor, &c, please 
to let it stand as anonymous, and be entire, ending with 
" bleed and die together." The remainder you may do 
with as you please. 

To John Scollay, Esq., Hon, John Hancock, Esq., and the rest 
of the Selectmen of the Town of Boston. 


Norwich, August, 1774. 

We received your kind favor of 11th ult., subscribed 
by S. Adams, in your behalf, in answer to ours respecting 
the small donation proposed by the inhabitants of this 
Town, for the employment or relief of such inhabitants of 
the Town of Boston as may become sufferers by means of 
the Boston Port Bill, part of which we now forward you 
per Messrs. Bishop, Call, Lefnngwell, and Bishop, being 
two hundred and ninety-one sheep, which [wc] wish safe 
to hand. "What other collections may be made, shall for- 
ward hereafter. We should be glad to know, as nearly as 

46 Reply to Norwich. 

may be, the true state of affairs with you, (especially) if 
any thing materially different from what we see published 
in the weekly papers ; and that you would write us per 
return of the gentlemen who drive the sheep. 

We are, with much esteem, Gentlemen, your assured 
friends and fellow-countrymen, in behalf of the Committee, \ 

Christo. Leffingwell. 

To William Phillips, Esq., Merchant, Boston. 


Boston, August 21th, 1774. 

Your letter, with the two hundred and ninety-one 
sheep, were received safely, and met with a very hearty 
welcome. We have good reason to think that our oppres- 
sors begin to see their mistake, and that they will ere long 
be convinced that Americans are not to be fritted or 
wheedled out of their rights. The arm of a tyrant is never 
supported by justice, and therefore must fall. Mr. Gage is 
executing the late Acts of Parliament, in their several 
branches, to the best of his ability. He is furnished with 
a council who will be careful (as their existence depends on 
the will of his master) to study his inclination, and to act 
every thing in conformity to his pleasure. We don't 
expect justice from them, and have no hopes that they will 
be guided by the laws of equity, or the dictates of con- 
science. Certainly men who will serve such an adminis- 
tration as the present, and suffer themselves to be promoted 
at the expense of the charter of their country, must be 
destitute of every idea of right, and ready instruments to 
introduce abject slavery. Mr. Gage may issue his precepts, 
and his council may sanctify them, his juries may give ver- 
dicts, and an unconstitutional and venal bench may pass 
judgments, but what will this avail, unless the people will 
acquiesce in them. If the people think them unconstitu- 
tional, of what importance are their determinations. Solus 
populi supremo lex esto, is a precious old maxim. The 
ministry have forgot it, but the people are determined to 
remember it. 

Letter from Groton. 47 

We consider a suspension of trade through the continent 
with Great Britain, Ireland, and the West Indies, as the 
grand machine that will deliver us. If this should fail, 
we must then have recourse to the last resort. As yet we 
^ have been preserved from action with the soldiery, and we 
shall endeavor to avoid it until we see that it is necessary, 
and a settled plan is fixed on for that purpose. The late 
Acts of Parliament are such gross infringements on us, 
that our consciences forbid us to submit to them. We 
think it is better to put up with some inconvenience, and 
pursue with patience the plan of commercial opposition, 
as it will be more for the honor and interest of the conti- 
nent, as well as more consistent with the principles of 
humanity and religion. 

Mr. Gage finds himself very unequal to the task that 
is set him, and is at a loss for measures. He sees and is 
astonished at the spirit of the people. He forbids their 
town meetings, and they meet in counties. If he prevents 
county meetings, we must call provincial meetings, and if 
he forbid these, we trust that our worthy brethren on the 
continent, and especially of the Town of Norwich, in Con- 
necticut, will lend us their helping arms in time of danger, 
and will be no less conspicuous for their fortitude than they 
now are for their generosity. 

We have nothing important to inform you of besides 
what you see in the public papers. Should any thing 
worthy your notice take place, we shall gladly communi- 
cate it to you. 

We are, Gentlemen, 

Your grateful friends and humble servants, 

T rkCT ^, T)T r W\t>t?t?xt S Per order the Com- 
J US.b-F.ri VV AKK.L1N , j m i ttee f Donations. 

To the Gentlemen, the Committee of the Town of Norwich. 


Groton in Connecticut, lOth August, 1774. 

You have here inclosed, the Resolutions of this Town, 
which were unanimously agreed to. The inhabitants are 

4:8 Letter from Groton. 

truly patriotic, and firmly fixed to assist and support their 
American brethren against all attacks made on the liberties 
of our Constitution. We, their Committee of Correspond- 
ence, have authority to assure you that the cause in which 
you are now suffering (under the tyranny of an unprece- 
dented and cruel Act of Parliament) is here considered, 
universally, as an attack upon us all, though the vengeance 
of the present ministry is levied particularly at your Port 
and Province at this time. It gives us particular satisfac- 
tion to find so great a majority of true friends to iVmerican 
freedom in your patriotic Town, and that you persevere 
with such fortitude, under the persecuting hand of tyranny. 
It must be some alleviation, in your distress, to find your 
brethren in this and the other sister Colonies contributing 
to the relief of the indigent with you. We flatter our- 
selves no Colony will extend their liberality to you to ex- 
ceed this, and it is with real satisfaction, we have the 
pleasure to inform you that the worthy inhabitants of this 
Town have subscribed to pay and deliver to us, sufficient 
to purchase one hundred and twenty fat sheep, and six fat 
cattle, to be forwarded to the Selectmen or Overseers of 
the Poor with you, to be by them distributed as their pru- 
dence shall direct. We shall therefore be glad to be in- 
formed at what time it will be most convenient for your 
people to receive said donation, which shall be sent you on 
advice. We promise ourselves (from many of the char- 
acters we see appointed to compose the intended Congress) 
that the most salutary plan will be recommended, and by 
us all religiously adhered to, which cannot fail to procure 
us relief from the oppression we are attacked and threat- 
ened with — as some with you, no doubt, would gladly sug- 
gest and propagate that Doct. Johnson, not accepting that 
important trust when he was appointed thereto, was that 
he disapproved of the method for redress we are pursuing. 
To give you authority to contradict such evil and ill- 
grounded insinuations, if any, we here inclose you the copy 
of a Letter one of your Committee lately received from the 
Clerk of our Colony's Committee of Correspondence, set- 
ting that matter in its true light. 

The Committee of Correspondence have since appointed 
the Hon. Poger Sherman, Esq. to supply Doctor Johnson's 
place, and in case he cannot attend, Joseph Trumbull, Esq. 


Reply to Groton. 49 

son of his Honor our Governor. We shall always think 
irselyes happy to contribute, to the utmost of our ability, 
whatever may be of service in tin 4 grand cause 1 for which 
we now contend; and it will give us pleasure to correspond 
with you thereon. 

Being with much esteem, Gentlemen, 

Your very obedient, humble servants, 

William Ledyard. 
Thomas Mumford. 
Ben a dam Gallup. 
Amos Prentice. 
Charles Eldridge, Jun'r. 
John Hurl but. 
Amos Geer. 

To the Committee of Correspondence at Boston. 


Boston, August \Zth\ 1774. 

The Committee of Correspondence for this Town, 
handed to us, who are a Committee for receiving Dona- 
tions and employing the suffering poor, by means of the 
Port Bill, your favors of the 10th Last., enclosing Mr. Silas 
Dean s letter, accounting for Dr. Johnson's declining to 
attend the Congress, which gives us satisfaction. And also 
the votes of the Town of Groton, which greatly refresh 
our spirits, and confirm us in our resolutions not tamely to 
resign any of the American rights. But it is our particu- 
lar department to acknowledge, in behalf of this Town, 
our great obligations to our friends of Groton, for their 
generous subscriptions for the relief of our suffering poor, 
whose support must otherwise, at this time of general 
stagnation of business, have fallen extremely heavy upon 
those of property among us. We note your purpose to 
send us one hundred and twenty fat sheep and six fat 

4th s. — VOL. TV. .7 

50 Letter from Brooklyn. 

cattle, and desire to be informed at what time it will be 
most convenient to receive said donation. For answer, we 
would refer the time of receiving this generous and disin- 
terested bounty of our friends, to their own convenience. 

Be assured of our sincere prayers to the Sovereign Dis- 
poser of all events, that our benefactors at Groton and 
elsewhere may forever enjoy the rewards of the virtuous. 

We are, your friends and humble servants, 

Nath'l Appleton. 

William Ledyard, Esqr., of the Committee of Correspondence in 
Groton, Connecticut. 



Brooklyn in Pomfret, August ll^A, 1774. 


With our hearts deeply impressed with the feelings of 
humanity towards our near and dear brethren of Boston, 
who are now suffering under a ministerial, revengeful hand, 
and at the same time full of gratitude to the patriotic in- 
habitants, for the noble stand which they have made against 
all oppressive innovations, and with unfeigned love for all 
British America, who must, if Boston is subjugated, alter- 
nately fall a prey to ministerial ambition, send you one hun- 
dred and twenty-five sheep, as a present from the inhabi- 
tants of the parish of Brooklyn, hoping thereby you may 
be enabled to stand more firm (if possible) in the glorious 
cause in which you are embarked, notwithstanding the 
repeated, unheard of daring attacks, which the British Par- 
liament are making upon the rights which you ought to 
enjoy as English-born subjects ; and if so, we shall of con- 
sequence contribute our mite towards the salvation of 
British America, which is all our ambition. 

In zeal in our country's cause, we are exceeded by none ; 
but our abilities and opportunities do not admit of our 
being of that weight in the American scale as we would to 
God we were. 

Letter from Brooklyn. 5] 

We mean, in the first place, to attempt to appease the 
fire (raised by your committing the India Tea to the watery 
element as a merited oblation to Neptune) of an ambitious 
and vindictive 4 minister, by the blood of rams and of lambs ; 
if that do not answer the end, we arc 4 ready to march in the 
Tan, and to sprinkle the American altars with our hearts' 
blood, if occasion should be. 

The latent seeds of destruction which arc implanted in 
the constitution of almost every state or empire, have 
grown in England, in these last nine years, with amazing 
rapidity, and now are mature for harvest ; and ere long we 
shall see reapers flocking from all parts of Europe, who 
will sweep their fields with the besom of destruction. 
This thought occasions a cloud of melancholy to arise in 
the breast of every descendant from Britain, which is only 
dissipated by the pleasing prospect every American has 
before him ! Here we have an unbounded, fertile country, 
worth contending for with blood ! Here bribery and cor- 
ruption, which are certain forebodings of a speedy dissolu- 
tion, are as yet only known by names. To us, ere long, 
Britain's glory will be transferred, where it will shine with 
accumulated brilliancy. 

We cannot but rejoice with you, on account of the union 
and firmness of the Continent. The public virtue now 
exhibited by the Americans, exceeds all of its kind that 
can be produced in the annals of the Greeks and Romans. 
Behold them from North to South, from East to West, 
striving to comfort the Town of Boston, both by publishing 
their sentiments in regard to the present tyrannical admin- 
istration, ai .1 by supporting their poor with provision, w r ho, 
otherwise, in this present stagnation of business, would 
have reduced the opulent to a state of penury and despair 
in a short time. 

You are held up as a spectacle to the whole world. All 
Christendom are longing to see the event of the American 
contest. And do, most noble citizens, play your part man- 
fully, of which, we make no doubt, your names are either 
to be held in eternal veneration, or execration. If you 
stand out, your names cannot be too much applauded 
by all Europe, and all future generations, which is the 

52 Reply to Brooklyn. 

hearty desire and wish of us, who are, with utmost respect, 
your most obedient and humble servants. 

Israel Putnam, } Committee of Corres- 
Joseph Holland, > pondence for the 
Daniel Tyler, Jr. ) Parish of Brooklyn. 

To Samuel Adams, Esq., Chairman to the Committee of Corres- 
pondence, Boston. 

[Per favor Colonel Putnam.] 


Boston, 22d August, 1774. 

The unexampled charity and munificence with which 
this distressed Town hath been treated by their brethren of 
the continent, must strike Europe with astonishment, as it 
doth our enemies with dismay. And if the fatal day arrives 
when tyranny shall ride triumphant, and corruption per- 
vade the American States, our posterity also will look on 
the history of these times with an eye of infidelity. 

The hearts of our poor have been made to sing for joy, 
and the blessings of those who were ready to perish resteth 
upon you. Our gratitude to you, Gentlemen, and the rest 
of our many kind benefactors, will best be shown by a 
perseverance and fixedness in the great cause of truth, 
religion, God, and posterity. In the mean time, accept 
our thanks, as an earnest of our sincere gratitude and firm 

We felicitate you, Gentlemen, that in your region brib- 
ery and corruption are as yet only mere names. Alas, with 
us, they walk in darkness, and waste at noonday. They 
are not only in the secret recesses of cowardly conspira- 
tors, but in the high places of elevated malefactors. When- 
ever a revenue-chest, a board of commissioners, and a band 
of pensioners, civil, military and ecclesiastical, shall be 
stationed in your happy land, you will then realize the 
public calamity and danger of this oppressed people. 

Our trials and temptations are many and great. You 
have cherished us by your bounty, instructed us by your 

Letter from Preston. 53 

id vice, and supported us by your strongest influence. Tf 
we shall be pushed to a yet greater extremity, your senti- 
ments arc 1 perfectly just, that, " If Boston is subjugated, 
all British America must fall." This sentiment cannot be 
spread too far and wide. It ought to be inculcated in sea- 
son and out of season. The yoke of bondage is laid upon 
pur necks ; a yoke which neither we nor our fathers have 
borne. In matters of civil liberty and public oppression, 
all delay is fatal ; the times call for very vigorous rem- 
edies. God grant that America may never see one Prov- 
ince after another plundered, slaughtered and ravaged with 

We have the greater number of malignants of any one 
town on the continent, arising from the causes before 
hinted. But yet a few, very few comparatively, bowed 
the knee to Baal. A glorious number, we yet trust, will 
buckle their hearts to the breastplate, and join hand with 
the lance, before they will give up their birthright and the 
oodly heritage of our fathers. 

You have stretched out to us the hand of your liberality. 
God reward you a thousand fold. Send up for us the 
ravers of your love ; and may God in mercy answer them 
or good. 

We are your obliged friends and countrymen, 

Nath'l Appleton, per order. 

Israel Putnam, Joseph Holland, Daniel Tyler, Jun. 9 

Committee of Correspondence for the parish of Brooklyn. 


Preston, Aug. 20th, 1774. 

At this period of your suffering, and on the reception 
of your second and third unrighteous Acts of Parliament, 
usurping authority and oppressing your Town and Province, 
thereby furnishing a pretext for ruining all the Colonies, we 
are anxiously looking, that on some indispensable precau- 
tion on your part, some important event will take place. 
We wish you all the wisdom necessary to avoid the blow 

54 Reply to Preston. 

which, through you, is levelled at this whole continent. 
"We have an enemy to deal with, (Lord North,) that is very 
subtle in his wiles, like the enemy of our immortal part. 
It therefore becomes us to be watchful and continually on 
our guard, and there is great reason to fear that nothing 
short of another kind of resistance will regain and secure 
our privileges. Capt. William Belcher, who is one of 
our Committee, and a zealous friend to the liberties of this 
country, waits on you with this, and will acquaint you of 
the spirit of our people and give you a copy of the doings 
of our Town on the 11th of July last. He will also bring 
you a small sum of money, toward the relief of your poor. 
Our subscriptions are still out, and keep adding. They 
are not yet all collected. I suppose we shall, doubtless, 
make up about fifty pounds, lawful money. Our Town is 
small, but well affected in the common cause, and view you 
as now suffering under the tyranny of the English yoke. 
It has given us fresh alarm to hear that arms, &c, are not 
suffered to be brought out of your Town. [We would] be 
be glad [if] you would furnish us with intelligence of any 
new artifice of power, and likewise [of] the behavior of 
your Governor in his common deportment to the people. 

We are, Gentlemen, your affectionate and sympathizing 
friends and countrymen, the Committee of Correspondence 
in behalf of the Town of Preston. 


P. S. — We received your kind letter in answer to ours, 
per Jno. Tyler, Esq. 

To the Committee of Correspondence for the Town of Boston. 


Boston, August 24:th, 1774. 

We received by Capt. Belcher, your letter of the 20th, 
and the sum of money you were kind enough to send, for 
the support of our poor. It gives us pleasure, amidst our 
sufferings, to find our brethren determined to assist and 
support us while we are struggling for American freedom. 

Letter from Killingly. 55 

Our enemies, we know, will use every artifice that hell can 
suggest and human power can execute, to enslave us, but 
we are determined not to submit, We choose to effect our 
salvation from bondage by policy, rather than by arms, — 
[considering that the blood of freemen who fight for their 
country, is of more value than the blood of a soldiery who 
Bight for pay. We doubt not but a virtuous continental 
adherence to a non-importation, non-exportation, and non- 
consumption agreement, will produce such changes in 
Britain, as will compel them to give us every thing we 
wish. But if this should fail, and we should be obliged to 
seek redress in the way you have hinted, we flatter ourselves 
that we shall act like men, and merit the approbation of all 
America. The conduct of our adversaries is to us astonish- 
ing. Policy is no more their guide than justice. They 
have shut their eyes against daylight, and if they lead the 
British nation into the pit they have digged for ns, the 
blame must be laid at their own door. The motions of our 
Governor are like those of other machines — they move as 
they are directed. He is clad in the garb of ministerial 
instructions, and has declared his determination implicitly 
to obey them. We shall always receive with gratitude 
your advice and assistance, not doubting but the end of our 
warfare will be Freedom to America. 

We are, with sincerity, Gentlemen, your very humble 

JW r A r> T? ttai S rer order of tue Com- 
. > V Altlt.Cil\ , ( m ittee of Donations. 

P. S. — The arms have been several times detained in 
going out of town, but never finally stopt ; even if a private 
gentleman carries one out of town with him for diversion, 
he is not permitted to bring it back again. 

To the Gentlemen, the Committee of the Town of Preston. 


Killingly, Aug. 23r/, 1774. 

The Town of Killingly, sympathizing with their 
brethren and fellow-patriots of the Town of Boston, who 

56 Letter from Killingly. 

are now suffering in the glorious cause of liberty, by rea- 
son of that unconstitutional and oppressive Port Bill, for 
blocking up your harbor, espouse the cause in which you 
suffer, and are sensibly affected therewith. We flatter 
ourselves that these few sheep may be received as a token 
of gratitude, which not only we, but a whole continent, 
owe to you, who have so eminently exerted yourselves in 
the cause of liberty. The noble and resolute stand you 
have made, in favor of the mutual interest of the Colonies, 
has given us, as also every friend of liberty, the highest 
esteem and most unfeigned regard for your patriotism. 
And our gratitude we cannot more fully express, than by 
such acts of kindness and benevolence. It is to such as 
you, under God, we owe the glory of our liberty. We 
lament the oppression you meet with, yet rejoice that j 
neither the threats or caresses of the mighty are sufficient \ 
to taint your virtue, or stifle the ardor which glows in 
your bosoms. May you resolutely stand fast in the liberty | 
in which the God of nature has made you free, and may 
your patriotic virtues shine with increasing lustre, and 
your influence be as extensive as your generous wishes. 

We assure you, in the name of this Town, that we are \ 
well united, and it is the determination and sentiment of ! 
our people to maintain their privileges at the risk of their 
lives and fortunes ; and we hope we shall be always ready 
to contribute, as far as lies in our power, to the necessities I 
of those more immediately called to suffer in the cause. 

Finally, may we all be united, and we and you see the 
happy time when Parliament and Liberty meet together, \ 
and Britain and America kiss each other, to the joy and 
satisfaction of every son of Liberty, and the amazement 
and confusion of all those who wish not well to our polit- 
ical welfare. These are the undissembled wishes and 
desires of, Gentlemen, your most obedient, humble ser 

Briant Brown, "1 ~ ... /. 

-r, , T Committee of 

Lben r Larned, ~ , J 

-o T ' > Correspondence 

Benja. Leavens, } ~ T f. n . -, 

-o tj ' \ for KiUmqly. 

Perley Howe, J J VJ 

To William Phillips, Esq. and company, 

Overseers of the Poor of Boston. 

Letter /ram East Had dam. 57 


East Hud dam, Aug. 24:th, 1774. 

(ilN l'LEMEN, 

The Town of East Iladdam, in the Colony of Con- 
necticut, taking- into their serious consideration, in a legal 
kown meeting, the alarming and distressed circumstances 
that the inhabitants of the Town of Boston are brought 
pnto, by the very extraordinary Acts of the British Parlia- 
ment, in blocking the Town and Port, whereby many of 
[your industrious inhabitants are deprived of the means of 
providing their daily support, and will necessarily bring a 
very great burthen on the said Town, while they are suffe 

ling in the common cause of all America : and, being fully 
convinced that it is the determination of the British Par- 
liament, in course, to attack all the Provinces and Colonies 
ton the continent of British America, unless they submit to 
a Parliamentary Tax, &c, think it their duty to do every- 
thing in their power to maintain their liberties and privi- 
leges, which they ever ought to have and enjoy as English 
subjects ; in which opinion the inhabitants of this Town 
are agreed, almost to a man, and as you are the first that 
are attacked, as the head of all America, and so more 
(immediately suffering, yet all the members in a greater or 
llesser degree are suffering with you, though not in the 
means of their present support and subsistences. Under 
which circumstances the Town of East Haddam, though a 
Ismail Town, thought it their duty to contribute their mite 
for the relief of your poor, and thought fit to recommend 
a subscription for said purpose, and appointed us, the sub- 
scribers, a Committee to receive and transmit the same to 
I the Overseers of the Poor of Boston. In pursuance of 
| which, we have collected a few cattle and sheep, which are 
ithe free gift of said Town of East Haddam, by subscription, 
; without any reward, or hopes thereof, (as our enemies 
j would insinuate,) which we have committed to the care of 
Mr. Israel Champion, of said East Iladdam, to be trans- 
(mitted to said Overseers, for them to see used and improved 
ias they see cause, for the purpose aforesaid, hoping that the 
same will be received, (though a small gift,) as a sincere 
4th s. — vol. iv. 8 

58 Reply to East Haddam. 

mark of our regard and friendship in the general cause- 
of English liberty. 

We are, Gentlemen, with the utmost esteem and regard, 
your most obedient, humble servants, 

Daniel Brainerd, 
Humphry Lyon. 
Silvanus Tinker. 
Gibbons Jewett. 
Ichabod Olmsted. 
Christopher Holmes. 

To the Overseers of the industrious Poor of the Town of Boston. 

reply to east haddam. 

Boston, September 1, 1774. 

The Town of East Haddam, in their letter of the 24th 
August, discover such a cordial sympathy for our distress, , 
and give such a pleasing proof of their resolution to assist 
us, as makes us more than ever determined to support our 
sufferings with a philosophic fortitude. Boston is the stage 
on which our tyrants choose to act at present, but how soon 
they will choose to figure in some spot where they have a 
greater probability of success, time only will discover. We 
hope, however, to convince them that not only Boston, but 
all America is designed by Heaven for an asylum for op- 
pressed and injured virtue, rather than to be a theatre of 
sport for usurping despots. The late Acts of Parliament 
are cruel and oppressive, to the last degree. That for 
blockading our harbor is perhaps without a parallel, but 
we are nevertheless of opinion that they have operated for 
our advantage. Our enemies imagined that by exhibiting 
to our view some signal instances of their immediate power 
to distress us, we should be intimidated, that we should | 
submit to kiss the rod, and beg them to accept of our obedi- 
ence. They now see that we are neither to be persuaded 
nor frighted from that standard which we are most sacredly 
bound to protect. They have done their utmost, and it is 
ineffectual. In policy we flatter ourselves they have not 

Letter from Queen Ann's County. 159 

exceeded us. Arms are as yet untried. There was a time 
when some good men among us were insensible of their 
danger, and seemed to prefer obscurity to action ; but the 
late manoeuvres of tyranny have roused them from their 
lethargy, and they now pant for the field in which the fate 
of our country is to he decided. 

Nothing has so damped the spirits of those who aspire 
to he our masters, as the accounts we are daily receiving of 
the glorious spirit that inspires the different parts of the 
continent. Some have believed, or have pretended to be- 
lieve, that if the faction in Boston was quelled, the Prov- 
inces would acquiesce in whatever changes Administration 
were pleased to make in the charter and constitution of the 
Massachusetts Bay. lhit now they see that a firm hond is 
formed in America, which the most powerful monarch on 
earth will not easily break. 

You will he pleased to accept our most hearty wishes 
for a continuance of your friendship ; and gratitude and 
justice oblige us to tell you, that the Colony of Connecticut 
have behaved to us like brothers, and signalized themselves 
in the cause of American liberty in such a manner as will 
redound to their honor, so long as the sun and moon 

The generous benefaction from the town of East Had- 
dam, so modestly mentioned in your letter, excite those 
emotions which the grateful hearts of their brethren here 
can better conceive than express. 

We are, Gentlemen, with sincerity, 

Your much obliged servants, 

Joseph Warren, | S^&JSfiT 

To Mr. Daniel Brainerd, and others of the Committee of East 
Had dam. 


Maryland, Queen Ann's Count}/, 21th Aug., 1774. 

You will herewith receive one thousand bushels of 
corn, to be applied towards the relief of the unhappy peo- 

60 Reply to Queen Ann's County. 

pie of Boston, suffering by means of the late unconstitu- jj 
tional and oppressive Acts of Parliament. 

Signed by order of the Committee of Correspondence. 

James Earle, Clerk. 
To John Barrett, Esq. 


Boston, October 4:th, 1774. 







Your favor dated Queen Ann's County, 27th Augus 
last, with a bill of lading for one thousand bushels of corn, 
was lately handed to the Committee of Donations, by John 
Barrett, Esq. of this place. The generous and seasonable 
supplies from our worthy friends and fellow-countrymen in 
Maryland, have greatly refreshed our spirits, relieved the 
necessities of our poor, suffering by means of the cruel 
Boston Port Bill, and inspired us with renewed zeal in the 
all important cause in which you and we are so deeply 
engaged. Our distresses and daily trials are great, and as 
we have such mighty powers armed, and arming against us, 
and as their resentment is equal in degree to their policy 
and craft, 'tis easy to conceive that we must be frequently 
much embarrassed ; but, through the favor of our God, we 
have hitherto been helped, directed and encouraged. 
Through his gracious assistance we are determined to per- 
severe in a firm, manly, steady opposition to such unright- 
eous decrees, as the enemies of the civil and religious 
liberties not only of this Town and Province, but of this 
whole continent, are endeavoring effectually to carry into 
execution. Our truly patriotic friends and brethren in 
Maryland, will unite their humble and daily supplications 
with ours to God, that he will sanctify these afflictions to 
us, and in due time grant us the temporal, spiritual, and 
eternal salvation which we so greatly need. The grateful 
acknowledgments of this Committee, in behalf of the 
Town, are hereby tendered by 

Sir, your very obliged, humble servants, 

David Jeffries, per order. 

Mr. James Earle, Maryland, Queen Ann's County. 

Letter from Kent County. 61 


Kent County, Chestertown, Maryland, 
Awj. 29th., 1774. 


Inclosed you haYc bill of lading for two thousand 

ushels of Indian corn, shipped by the Committee of Cor- 

espondence for this County, on board the schooner Endeav- 

ur, Capt. Harding, for the use of the poor of your Town, 

nd also bills of lading for one thousand bushels shipped 

n board said Yessel, by the Committee of Correspondence 

for Queen Ann's County. The Committee would haYe sent 

this relief long ago, but no Yessel could be procured sooner. 

hope it will arrive in good order, 

And am, Sir, your most humble servant, 

Thos. Smyth. 
To Jno. Barrett, Esq. 


Boston, October 6th, 1774. 

Your obliging letter, dated Chestertown, Maryland, 
August 29th, directed to John Barrett, Esq. of this Town, 
has by him been handed to the Committee of Donations. 
We have received the generous and very seasonable pres- 
ent of two thousand bushels corn, per Capt. Harding, from 
our patriotic brethren of Chestertown. Such friendly sup- 
plies greatly assist and encourage us to persevere in a 
manly, but resolute defence of the glorious cause of true 
constitutional freedom and liberty. We meet with great 
opposition, and not less trials of our prudence, moderation, 
patience, and resolution ; but we do not mean to boast, for 
in what decree soever we have been called and assisted to 
the exercise of these excellent graces, the whole glory 
must be given to God our Saviour, who hath hitherto 
helped us, and enabled as to stand. In him we desire to 
place our whole trust and confidence ; to him let us unit- 
edly and constantly repair for all the mercy we need, and 

62 Reply to Kent County. 

in the use of all proper means, hope and quietly wait for| 
his salvation. 

Had it not been for the kind interposition and liberality 
of our friends and fellow-countrymen, we must have suf- 
fered much, beyond what we do at present ; but their 
bounty, springing from the noble principles of Christian 
sympathy, compassion and benevolence, gives double vigor 
to our spirits and deeply affects us (as it ought) with grat- 
itude to God, and to them. You will please, therefore, to 
accept our grateful acknowledgments in behalf of this 
oppressed Town, for these their expressions of kindness 
and love, and may God reward them a thousand fold. 
I am, Sir, your greatly obliged servant, 

DiVTn Tt?t?t?t?t-pc ( Per order of the Com- 
AV1D JEllKlEb, j mittee of Donations. 

Thomas Smyth, Esq., Chestertown, Maryland. 

P. S. — The Committee of Donations have been requested 
by Capt. Richard Harding, to supply him with four pounds 
ten shillings sterling, for which he draws upon his owner, 
Mr. James Bradick, of Miles River, Maryland ; of which 
you will please to make such use as you may think proper. 
The Committee have also paid Capt. Harding his account 
of expenses, amounting to [ ] Inclosed is 

the Captain's bill upon his owner. 

Boston, Sept. 23d, 1774. 

This will be delivered you per Capt. Harding, who has 
brought for the use of the poor of Boston, sufferers by the 
Port Bill, three thousand bushels of corn from the patriotic 
inhabitants of the Town of Chester, Kent County, and 
Queen Ann's County, Maryland. Your very kind and 
repeated offers of service on these occasions, embolden us 
to request any needed advice and assistance to the captain. 
All charges shall be repaid by him who, in behalf of the 
Committee of Donations, is, 

Gentlemen, your very obliged, humble servant, 

David Jeffries, per order. 

To Jeremiah Lee and Azor Orne, Esqrs., and Mr. Elbridge Gerry, 
at Marblehead. 

Letter from Northampton. (Y,\ 


Virginia, Northampton, Aug. 30th, 1774. 


The people of this County, compassionating the dis- 
xessed poor in your Town, have directed us to ship you 
)ne thousand bushels of Indian corn, to be distributed by 
pou amongst such families as you shall think most in want 

l The Virginia House of Burgesses was in session when the news of the pas- 
sage of the Boston Port Bill was received ; and on the 24th of May, 1774, it 
)assed a preamble expressing the " apprehension of the great dangers to be 
lerived to British America from the hostile invasion of the city of Boston," and 
stating that the House deem it highly necessary that the first day of June next 
)e set apart by the members, as a day of fasting, humiliation and prayer ; and 
idopted the following order : 

Ordered, therefore, That the members of this House do attend in their places, 
it the hour of ten in the forenoon, on the said first day of June next, in order to 
proceed, with the Speaker and the mace, to the church of this city, for the pur- 
joses aforesaid ; and that the Reverend Mr. Price be appointed to read prayers, 
ind to preach a sermon suitable to the occasion. 

By the House of Burgesses. 

George Wythe, C. H. B. 

On the 26th of May, the Virginia House of Burgesses was dissolved by the 
loyal Governor. Eighty-nine of the members, on the next day, formed an Asso- 
ciation to second unity of action, in the articles of which they state : " We are 
further clearly of opinion, that an attack made on one of our sister Colonies, to 
compel submission to arbitrary taxes, is an attack made on all British America, 
nd threatens ruin to the rights of all, unless the united wisdom of the whole be 
pplied." On the 29th of May, " letters were received by express from Boston, 
Philadelphia, and Annapolis in Maryland, testifying the resentment of those dif- 
ferent places, and the Northern Provinces in general, against the late oppressive 
Act of the British Parliament, which is intended so materially to injure the Port 
f Boston, and recommending an union of measures to their Southern brethren ;" 
when the members of the House of Burgesses, who were in Williamsburg, were 
convened by Peyton Randolph. They resolved to call as many other members 
as could be assembled, to meet on the next day, the 30th. On this day it was 
resolved to defer further action until the general meeting of the House of Bur- 
gesses to be held on the first of August. 

The following paragraph appears in the journals, under the date of Williams- 
burg, June 1, 1774: " On the first of June, the Honorable the Speaker, and as 
many of the members of the late Assembly as were in town, with the citizens of 
Williamsburg, and numbers from a distance, assembled at the Court House, and 
went in procession to the church, where an excellent sermon, well adapted to the 
^resent unhappy disputes between Great Britain and her Colonies, was preached 
jy the Rev. Mr. Price, chaplain to the House of Burgesses, agreeable to the late 
order of that patriotic and very respectable body." 

Meetings, in July, were held in the Counties of Virginia, to consider the Port 
: Bill. At a meeting of "the Freeholders of James City County," on the 1st of 
jJuly, it was "Resolved, That a -subscription paper be handed about among the 
! people of James City, to raise money, corn, wheat, or any other commodity which 

64 Letter from Northampton. 

of it. The bearer hereof, Capt. Nathaniel Brown, will; 
deliver you the corn, whose bill lading for the same you! 
have inclosed, the freight for which will be paid here, upon; 
his producing your receipt for the corn. The people in 
this place most sincerely sympathize with their brethren il 


0111 d 



may be most agreeable to the subscribers, for the relief of the people of Bos--| L^i. 

A letter to a citizen of Boston, dated Alexandria, July 6, 1774, states that a 
subscription for the relief of Boston, "to prevent the inhabitants sinking under JL: 
the oppression, or migrating, to keep up that manly spirit which has made them 
dear to every American, though the envy of our arbitrary Parliament, is from 
the County of Fairfax, in this Colony : viz. 273 pounds sterling in specie, (equal 
to lawful,) 38 barrels of flour, and 150 bushels of wheat. This subscription 
being but a few days on foot, we have not had an opportunity to present it to the 
Country in general ; a large sum will be given. Mr. Henley yesterday returned 
from Dumfries, after consulting the Committee of Prince William County, in all ^ 
which a subscription is going on generously ; this day he sets out to consult the J i 
Committees of Loudon and Frederick Counties, in each of which a spirit, becom- j , 
ing generous and free-born sons of liberty, are in the like manner testified. In- ilL 
deed, all Virginia and Maryland, are contributing for the relief of Boston." 

At a meeting of the citizens of Norfolk County and Borough, on the 6th of (J K ■ 
July, it was " Resolved, That our late Burgesses be hereby instructed to use their J: j 
utmost endeavors, that subscriptions be opened in the several Counties of this 
Colony, for the relief of the starving, distressed poor, in the blockaded Town of 
Boston." On the 9th of July, the citizens of Fauquier County " Resolved, That 
the Town of Boston, aforesaid, is now suffering in the common cause of Amer- 
ican liberty, and ought to be supplied with such articles as are necessary for 
their support, by the voluntary contributions of the Colonies in general." On 
the same day, the citizens of Essex County " Resolved, That a subscription be 
set on foot for raising provisions for the poor of Boston ; " appointed a Committee 
to receive them, and empowered this Committee to charter a vessel to carry them 
to Boston. 

The citizens of Henrico County, on the 15th of July, at a meeting held at the 
Court House, adopted an address to their representatives in the Virginia Assem- 
bly, in which was the following : " We most cordially recommend that no time 
be lost in administering every comfort and aid to our distressed brethren of Bos- 
ton, that their unhappy state may require, and may comport with our situation to 
afford." On the 16th of July, the inhabitants of Surry County " Resolved, That 
subscriptions be opened in this County, for the relief of our suffering brethren 
in the Town of Boston." On the 18th of July, a general meeting of the inhabi- 
tants of Fairfax County was held at Alexandria, of which "George Washing- 
ton, Esquire," was chairman; when it was Resolved, " That the inhabitants of 
Boston were suffering in the common cause of all British America, and are 
justly entitled to its support and assistance ; and, therefore, that a subscrip- 
tion ought immediately to be opened, and proper persons appointed, in every 
County in this Colony, to purchase provisions and consign them to some gen- 
tlemen of character in Boston, to be distributed among the poorer sort of 
people there." George Washington was also appointed chairman of the 
County Committee ; and one of the Delegates to present the Resolves to the 
General Assembly. The following appeared in the journals, under the date 
of Williamsburg, July 28, 1774 : " It is with much pleasure we learn that the 
County of Surry, from the highest to the lowest, are actuated by the warmest 
affections towards the suffering Town of Boston. We are told that immediately 
after the breaking up of the meeting of the freeholders and others, to consult 

Letter from Northampton. 65 

Boston, in their present distress, and will at all times cheer- 
Ely join in every measure proposed for their relief. Such 
onsidcrable collections are making in this Colony for your 
oor, that wc hope they will not suffer for want of provis- 
ons, and we rely on the firmness of your people in adher- 

pon the most proper measures to be taken, upwards of one hundred and fifty 
arrels of Indian corn and wheat were subscribed, and that twelve or thirteen 
inscription papers are now out for that purpose. Upon a moderate computation, 
ur correspondent informs us, eleven or twelve hundred barrels, of different com- 
nodities, will be produced by this County, for the benefit of those firm and 
intrepid sons of liberty, the Bostonians. It would be needless to recognize the 
particular generosity of each County in this Colony, as the public must be very 
well acquainted, from the many resolves which have been published, that all Vir- 
ginia are unanimous in their endeavors to contribute whatever relief or assist- 
mce may be in their power." 

On the 18th of July, the inhabitants of the County of York " Voted, That a 
subscription be immediately opened for the relief of the inhabitants of Boston, 
under the direction of the Deputies for this County, who are desirous to promote 
and encourage the same." On the 20th of July, the inhabitants of Stafford County 
Resolved, That it is the duty of this Colony to contribute, as far as their power 
extends, to the relief of the inhabitants of Boston, who are now, by the hard 
hand of oppression, marked out as the victims of ministerial wrath, for their spir- 
ited exertions in the great cause of American freedom, and that subscriptions be 
immediately set on foot for their relief, under the conduct of the Committee." 
On the 25th of July, the inhabitants of Elizabeth City County " Resolved, That 
a subscription for the relief of the unhappy poor of Boston, ought to be encour- 
aged by all charitable and humane people, and that the moderator be directed to 
solicit contributions for that purpose." On the 27th of July, the inhabitants of 
Princess Anne County " Resolved, That our Burgesses be hereby instructed to 
use their utmost endeavors, that subscriptions be opened in the several Counties 
of this Colony, for the relief of the cruelly oppressed and distressed inhabitants 
of the Town of Boston." 

On the 1st of August, " at a very full meeting of delegates from the Counties 
in the Colony and Dominion of Virginia," at Williamsburg, it was " Resolved, 
That we think ourselves called upon, by every principle of humanity and broth- 
erly affection, to extend the utmost and speediest relief to our distressed fellow- 
subjects in the town of Boston ; and, therefore, most earnestly recommend it to 
all the inhabitants of this Colony, to make such liberal contributions as they can 
afford, to be collected and remitted to Boston, in such manner as may best an- 
swer so desirable a pnrpose." 

The Essex Gazette of August 2, 1774, has the following paragraph: "Captain 
Leighton, from Virginia, informs, that he was told by some respectable gentle- 
men, that there would be sixty thousand bushels of grain sent from that Colony 
by the 10th of September, all freely given by that generous, patriotic people, for 
the support of their distressed brethren in Boston. It was said that thirty thou- 
sand bushels would also be given and sent by the worthy people of Maryland, 
for the same noble purpose." — Ed. 

At a Convention of the Delegates for the Counties of Virginia, the following 
Resolve was passed, on the 24th March, 1775 : " Resolved, unaniinoiisly, That 
the Committees of the several Counties and Corporations in this Colony, do exert 
themselves in procuring and continuing contributions, for supplying the neces- 
sities, and alleviating the distresses, of our brave and worthy fellow-subjects of 
Boston, now suffering in the common cause of American freedom, in such man- 
ner, and so long as their occasions may require." 

4th s — vol. iv. 9 

66 Reply to Northampton. 

ing to the glorious cause in which they are engaged, till it ^ 
pleases Providence to restore them to the possession of ' jf^ 
their just rights, and establish the liberties of all America 

on the most permanent foundation. 


We are, most sincerely, Gentlemen, 

Your very humble servants, 

Jno. Harmainson. 
Littleton Savage. 
John Kendall. 

To the Committee appointed to receive Donations for the distressed |" a 
inhabitants of the Town of Boston. \ an 


1 1 

Boston, Sept. 30th, 1774. 

The Committee appointed to receive and distribute the 
donations of our brethren in this and the neighboring Col- 
onies, received your favors 30th August per Capt. Nath'l 
Brown, with about one thousand bushels of Indian corn, 
as a present from our worthy brethren in Northampton, 
Virginia, to the poor of this Town, suffering by the cruel 
blockade of our harbor. This Committee, in behalf of the 
Town, return their most sincere thanks to the gentlemen 
in Northampton, who have so generously contributed to 
this timely donation. Every fresh supply from our friends 
encourages all ranks of people firmly to support the cause 
for which we are struggling. Had not a spirit of patriot- 
ism, generosity and goodness appeared in a most extraor- 
dinary manner throughout these American Colonies, this 
Town, it is to be feared, must have fallen a sacrifice to 
arbitrary power, and submitted to the most humiliating 
concessions. But we have the pleasure to inform you that 
the patriots and defenders of American rights in this place, 
are as firm and zealous as ever, though surrounded on 
every hand by soldiers and military preparations; the har- 
bor filled with ships of war ; the chief fortress, Castle 

Reply to Northampton. 61 

William, out of our hands; soldiers encamped in sundry 
places ; the Neck, the only entrance into the Town, doubly 
fortified by advance batteries, and a regiment encamped 
both sides of the road to prevent the aid of our neighbors, 

who, upon a late alarm showed the utmost readiness to 
encounter every danger for our relief and defence. We 
are daily alarmed with hostile appearances. It is now said 
they intend to erect five batteries, and to picquet the Town 
at the westerly side, to prevent the landing of our friends 
from the country. But we are determined to bear all, 
rather than in the least instance acknowledge the right of 
Parliament to mutilate our charter or form of government, 
and tax us at their pleasure. We observe in your letter, 
that considerable collections are making in your Colony for 
our poor. In confidence of this, our laborers and mechan- 
ics have universally declined assisting the army in carrying 
on their works, though tempted with large rewards ; not 
that they desire to be maintained in idleness, for they are 
ready for any employment the Committee can find them. 
For particulars in this respect, [we] refer you to the Com- 
mittee's publication last week. Conscious that our cause is 
just, we trust in the Supreme Ruler of the universe, that 
he will in due time restore us to the possession of all our 
rights, and establish the liberties of all America on solid 
and lasting foundations. 

We are, with the greatest esteem, Gentlemen, 

Your friends and fellow-countrymen, 

D, VTri TnTDrre } Per order the Commit- 
AVID JLH-RIES,j tee of D onation8 . 

P. S. — You have doubtless heard that all our powder, in 

the (harlestown magazine, about three hundred barrels, 
has been seized and removed, and the magazine in this 
Town, belonging to the Province, taken possession of by 
the soldiery, and all private powder prohibited, all cannon 
and shot they can lay hold on secured ; but we trust the 
neighboring Colonies have full supply, in case of need, 
which God forbid. 

68 Letter to the Committee. 


Marblehead, M Sept. 1774. 

We inclose you Capt. Ayer's receipt, for all the pro- 
visions per Capt. Thompson, except the corn, which is in i 
the store of the first subscriber, according to desire of Mr. 
Appleton. The receipt is not properly drawn, but we 
apprehend no inconvenience will attend it, and Capt. Ayers 
has generously contracted to take nothing for the freight 
up. The expenses attending unlading and relading cargo, 
&c, are 41/1, and we wish this and such further supplies 
may come to your hands, as will disconcert the unhuman 

1 The following- letter from William Cooper to a gentleman in New York, is 
copied from Force's Archives, vol. i. p. 784 : — 

Boston, September 12, 1774. 

Sir: -Last week I received your favor of the 26th ultimo, and showed your 
letter to some of the Committee appointed to receive donations and employ the 
poor. I have to observe that our streets are supported by a common tax, and 
that the Town did not pass any vote directing the Committee to lay out their 
money upon the streets, bat left it entirely to their best judgment. Enclosed 
you have a list of the names of the gentlemen appointed by the Town for this 
important trust, who meet every day, Saturday and Sunday excepted. I am direct- 
ed by them to give you the following account of their proceedings. The Com- 
mittee, after several consultations, notified the inhabitants that they should attend 
at Faneuil Hall, every afternoon, for ten days, (Lord's day excepted,) for all classes 
of people, suffering by the Port Bill, to lay their circumstances before them, that 
they might be employed, if possible, in their several departments ; accordingly, a 
great number appeared, of all classes of mechanics and laborers, but of the latter 
a much greater number, whose circumstances called for immediate relief. Several 
plans were proposed, but none that could be put into immediate execution, and 
employ the mere laborer so effectually, as mending the pavements, upon which it 
was proposed to the Selectmen, who are overseers of the streets, that if they would 
undertake to mend the streets, the Committee would assist them in paying part of 
the labor, out of the donations collected for the employment of the poor ; which was 
agreed to, and a great number of our most indigent inhabitants enabled to earn 
their bread ; but being sensible that the money thus laid out could not make any 
returns for future use, they have for some time desisted. The Committee pro- 
cured leave from the Town to lay out a brick-yard upon the Neck, in which they 
employ upwards of eighty men a day in making bricks, which they are in hopes 
to sell for their cost. The Committee have agreed to build a house for sale, as 
soon as materials can be collected, and several vessels will be set up as soon as 
the ship-builders are out of some present employ, given them by private gentle- 
men, and the stocks shall be sufficient to undertake them ; but, that the employ- 
ment may be as universal as possible, the Committee have purchased a stock of 
wool, flax and cotton, to be distributed to all the spinners, and are erecting 
looms for weaving them into baizes and shirt-cloth ; they also distribute leather 
to the shoemakers, and take their manufacture in pay, and with them, in part, 

Note to the Committee. (>!) 

nischief plotted by lord North, against your worthy com- 
nunity, into an advantageous event. 
We are truly, Gentlemen, your very humble servants, 

Azor Orne. 

Elbridge Gerry. 

To the Gentlemen the Committee of Donations. 



Samuel and Joseph Sewall's compliments, with the in- 
closed, to the sufferers by the present oppressive measures 
in the Towns of Boston and Charlestown. 

May wisdom, prudence and discretion, with firmness, in- 
fluence the counsels and conduct of all engaged in the 
cause of liberty. 

York, Sej)t. 5, 1774. 

pay laborers. The Committee are in daily expectation of a quantity of nail-rods, 
with which they hope to employ most of the blacksmiths through the winter; 
and they have reason to expect a quantity of hemp, which will enable the rope- 
makers to recall their journeymen. 

It is hoped this short account of the proceedings of the Committee of Dona- 
tions will meet with the approbation of the donors. 

It must be acknowledged the Committee are charged with an important and 
laborious trust ; it is, therefore, requested that the most charitable construction 
may be put upon their conduct, by those abroad, as it is impossible that any 
stranger can be acquainted with the various difficulties that attend this business. 
As the Committee have no interest, but that of the public, to serve, they earn- 
estly request the advice of all friends, respecting the discharge of their commis- 
sion, and engage that every plan proposed shall have a serious attention. It may 
not be improper to observe, that the Committee have opened a regular set of 
books, in which they record all their proceedings, and give credit to the several 
Provinces, Towns, and particular persons from whom they receive any donations. 

The Town of Charlestown being in the same predicament with this Town, it 
has been mutually agreed, that seven per cent, of all the donations should be 
delivered to the Town of Charlestown. 

The number of persons, of all ranks, thrown out of employment, by the sud- 
den and universal stagnation of business, is very great. The Committee confine 
their employ to such as are immediately affected by the Port Bill, while the reg- 
ular overseers take the usual care of the town's poor. 

I am, with great respect, Sir, your most obedient servant, 

William Cooper. 

P. S. — The Committee are about publishing to the world an account of their 
proceedings thus far. If some part of your collections should be invested in 
iron-rods for nails, it would be agreeable to the Committee. Your care in col- 
lecting subscriptions for this distressed town, will be gratefully noticed and 
acknowledged. — Ed. 

70 Letter from Quebec. 


Quebec, 6th September, 1774. 




Out of humanity, and in compassion to the poor o| i^ 
your place, who must be sufferers in consequence of the 
present unhappy discord between the British Parliament 
and the Colonies, a small quantity of wheat has been 
collected by subscription in this Town, which I have, by j 
the desire of the subscribers, shipped on board your brig- 
antine Susannah, freight free, with Capt. Hewes's consent,' 
as per inclosed bill of lading, and consigned to you, request- 
ing that it may, by yourself (or such persons as may be 
appointed for that purpose) be distributed amongst the in- 
nocent and necessitous sufferers of the Town of Boston. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, your most obedient, humble 

Jonas Clarke Minot. 
To Arnold Welles, Esq., Boston. 




Boston, Oct l'Ort, 1774. 


We received Mr. Minot' s kind letter of the 6th Sep- 
tember, together with the generous benefaction of the 
town of Quebec. We feel our breasts warm with gratitude 
to the inhabitants of that distant part of the continent, 
whose humanity has led them to compassionate, and whose 
charity has prompted them to relieve, the distressed poor 
of this oppressed Town. We hope that the benefit arising 
from our determined opposition to the cruel invasion of 
the rights of America, will extend to all who afford us 
assistance in this important struggle. The Colonies, if 
firmly united in all parts of the continent, may enjoy the 
blessings of civil and religious liberty, and transmit the 
same entire from one generation to another, in spite of all | 
the powers on earth ; and it affords us a satisfaction great- 
er than language can express, to open our first public cor- 

Reply to Quebec. 7 1 

respondence with the Town of Quebec, upon an occasion 
which does tlicm so much honor, and the remembrance of 
vliicli must ever awaken our affection and esteem. This 
last continent abounds with every thing which can supply 
[lie necessities, or contribute to the happiness, of the 
inhabitants. Whilst we stand compact, like a band of 
mothers, no proud invaders will be able to subdue us. 
Che connection between us and Great Britain, whilst 
ustice and moderation presided in their councils, was 
)eneficial to both countries, and it grieves us to own (but 
ruth demands the confession) that the plan pursued of 
ate, by the British administration, seems not to be dictated 
sither by equity or sound policy. The prosperity of the 
Colonies is an aggrandizement of Britain ; she ought, there- 
ore, to promote it ; but instead thereof, the tendency of her 
neasurcs is to reduce them to a state of slavery, and this 
s to be accomplished by creating divisions amongst them 
md using them as engines to beat down and destroy the 
iberties of each other, that so all may be an easy prey to 
;yranny and despotic power. But we bless God that the 
yes of the Colonies are so far opened as to see the danger 
;hat threatens them, and to avoid the snare laid for their 
lestruction. "We hope that by mutual good offices the 
iffection between us and our brethren in Canada, will 
Strengthen daily, (and as we firmly trust that Heaven will 
aot withhold its support from a brave and virtuous people, 
pntending for their rights against oppression and lawless 
rapacity,) we do, under all our sufferings, console ourselves 
)y an anticipation of that glorious period, when the peace- 
ful millions of this Xcw World shall quietly enjoy the in- 
raluable blessings of civil and religious liberty, which we 
are now so loudly called upon to defend. We shall always 
ejoice in the felicity of our friends in Canada, and shall 
hink ourselves happy in keeping up a brotherly corres- 
pondence with them. 

We are, Gentlemen, your obliged friends and humble 
servants. [2Vo Signature^ 

P. S. — Arnold Welles, Esq., the owner of the vessel, has 
generously given the freight, for which the Committee, in 
behalf of the Town, are greatly obliged to him. 

Mr. Jonas Clarke Minot, Quebec. 

72 Letter from Woodstock. 


Woodstock, Sept. 12th, 1774. 

The Town of Woodstock, to testify to you the grate- 
ful sense they have of the obligations they are under to 
the worthy inhabitants of the Town of Boston, for their 
inviolable attachment to and perseverance in the noble and 
important cause of American Liberty, and that we are not 
unmindful of their sufferings and distresses, which they 
have endured, in consequence of their unshaken fortitude 
and fixed resolution to maintain and defend the constitu- 
tional rights of every American, have collected a small 
donation for the relief of your poor, which will be deliv- 
ered you by Capt. Lyon, and shall, with the utmost cheer- 
fulness, repeat it as often as the circumstances of your peo- 
ple shall require. ' 

Frequently have you been called upon by the enemies 
of our liberties, during the convulsive struggles between 
Great Britain and America, to show your virtue and forti- 
tude, and as frequently have you manifested to the world 
your willingness to suffer any thing that ministerial ven- 
geance can impose upon you, rather than give up our lib- 
erties, and tamely submit to have every thing that is dear 
and valuable wrested from us. We had a meeting of del- 
egates from the Committees of Correspondence in the sev- 
eral Towns in the Counties of New London and Windham, 
convened at Norwich, on the eighth day of September inst., 
the doings of which will be communicated to you by the 
Chairman of said Convention,- — would only assure you that 
the greatest harmony and unanimity of sentiment appeared 
in all our debates and proceedings ; and let us say that the 
cheek of every member glowed with resentment and mar- 
tial fire. The spirit and resolution of our people in this I 
part of the country, was manifested very evidently on the j 
late alarm. Not a man appeared among us but was will- \ 
ing, with the utmost alacrity, to fly to your relief. And j 
you may most assuredly rely upon it, that not only the 
people in this town, but in all this part of the country, are 
to a man resolutely determined to yield you all the assist- | 

Reply to Woodstock. 73 

ance in our power, and are willing to sacrifice all that is 
dear and valuable to us, rather than suffer the patriotic 
inhabitants of the Town of Boston to be overwhelmed by 
the adversaries of American liberty. We cannot but hope 

that we shall soon have an opportunity to congratulate 
you on the redress of all our grievances. May the time 
come, Gentlemen, and that shortly, when you and all the 
other friends of America in Boston, shall receive the re- 
ward of all your sufferings. May your names be ever held 
dear and sacred by the present age, and may posterity never 
cease to sound forth your praises to the latest generations. 

We would not trouble 1 you any further, Gentlemen, at 
this time, but only to wish, and earnestly pray, that the 
Supreme Being would crown with desired success your 
ardent endeavors, and noble exertions in the glorious cause 
in which you are so heartily engaged ; it being no less a 
cause than the defence of the liberties of millions of free- 
born sons of America. 

And are, Gentlemen, your assured friends and very hum- 
ble servts., 

Nathaniel Child, "1 ^ ,. 

^ ~, Committee of 

JLlisha Child, „ -, J 

T ^ r Correspondence 

Jedediah Morse, > ,. .,■* rr 

^ ri r! for the lown 
Chas. Church Chandler, j » TTr 7 . 7 

c M n ,' of Woodstock. 

Same. McClellan, J • 

To the Committee of Correspondence for the Town of Boston. 


Boston, Sept. loth, 1774. 

The Committee appointed by this Town to receive and 
distribute donations that may be sent in for the relief of 
the poor, suffering by means of the cruel and oppressive 
Port Bill, have this day received, through the Committee of 
Correspondence, your favors of the 12th instant. 

This Committee, with admiration and gratitude, notice 
the virtue and generous spirit that animates the breasts of 
our brethren through the continent. The Town of Wood- 

4tu s. — VOL. IV. 10 

74 Letter from Kingston. 

stock have expressed such favorable sentiments of this 
Town as lays us under particular obligations to persevere 
in a firm opposition to the attempts of arbitrary power, 
and they may depend on our utmost endeavors to hand 
down inviolable, to posterity, all those religious and civil! 
liberties which we received as a fair inheritance from ouri' 
venerable ancestors. 

With unfeigned thankfulness we acknowledge the receipt 
of sixty-five sheep, by the hands of our worthy friend, Capt. 
Lyon, — a generous and timely present from our brethren off 
Woodstock. We heartily wish you all temporal and spird 
itual blessings, and that this instance of disinterested love: 
may be rewarded a thousand fold into your bosoms. While 
we partake of your bounties, we doubt not we have yourr 
unceasing prayers to the Supreme Ruler of the universe,, 
that we and all America may speedily be restored to the 
enjoyment of those rights which the iron hand of powerr 
is wresting from us, and, in the meanwhile, graciously^ 
directed and strengthened, our best abilities are, and will 
be employed in the distribution of this and every donation | 
to the suffering poor, to quiet their minds in this day of! 
trial. They are numerous, and we are inventing every? 
method to employ them. 

Be assured that we are, with the greatest respect and I 
obligations, Gentlemen, your most humble servant, 

David Jeffries, per order. 

To Mr. Nath'l. Child and others, Committee of Correspondence for < 
the Town of Woodstock. 


Kingston, Sept. lith, 1774. 

The inhabitants of Kingston, in the Province of New 
Hampshire, see with deep concern the unhappy misun- 
derstanding and disagreement that now subsists between 

1 The Boston Gazette of May 23, 1774, names Portsmouth among- the Towns 
which had, "thus early, assured" the people of Boston of their sympathy, and 
it printed the following extract from a letter from the Portsmouth Committee 

Letter from Kingston. 75 

Groat Britain and these American Colonies, being fully 
sensible that the happiness of both countries depend on an 
union, harmony, and agreement to be establish! <1 between 
them on a just, equitable, and permanent foundation. But 
whon we consider the new, arbitrary, and unjust claims of 
our brethren in Great Britain, to levy taxes upon us at 
their sovereign will and pleasure, and to make laws to bind 
us in all cases, whatsoever, we view and consider ourselves 
and our posterity under the operations of these claims, as 
absolute slaves ; for what is a slave, but one who is bound 
in all cases whatsoever by the will and command of another. 
And we look on the late unjust, cruel, hostile, and tyranni- 
cal Acts of the British Parliament, respecting the Massa- 
chusetts Bay in general, and the Town of Boston in partic- 
ular, as consequences of these unrighteous claims, and from 
them clearly see what the whole continent has to expect 
under their operation. 

But when we consider the military forces, both by sea 
and land, sent in an hostile manner to enforce, with the 
point of the sword, and mouths of cannon, those acts and 
claims, we esteem it an high infringement of your rights 

of Correspondence, dated May 19, to the Boston Committee: "We think the 
late Act of Parliament, to shut up the Port of Boston, of a most extraordinary 
nature and fatal tendency ; administration are taking every method to disunite 
the Colonies, thereby to render the noble opposition to their arbitrary and 
destructive measures abortive ; we hope a firm union of all the Colonies will still 
subsist; and that such a plan may be devised, and resolutely pursued by all, as 
may prevent the cruel effects of this Act. We heartily sympathize with you, 
under your present difficult and alarming situation. We will exert ourselves to 
carrv any plan into effect which may be concerted by the Colonies for the gen- 
eral relief. We sincerely wish you resolution and prosperity in the common 
cause, and shall ever view your interest as our own, and are, with the highest 
esteem, &c." 

The New Hampshire Gazette of July 2*2, 1774, has the following: "United 
we stand — divided we fall. Yesterday met at Exeter, the Delegates from the 
several Towns in this Province, to choose two or more persons to join the general 
Congress ;" and the next issue has the proceedings of this Convention. Eighty- 
|ve delegates were present, and John Wentworth was Moderator. It was 
" Voted, unanimously, That the Deputies recommend it to their respective Towns, 
to take into consideration the distressed, unhappy condition of the Town of 
Boston, and liberally to contribute towards the relief of the poor of that Town, 
according to the noble and laudable example of their sister Colonies." 

On the 19th of September, the Town of Portsmouth chose a Committee "to 
receive donations for the industrious poor of the Town of Boston." The Boston 
Gazette of October 17. has the following paragraph : " At a legal town meeting, 
held at Portsmouth on Monday last, it was voted that £200 be paid by the Select- 
men to the Committee in Boston, for the use of the suffering poor in this Town." 

Governor Wentworth, under, the date of Portsmouth, November 15, 1774, 

76 Letter from Kingston. 

and privileges, and an insult upon all North America, and 
are fully persuaded that unless there is a speedy alteration 
of those measures, a total disaffection will soon take place, 
and Britain, instead of being our best friend, will be looked 
upon as an enemy ; and then a final separation in all re- 
spects will no doubt soon follow, the thoughts of which 
fill our minds with trouble, anxiety, and concern. 

We wish the Town of Boston, wisdom and prudence to 
conduct them, in these trying and critical times, and that 
their struggle for liberty may be crowned with abundant ; 
success. We look on the cause in which you are engaged 
as a common cause, and that we and our posterity are \ 
equally interested with you in the event. We beg leave to 
assure you that this Town will readily assist the Town of 
Boston, to the utmost of their ability, in every prudent 
measure that may be taken for regaining their just rights 
and privileges from all unjust invaders. We heartily sym- 
pathize with the 'poor of the Town of Boston, under their 
present distresses, and as an earnest of our readiness to 
assist you, this Town have contributed and sent by the 
bearers hereof, one hundred sheep as a present for their 

wrote as follows to the Earl of Dartmouth : " At an adjournment of a town 
meeting in Portsmouth, in October last, fifty-two voters reconsidered a vote of 
fifty-six voters in a previous meeting, ' not to grant the town monies for a 
donation to Boston ; but that a voluntary subscription be opened for that pur- 
pose.' This lesser number granted two hundred pounds, proclamation money, 
which is near four times their province tax." — Belknap's New Hampshire, vol. iii. 
p. 325. 

The New Hampshire Gazette of November 4, has the following paragraph : 
" We are informed, that at a full meeting of the freeholders and other inhab- 
itants of the Town of Exeter, held at the town house in said Town, on Monday 
last, (called for that purpose,) they ' Voted, nem. con., That the sum of one 
hundred pounds, lawful money, be paid by the Selectmen of said Town, for the 
relief of the poor in the Town of Boston, now suffering by a cruel, arbitrary Act 
of the British Parliament.' " 

At a Convention of Deputies appointed by the Towns of New Hampshire, held 
at Exeter, on the 25th of January, 1775, when one hundred and forty-four were 
present, an Address was adopted, " To the inhabitants of the Province of New 
Hampshire," in which was the following recommendation : " That as the inhab- 
itants of the Town of Boston, in the Province of the Massachusetts Bay, are 
now laboring under a load of ministerial vengeance, laid upon them to enforce 
obedience to certain arbitrary and unconstitutional Acts, which, if once sub- 
mitted to, must involve all America in slavery and ruin ; conscious that all these 
Colonies are largely indebted to the virtue and fortitude of those patriotic 
asserters of freedom, we heartily recommend a continuance of your contributions 
for the relief of that oppressed people ; and that you keep yourselves in constant 
readiness to support them in their just opposition, whenever necessity may 
require." — Ed. 

Re pi [if to Kingston. 77 

relief, to be disposed of for their use, in such way and 
panner as you shall think best. 

We are, in behalf of the donors, 

Your most obedient humble servants, 

Jacob HoOKE. 

Josi \n Bartlett. 

Thos. Bacheller. 

J no. Calef. 

David Quinby. 

NTath'l Bacheller. 

Willot Peterson. 

Jno. Huntoon, Ji N. 


To the Overseers of the Town of Boston. 
[Received but ninety sheep.] 


Boston, Sept. 16th, 1774. 

The Committee appointed by this Town to receive and 
distribute the donations that may be sent in for the relief 
of the poor, suffering by the oppressive Port Bill, have this 
day received your favors of the 14th inst, accompanying a 
very generous and timely present of one hundred sheep, 
from the respectable and patriotic inhabitants of Kingston, 
New Hampshire. The good sense, spirit, and animation 
of your letter gives us great pleasure, and if anything 
could make us forget our unhappy situation, it would be 
the unexampled kindness of our friends. 

The circumstances of this Town are truly deplorable ; 
our harbor filled with armed ships ; all foreign trade sus- 
pended ; a vast number of poor thrown out of employ, who 
swarm daily to the Committee for labor or support ; our 
Town filled with troops ; the Xcck, the only avenue into 
the Town, fortified by cannon planted on the walls ; a reg- 
iment, and two redoubts, about forty rods without the forti- 
fication ; the soldiery insolent, all the cannon that is private 
property which they can come at seized ; the cannon at the 
North Battery spiked up, our powder taken possession of, 


78 Letter from Worcester County, Md. 

and every hostile appearance. What the event of these 1 
things will be, is known only to the Supreme Puler of the I tc 
universe, in whom we desire at all times to put our trust 
In full confidence that our cause is just, and that we havee 
an unalienable right to all the privileges specified in ouri' C 
charter, we are determined to make no concessions. 

We have just to observe that we employ our poor, in 
mending the streets, making bricks, spinning wool, flax, 
cotton, &c. &c, and are erecting looms to weave the same 
into baizes and shirt cloth, which we hope to sell, and 
so protract our stock. The Committee have an arduous 
task, and they can assure the public that no one person, 
but such as are in indigent circumstances, ever received a J si 
penny benefit from the donations ; and it is requested that| 
no ill-natured report may be credited, until facts can be 

Please to present to our friends in Kingston, that have 
so liberally contributed to our relief, the most sincere and 
hearty thanks of this Committee, in behalf of the Town. 
We wish the best of Heaven's blessings may attend you, 
and that this kindness may be rewarded into your bosoms 
a thousand fold. 

And be assured that we are, with great respect and es- 
teem, Gentlemen, your friends and fellow-countrymen, 

DAVTFI Tt?"FFT?TV<J < Per order the Com- 
AVI.U ^-bl-tKi-Lb, | m it,teeof Donations. 

P. S. — Some few of the sheep were left on the road ; for 
particulars refer you to the bearer. 

[N. B. — Ninety sheep were received.] 

To Jacob Hooke and others, in the Town of Kingston, New Hamp- 


Worcester County, Maryland, Sept. 16th, 1774. 

Among a number of resolutions entered into by the 
General Committee of the Province of Maryland, respect- 
ing the distressed situation of your Town, one of which 
was that a subscription should be opened in the several 

Reply to Worcester County, Md. 7!) 

Counties of said Province, by their respective Committees, 
to raise a sum of money lor the purpose of purchasing 

provisions for the relief of your distressed poor, in conse- 
quence of which we, as the Committee of Wor[ce]ster 
Countv, have shipped to your address, per the schooner 

Pollv, ('apt. Jones, out 1 thousand bushels Indian corn, and 
hope it will come safe to hand. 

Your conduct, so plainly manifesting the zeal and firm 
attachment you have to the general cause you arc defend- 
ing, gives us no room to distrust your candor and fidelity 
in making a just and impartial distribution of the little 
benefaction we have made to your most needy and neces- 
sitous. We hope to have the pleasure of receiving some 
accounts of your situation by the return of Capt. Jones, 
as no piece of intelligence would be more generally grate- 
ful at this time than Boston news. 

That Heaven may grant you perseverance, and endue 
you with a prudent and becoming fortitude, upon this 
unhappy, alarming, and very interesting contest between 
Britain and her Colonies, is the ardent hope and desire of, 
Gentlemen, your sympathizing friends and fellow subjects, 

Peter Chaille, ) Committee 
John Done, > of Worcester 

Wm. Morris, ) County. 

To the Gentlemen Committee of the Town of Boston. 


Boston, October 10th, 1774. 

This day the Committee of Donations, sometime since 
chosen and appointed by this Town, received your accept- 
able favor, dated Worcester County, Maryland, Sept. 15, 
ult, per Capt. Joseph Jones, which informs us of one thou- 
sand bushels corn sent per him. He had just come from 
Marblehead, and is now gone back with directions to take 
out the corn, and put it on board some coaster, or other 
vessel, that may be coming to this place. The captain 

80 Reply to Worcester County, Md. 

has told us that his vessel proves leaky. We have paid 
him three pounds twelve shillings sterling, the charge of I 
pilotage over the shoals, and three pounds three shillings \ 
sterling more, custom house fees, and his own expenses. 
This letter we propose to forward to Marblehead, there i 
to be committed to his care. We trust you are not mis- 
taken in your opinion of our zeal for, and firm attachment 
to, the general cause, the cause of true constitutional free- ■ 
dom and liberty. We are sure we are not mistaken when X 
we say, that our friends and fellow-countrymen in Mary- 
land, have given the strongest evidence of their sympathy 
and tender compassion towards their suffering brethren in 
Boston. We acknowledge, with gratitude, to our friends 
in Maryland, particularly in Worcester County, our obliga- 
tions to them for their generous and seasonable supplies. 
By means thereof we have been enabled, under God, 
hitherto to hold out in our opposition to the iniquitous 
measures of an administration, which, in the opinion of! 
multitudes on the other as well as this side the Atlantic, 
has brought such disgrace on the English nation, as will 
scarcely be wiped away. We yet trust in the same gra- 
cious God, that he will plead and maintain our cause, and t 
in his own time, make us glad according to the days 
wherein he hath afflicted us, and the years wherein we have 
seen evil. Together with their alms, may the daily prayers 
of our Christian friends in Maryland go up, for a memo- 1 
rial before God. The prayers of faith shall prevail. 

Our friends in general have restricted us, respecting the 
distribution of their charities, viz., to the sufferers by means 
of the Boston Port Bill, and by this rule we endeavor to 
govern ourselves. You, it seems, have left us to act more 
at large ; however, we think we may venture to assure you, J 
that such distributions will be made, as will coincide with 
the design of the benevolent donors. An account of the : 
general conduct of the Committee has lately been commu- 
nicated to the public, in the Boston prints, and we hope it 
has given satisfaction to all the friends of the common 

October 11. As to our situation and circumstances, they 
are indeed difficult and truly alarming. A fifty-gun ship, 
commanded by Admiral Graves, (called the Preston,) lying 

licph/ to Worcester County, Md. 81 

in our harbor and nearly off the end of the Long Wharf, 
Which leads directly up King Street, and to the Town or 
State House. Another man-of-war lying in Charles river, 
and very troublesome to the passengers, who are every 

minute in the day passing and repassing that ferry in boats, 
the best accommodated and perhaps the most frequented of 

any in all North America. Several other men-of-war sta- 
tioned at different places, so that no vessel can come in, or 
any go out, but by their pen-mission. A schooner man-of- 
war riding at anchor in Dorchester Bay, (so called,) and 
not far from Boston Neck, the only avenue into the Town 
by land — ten or twelve pieces of cannon mounted on the 
Fortification, (so called,) or walls, at the very entrance into 
the Town — two eighteen or twenty-four pounders planted 
just without the said fortifications, unless they have been 
ately removed ; together with eight or ten more, to two 
sntrenchments, or rather regular fortifications of earth, 
thrown up on each side said avenue, eighty or one hundred 
rods to the southward of the very entrance into the Town 
before mentioned ; and a regiment has for some time been 
encamped on both sides of Boston Neck, and a little north- 
erly of the two entrenchments ; besides all this, a regi- 
ment of Welch fuzileers, (so called,) encamped on Fort Hill, 
lot far distant southerly from the Long Wharf; also four 
regiments encamped on the Common, near the centre of 
;he Town, together with a train of artillery planted there. 
Insults and abuses, hardly to be borne, frequently offered 
3y the soldiery to persons coming in and going out of 
Town — more troops sent for from Philadelphia and New 
York, or the Jerseys ; also two regiments from Quebec ; — 
what the issue will be we do not know, but it is our inter- 
est as well as duty, in this day of general calamity and 
listress, to commit our cause unto that God who judges 
righteously. In short, in our own apprehension, we carry 
)ur lives in our hands, every day. But we are strength- 
ened, we are directed, we arc supported from day to day. 
We are not intimidated ; our enemy doth not yet triumph 
Dver us. By the help and blessing of God, we shall not 
inly persevere, but shall be crowned witli success in our 
endeavors to preserve the rights and liberties of North 
America ; for although Boston has first been struck at, and 
4th s. — VOL. iv. 11 

82 Reply to Worcester County, Md. 

is now suffering the effects of ministerial vengeance, yet 
doubtless, more is intended than has yet been acted, and 
the plan of operation is designed to extend to the entire 
subversion and destruction of every thing accounted valua- 
ble and dear in the eyes of ail the friends of freedom on 
this widely extended continent. Their countenance and 
help we greatly need, and these must encourage us, under 
the severity of our trials, and the sharpness of our conflict. 
We hope we have not trespassed upon your patience, as 
the length of this letter is grounded, (at least in part,) on, 
the request contained in yours, which gratitude and com- 
mon interest would forbid us to disregard. 

We wish you prosperity, and are, Gentlemen, your much J 
obliged and affectionate friends and fellow-countrymen, 

DWT-n Tttvt?-dtt?o I Per order of the Com- 
AV1D Jl^llltl^b, j m ittee of Donations. 

Messrs. Peter Chaille, John Done, and William Morris, 

Committee of Correspondence of Worcester County, Maryland. 

Boston, October 10th, 1774. 
Mr. Elbridge Gerry, 

Sir, — Capt. Joseph Jones, of Worcester County, , 
Maryland, has this moment informed of his arrival at 
Marblehead, with one thousand bushels of corn. He like- 
wise says his vessel leaks very much. This is to beg the \ 
favor of you to engage a vessel to freight the corn to 

Your humble servants, 

By order of the Committee of Donations, 

Alex'r Hodgdon, Clerk. 

(At Marblehead.) 

P. S. — Since the above, it has been suggested that Mr. 
Gerry and others, may be gone to the Congress. This is j 
to beg the favor of some of the gentlemen, Committee of 
Correspondence, to give Capt. Jones such assistance as he 
may want, to get his corn taken out of the vessel, as she 
proves leaky, and get some coaster to take it on board. 

Letter from Essex County, Va. S3 

Perhaps some vessel may want to come to 'Town, and would 
take it with little or no charge; but this we refer to your 
prudence, and any charges you may incur shall be reim- 
bursed on sight, (apt. Jones lias been paid pilotage, cus- 
tom house charges, &c. Your care 4 in this will add to the 
many favors received from our friends of Marblehcad. 


Virginia, Essex County, Sept. 19th, 1774. 

John Hancock, Esq., or the 

Overseers of the Poor of the Town of Boston. 


This serves to inform you that we have consigned to 
you, by the schooner Sally, James Perkins, master, one 
thousand and. eighty-seven bushels of Indian corn, for the 
use of our suffering brethren in your Town, it being a part 
only of the contribution by the people in this County, for 
their relief. The remainder, amounting to four or five 
hundred bushels, shall come by the first opportunity. We 
can venture to assure you that the Virginians are warmly 
disposed to assist them, and hope for their steady and 
prudent perseverance in the common cause of our country, 
from whence only we can hope for a happy termination of 
our distresses. We pray God for an happy issue to our 
virtuous struggles, and we beg leave to assure you, that we 
have the most sincere regard for our Northward brethren, 
and arc, 

Gentlemen, your most obedient servants, 

John TJpshaw. 
Archibald Ritchie. 
Jno. Lee. 
Robert Beverly. 

P. S. — You will be pleased to communicate, by the 
return of the vessel, the situation of public affairs in your 

84 Repty to Essex County, Va. 


Boston, 14 March, 1775. 

To Jno. Upshaw, Archibald Ritchie, 

Jno. Lee, and Robert Beverly, Esqrs. 


I am to acquaint you, that immediately after the 
arrival of the unrighteous and cruel edict for shutting up 
our harbor, the inhabitants of this Town appointed a Com- 
mittee to receive and distribute such donations as our 
friends were making, for the employment and relief of 
those who would become sufferers thereby. 

Your letter of the 19th of September last, directed to 
Jno. Hancock, Esq., or the Overseers of the Poor of the 
Town of Boston, was laid before the same Committee, in- 
closing a bill of lading for one thousand and eighty-seven 
bushels of corn, being part of a very valuable contribution, 
shipped on board the schooner Sally, James Perkins, 
master, for the sufferers, from our respectable friends in 
Essex County, in Virginia. The schooner was by contrary 
winds driven to the island of St. Eustatia. Mr. Isaac Van 
Dam, a reputable merchant of that place, generously took 
the care of the corn, and, having made sale of it, remitted 
the amount of the proceeds, (free of all expense,) being 
one hundred seventy-one pounds 8/, New York currency, 
in a bill of exchange, drawn on Mr. Isaac Moses, of that 
city, which we doubt not will be duly honored. 

The Committee very gratefully acknowledge their obliga- 
tions to you, Gentlemen, for your trouble in transmitting 
this charitable donation, and they request that you would 
return their sincere thanks to the benevolent people of your 
County, for their great liberality towards the oppressed 
inhabitants of this devoted Town. 

This is one among many testimonies afforded to us, that 
the Virginians are warmly disposed to assist their injured 
brethren and fellow-subjects in this place. This consider- 
ation has hitherto encouraged our inhabitants to bear in- 
dignities with patience, and having the continual approba- 
tion of all the Colonies, with that of their own minds, as 
being sufferers in the common cause of their country, I 

Letter fro /n Perquimans County, N. C 85 

am fully persuaded of their resolution, by God's assistance, 
to persevere in the virtuous struggle, disdaining to pur- 
chase an exemption from suffering by a tame surrender of 
any part of the righteous claim of America. May Heaven 
give wisdom and fortitude to each of the Colonies, and 
succeed their [unremitted efforts, in the establishment of 
public liberty on an immoveable foundation. 

I am, in behalf of our Committee, Gentlemen, your 
affectionate friend and countryman, 

8. Adams. 

L E T T E It F R M P E RQUI M A N S COl'N T Y , N . C . 

Perquimans Co., 20th Sept., 177-1. 

Hon'ble Gentlemen, 

Joseph Hewes, Esq., appointed a Trustee with me, to 
collect the donations of the inhabitants of two or three 
Counties in the neighborhood of Edenton, for the relief of 
our distressed brethren of Boston, being absent attending 
the Constitutional Congress at Philadelphia, I have the 
pleasure to send you, as per inclosed bill of lading, of the 
sloop Penelope, Edward Herbert, master, which wish safe 
to hand, and that you will cause the amount of the same 
to be divided among the poor inhabitants according to their 

The captain has received the most of his freight here. 
The balance will be paid him on return, the cargo to be 
delivered clear of any expense ; which yon would have 
received some months sooner, but the difficulty of getting 
a vessel on freight, prevented. Hope to be able to send 
another cargo this winter, for the same charitable purpose, 
as the American inhabitants of this Colony entertain a just 
sense of the sufferings of our brethren in Boston, and have 
yet hopes that when the united determinations of the con- 
tinent reaches the royal car, they will have redress from the 
cruel, unjust, illegal and oppressive late Acts of the British 
parliament. 1 take the liberty to inclose you the resolves 
of our provincial meeting of Deputies, and have the honor 

86 Reply to Perquimans County, N. C. 

to be, with the most perfect respect and esteem, in behalf 
of Mr. Hewes and self, 

Honorable Gentlemen, your most obedient and very 
humble servant, 

John Harvey. 

To the Honorable James Bowdoin, John Hancock, Samuel Adams, and 
Isaac Smith, Esqrs., and to the Honorable Committee of Correspon- 
dence in Boston. 


Boston, Oct. 17 th, 1774. 

The 15th instant, Capt. Edward Herbert delivered to 
the Committee of Donations your very acceptable favor, 
dated Perquimans County, 20th Sept. ult, directed to the 
honorable Mr. Bowdoin and others, inclosing a bill lading 
for two thousand ninety-six and a half bushels of corn, 
twenty-two barrels flour, and seventeen barrels of pork, a 
noble and generous donation from our worthy brethren and 
fellow-countrymen of two or three Counties in the neigh- 
borhood of Edenton. We shall endeavor, in the distri- 
bution of their charities, to answer the intention of the 
benevolent donors. On this occasion it may not be impro- 
per to communicate to you the method, in general, which 
the Committee have gone into, respecting those charitable 
donations which have come into their hands. We there- 
fore refer you to the printed account thereof, which we 
take the freedom to enclose, and we hope will be satisfac- 
tory to all our friends, of whose bounties we partake. 

The losses, sufferings, and distresses of this Province, 
and of this once flourishing and happy Town, are really 
great ; not possible to be expressed, not easy to be con- 
ceived. We think that every day we carry our lives in our 
hands ; and this apprehension and view of the case, is of 
itself sufficient to nil the mind with such disquietude and 
distress, as those, who are not immediately concerned, can- 
not well conceive of. Our harbor is blocked up by men- 
of-war, stationed in different parts, and the only avenue 

Reply to Perquimans County, N. C. 87 

into the Town, by land, secured by regular fortifications of 
earth, erected on both sides said avenue, and containing 
five or six pieces of cannon each, with wide and deep 

ditches round the whole, except (at present) where said 
fortification fronts upon said avenue, or main road. These 
fastnesses arc erected about eighty or ninety rods southerly 

I of the fortifications, (as the Town generally terms it,) or 
walls, at the very entrance into the body of the Town, 

I which entrance is about thirty or forty feet wide. Said 
walls extend about seventy or eighty feet easterly and 
westerly, from the sides of said entrance, and on them are 
planted ten or twelve pieces of cannon more. To these 
walls, the sea flows, as also to said avenue, — that is, just 

; without the walls, and for the distance of ten or twelve rods 

j on the eastern, and sixty or seventy rods on the western 
side. Between these walls, and those fortifications of 
earth, a regiment is encamped on both sides said avenue, 
and there the soldiers are building barracks for themselves. 

I Tour regiments yet remaiu encamped on the Common, 

, where also they have ten or twelve pieces of cannon, with 
soldiers belonging to the train. The regiment of Welch 

j fuzilcers, remains encamped on Fort Hill, which is near 

: the water, and nor far southerly of what we call the Long 

I Wharf. Transports have some time ago sailed for New 
York, to bring soldiers from thence, Philadelphia and the 

| Jerseys. Also transports sailed sometime since to bring 
two regiments from Quebec. Three companies of soldiers 
lately arrived from Newfoundland, and it is said, six more 
regiments may be expected from England, and sundry men- 

] of- war. 

If Great Britain is determined to effect the subjugation 

i of Xorth America, at all events, the scene must be dread- 

j ful. But, be their determination what it may, America[ns], 
we trust, are determined, in the strength of God, not to 

! surrender their rights and liberties, but with their lives. 
But we hope, when the determination of the Colonies is 
helieved on the other side the water, and the guilt of the 

! injustice, oppression and cruelty of their measures stares 
them in the face, they will deliberate twice, before they pro- 
ceed to act once more. We think they have been greatly 

| deceived ; we are sure we have been grossly misrepre- 

88 Reply to Perquimans County, N. C. 

sented ; and, when they are undeceived, it may be hoped 
an alteration of measures may take place, which may God 
in great mercy order, and prevent the effusion of precious 

We thank you for the resolves of your provincial meet- 
ing of Deputies, which you were so kind as to inclose. 
We esteem them as manly, spirited and noble, worthy our 
patriotic brethren of North Carolina. The tender concern 
for, and honor done, this greatly injured and oppressed 
Town and Province, expressed therein, demand our partic- 
ular notice and grateful acknowledgments, which are hereby 
tendered by this Committee in behalf of the Town. In 
short, your bounty, of which we now partake so largely, 
and the encouragement given of the increase thereof, lay 
us under the greatest obligation, and make [us] almost 
forget our misery. God grant that our endeavors to restore 
and preserve the rights of our dear America, may be 
attended with his favor and blessing ; then we may hope 
that we shall have occasion, both he that soweth and he that 
reapeth, to rejoice together in the salvation of our God and 
Saviour. To him be all the glory. 

You will please to present our sincere and affectionate 
regards to the worthy gentleman, who is joined with you 
in the matter of these charitable and seasonable donations, 
and accept the same from, 

Sir, your much obliged and very humble servant, 

Davtfj Tt?T?VRTT^ J Per order of the Com- 
AV1D JWiKih^j mittee of Don ations. 

To the Honorable John Harvey, Esq., North Carolina. 

Boston, Sept. 22d, 1774. 
Mr. Elbridge Gerry, 

Sir, — I am desired by the Committee of Donations, to 
request the favor of you, or some of our friends, to buy for 
us a load or two of wood, to pay as great a part as you 
can out of the corn that was left with you by the North 
Carolina vessel, about three weeks past. We understand 
that corn sells at three shillings and four pence at Salem. 
Please to excuse thus frequently troubling you, and be 

Letter from Hartford. 89 

assured the Committee are sensible of their great obliga- 
tions to you, and their friends at Marblchcad. 

, \ our friend and humble servant, 

Nathaniel Appleton, per order. 


Hartford, 21st September, 1774. 
Dear Sir, 

I ship to your direction, by (apt. Peter Boyd, seven 
hundred and thirty-eight bushels of rye, and one hundred 
and eleven bushels of corn, the small but free gratuity of 
the inhabitants of this Town, (which I wish safe to hand,) 
for the use and benefit of the distressed inhabitants of the 
Towns of Boston and Charlestown, for whose savage treat- 
ment we feel the greatest emotions of resentment, whilst 
we despise the tools of your oppression, and hope and pray 
those blind leaders of the blind will soon fall into the pit 
the} are digging for others, and have faith to believe, at a 
future period shall have to congratulate you on the happy 
event of this mighty struggle. At our last town meeting, 
it was proposed to send half the grain to Charlestown, 
supposing their distresses similar to yours, and the Town, 
by a vote, left it to the discretion of their Committee, who 
unanimously agreed that it seems to be reasonable it should 
go half to Charlestown ; but at the same time submit the 
matter to your discretion and disposal, and if you think 
proper, Capt. Boyd will deliver to such persons as you shall 
direct. Shall thank you for advice by Capt. Boyd, (if con- 
venient,) to know what is received and how disposed of. 

Whilst, 1 remain, your fast friend and humble servant, 

C\ttm! Rr-TT ( In behalf of the Committee of Correa- 
ALitLli IJKj L.L, | pondence for the Town of Hartford. 

N. B. — Great part of the Committee are Commissioners 
in the Militia, and arc zealous in promoting that noble (and 
at this time necessary) exercise, and arc all out this day for 
that purpose, which is one reason I am desired to forward 
4th s. — vol. iv. 12 

90 Reply to Hartford. 

these by myself. In this small Town is a fine troop of 
horse, a glorious company of cadets, two companies of 
artillery, six companies of militia. 

P. S. — Since I wrote these, am informed that a propor- 
tion of all the donations are to be applied for the relief of 
Charlestown ; if so, what I have said on that head is need- 
less, and will have no operation, and I hope need no fur- 
ther apology. 

To Mr. David Jeffries, 


Boston, October Uth, 1774. 
Worthy Sir, 

By Mr. John Brown, one of the Committee of Dona- 
tions, who last Thursday returned from a journey to Salem, 
I am favored with your letter, dated Hartford, 21st Septem- 
ber, 1774, informing me that " you had shipped to my 
direction, seven hundred and thirty-eight bushels of rye, 
and one hundred and eleven bushels of corn, the small but 
free gratuity of the inhabitants of that Town, for the use 
and benefit of the distressed inhabitants of the Towns of 
Boston and Charlestown." I particularly note what you 
write respecting our worthy brethren of Charlestown, with 
whom the inhabitants of this Town are entirely united in 
sentiment, love and affection. They doubtless feel, in a 
measure, what we feel ; they feel for us and feel for them- 
selves, and stand ready to afford us all the advice and assist- 
ance in their power ; but their poor and necessitous, I 
apprehend, are few, when compared with ours. They have 
no troops stationed in their Town, nor consequently are 
they exposed to the daily insults and abuses of the soldiery, 
as is the case with us ; nor do they every day carry their 
lives as it were in their hands, as we apprehend we do. 
This notwithstanding, agreeable to the information you 
had received, they receive a proportion of all the donations 
transmitted to the care of this Committee. We, on the 
other hand, receive a proportion of all donations sent to the 
pare of their Committee. 

It seems proper here to inform you, that about eight or 


Repfy to Hartford <)l 

ten weeks ago, their Committee applied to this Committee, 
on the matter of donations. Upon the whole, it was pro- 
posed, and finally was mutually agreed, that it would be 
equal and just for our brethren of Charlestown, all things 

considered, to share and receive seven percent on all dona- 
tions. About that time there was a legal meeting of this 
Town, to whom the proposal was recommended, and a vote 
was accordingly passed, agreeable to said proposal. 

What a spirit of union — what a spirit of love and affec- 
tion has diffused itself through this continent ! What a 
spirit of Christian sympathy, tender compassion, and liber- 
ality towards this once happy and flourishing, but now 
greatly injured and oppressed Town, has our gracious God 
excited in our dear friends and fellow-countrymen ! It 
almost causes us to forget our afflictions and distresses. 
However, it greatly alleviates our troubles, refreshes our 
spirits, and supports us under our great distresses, which 
truly are such as require no small degree of prudence, 
moderation, firmness and resolution, faith and patience. If 
in any of these instances, this insulted and abused people 
have been enabled so to conduct hitherto, as that the gospel 
of God our Saviour has been honored, and the expectations 
and wishes of our fellow-countrymen answered, may God 
have all the glory. 

Our grateful acknowledgments are first due to God, and 
then to our generous countrymen for their munificence, 
particularly to the patriotic inhabitants of Hartford. They 
are hereby presented by the Committee of Donations, in 
behalf of this Town, who unite in the prayers which, were 
yesterday (our public lecture day, being on account of our 
peculiar distressing circumstances, appointed by the minis- 
ters of the Town, to be observed as a day of prayer) offered 
to God, in behalf of our sympathizing and liberal bene- 
factors, that he would reward them a thousand fold into 
their own bosoms. 

Our union will, under God, be our strength, our beauty, 
our safety. We are not yet intimidated ; by his blessing 
we shall persevere, and in due time reap the happy fruits 
of our care and pain, our toils and labors. If we may be 
the instruments under Providence, in any degree, of pre- 
serving and securing the rights and liberties of North 

92 Letter from Chelmsford. 

America, we shall esteem ourselves highly honored and 
abundantly compensated. May repentance, love, and gos- 
pel obedience be promoted by these trials, and by the salva- 
tion which God may grant unto us. If you will please to 
look into the Boston prints of .26 and 29 September, you will 
there see an account of the manner in which the Commit- 
tee conduct and distribute the kind charities of our friends. 
This I judge will supersede the necessity of entering into 
particulars on this head. 

I find that a military spirit seems almost universally to 
prevail. The times call for the exertions of such a spirit. 
The art of war is noble, manly, I could wish 1 were not obliged 
to say necessary. I am sure it will be grateful to every 
true hearted American, that Hartford is so well prepared to 
" speak with the enemy in the gate." I wish the gentle- 
men of the military order the divine presence and blessing 
at all times. 

With particular respects to your brethren of the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence, I remain, Sir, your much obedi- 
ent and affectionate friend and servant, 

TJAVTri Tt?T?T?-RTT?Q ( Per order of the Com- 
J^AVIJJ J.h^.fcKl.hb, j mittee of Donations. 

Caleb Bull, Esq., and others, 

Committee of Correspondence in Hartford. 

P. S. — I have referred you to the newspapers of 26 and 
29 September. The inclosed is a copy of what this Com- 
mittee then communicated to the public, which will prevent 
the trouble in looking over the newspapers. 


Chelmsford, 26th September, 1774. 

We, the Committee of Correspondence of the Town 
of Chelmsford, take this opportunity of transmitting a quan- 
tity of grain, collected for the use of your poor. We are 
happy to have it in our power, by any means, to show our 
affection for a Town, who are so eminently suffering in the 

Reply to Chelmsford. !);] 

common cause. As we entertain the highest esteem of 

your conduct, we are willing not only to sympathize, but 
*Aari with you in your troubles. 

And should you, by the hand of power, be driven from 

jlyoiir habitations, we welcome you to our own ; and trust, 

that in those, at present, abodes of peace and liberty, you 

enjoy a superior satisfaction to those who are aiming " to 

j raise their greatness on their country's ruin." 

We are, Gentlemen, with much esteem, 

Your humble servants, 

Jon a. Williams Austin, j 5a?SSSS5£" 

[Received 4.0 bushels rye, and stored it in the Granary.] 


Boston, Oct. M, 1774. 


To commiserate the afflicted, to sympathize with the 
oppressed sufferer, to reach out the bounteous hand for the 
comfort, relief and support of the distressed, are sacrifices 
w T ell pleasing and acceptable to God through Christ our 

Our worthy friends and brethren of Chelmsford have in 
this way done honor to the gospel of our divine Redeemer, 
and by so doing have greatly honored themselves. We 
have an evidence hereof in the very kind donation of forty 
bushels of rye, from the patriotic inhabitants of that Town ; 
it has been received and housed in the Granary, and shall 
be disposed of agreeable to the benevolent intent of the 
generous donors. 

It affords us great satisfaction to find that the conduct 
of this much abused Town meets with their approbation. 
We greatly value it, and trust that, by the same gracious 
directing and supporting Hand which has brought us 
hitherto, we shall not be left to do any thing [which] may 
incur a forfeiture of your affection and esteem. How can 
ye help us at such a time as this, more effectually, than by 
carrying our cause daily to the God of all grace, and im- 

94 - Letter from Berwick. 

ploring his mercy and favor for us. They are inclusive of 
all good. 

Your invitation to make your houses our homes, is very 
engaging, should we at length be forced out of these 
once peaceful habitations ; we think ourselves very happy 
that we are like to be well provided for ; but should we be 
obliged even to remove off fifteen times the distance of 
Chelmsford, yet the consciousness of a cordial attachment' 
to the invaluable civil and religious liberties of our country, 
which we believe to be the cause of truth and righteous- 
ness, would yield us abundant satisfaction, far superior to 
that which those can experience who are ungratefully seek- ■ 
ing to " build their greatness on their country's ruin." 

With grateful acknowledgments, I am, Sir, 

" Your truly obliged friend and servant, 

David Jeffries. < Per order of the Com - 

raittee of Donations. 

To Jona. Williams Austin, at Chelmsford. 


Berwick, Sept. 21th, 1774. 

This Town has taken the distressed circumstances of' 
yours into consideration, and have raised a small sum for 
the relief of the industrious poor of your Town, in oxen 
and sheep, (the number of which see N. B.,) and have sent 
you by the bearers hereof, viz., Messrs. Gilbert Warren and 
James Brackett, who are so generous as to take it upon 
them. We are poor here, cash and provisions scarce with 
us, but the spirit of liberty runs so high among us, that it j 
appears evident to me that we shall exert ourselves to the 
utmost of our power, even to hazard life itself, before we 
shall be willing to give up the noble cause we are contend- 
ing. We esteem what we have now sent you but as a 
token of respect for your suffering in the cause of your \ 
country, and doubt not as the call is, so will be our liber- 
ality towards our suffering brethren. Please to write me 

Reply to Berwick. 95 

by the bearer, of your receiving the token of respect of this 


In behalf of the Committee, I am, Gentlemen, your sin- 
cere friend and humble servant, 

Wm, Rogers. 

[N. B. (i oxen, '-2(> sheep.] 

P. S. — Something more subscribed, not yet collected — 
hope shortly to collect it, and send it in specie. 
To the Overseers of the Poor of the Town of Boston. 


l>osto)i, 3d October, 1774. 

Your favor of 27th September last, directed to the 
Overseers of the Town of Boston, came to the hands of 
the Committee of Donations the 1st instant. The contents 
are very affecting-, and discover a truly benevolent spirit. 
In behalf of this Town please to accept of our grateful 
acknowledgment to our worthy and patriotic friends and 
countrymen, the inhabitants of Berwick. We are partic- 
ularly obliged to Messrs. Gilbert Warren and James Brack- 
ett, for their care and trouble in handing to us twenty-six 
sheep and six oxen, the very generous donation from your 
Town, which shall be applied to the purpose for which it 
was intended. 

Such expressions of sympathy and kindness, not in word 
and tongue only, but in deed and in truth, serve to convince 
us that Berwick, as well as Boston, are engaged in the 
same glorious cause ; the cause, as we believe, of truth and 
righteousness, and which we hope our gracious God, the 
God of New England, will enable us earnestly to contend 
for, and will himself maintain and defend, and in his own 
time and way grant abundant reason to give thanks unto 
his holy name, and to triumph in his praise. 

It seems the same spirit of true constitutional liberty 
animates this widely extended continent, perhaps Canada 
not excepted. The inhabitants there have lately sent us 
one thousand bushels of wheat, and we are informed they 
design to send more. 

96 Letter from Lebanon. 

Your intentions to afford us further relief, demand par- 
ticular notice and sincere thanks. Our embarrassments 
and distresses are not small, but hitherto God hath helped 
us. By his help and blessing we are determined to perse- 
vere, and by the same we may be assured that our conflict, 
though ever so sharp, shall be crowned with success. To 
him let us continually direct our prayers of faith, and in 
this way wait and hope for His salvation. 

We are, Sir, your affectionate, obliged friends and coun- 

David Jeffries, j S^dSSST 
To Mr. William Rogers, Berwick. 


Lebanon, Oct. 3d, 1774. 
Worthy and Dear Gentlemen, 

As I am sensible your time is very precious and im- 
portant, will only trouble you with advice that you will, by 
Capt. Hyde, receive the small remainder of our small col- 
lection, for the relief of your poor, yet virtuous and 
oppressed people, groaning under hateful and accursed 
tyranny. We greatly applaud your firmness and resolution. 
On that, and the concurring zeal, virtue and patriotism of 
the united continent depends alone, under God, your and 
our salvation. Deliverance will arise, and that shortly. 
The principles we maintain are founded in eternal truth 
and justice, and they must and will prevail. We can 
scarcely endure your suffering the tyrant Gage, with his 
insignificant phalanx, to make themselves strong at the 
entrance of your city, and think the vengeance too tardy. 
Yet I believe wisdom will justify your patience, and mod- 
eration increase your fortitude. 

I am, with great respect, your devoted and affectionate 
friend and servant, 

William Williams. 

It is impossible that any but the enemies of God and 
their country should censure your conduct in managing 

Reply to Lebanon. 97 

the charities, Sec. Is it possible the wretch, by fortifying, 
should think to render it more facile to seize some of your 
illustrious patriots I I. trust he (hire not. 

To Doct. Joseph Warren, 

and the rest of the Committee of Donations, Boston. 


Boston, Oct. \\th, 1774. 

Your very agreeable favor of 3d instant, accompany- 
ing another kind donation of eight cattle, from our worthy 
brethren of Lebanon, we are now to acknowledge the 
receipt of. It gives us the highest pleasure to find, not 
only our brethren in Connecticut, but through the Colonies, 
strengthening our hands and encouraging our hearts. We 
in this Town are doing every thing in our power, to ward 
off' the blow aimed at North America, and are for the good 
of the whole, patiently bearing a very heavy burden. But 
when we find, by your letters and generous donations, you 
feel for us, and are stretching every nerve to support and 
vindicate our rights, so cruelly wrested from us, it gives us 
a determined spirit to persevere and endure burdens which 
otherwise would be intolerable. We think with you, that 
" deliverance will shortly come." May our faith and 
patience hold out ; they may, and we expect will be tried, 
but let us endure. We trust God will not give up this 
country, which he has done such great things for, which at 
this clay seems the only asylum of civil and religious liberty 
for mankind. 

Notwithstanding the formidable appearance at our gates, 
with cannon mounted against the country, we are not 
intimidated. You, and the rest of our brethren in the 
country, give us courage. May we all have wisdom and 
patience, moderation and fortitude, and commit our cause to 
Him who judgeth righteously, and then we need not fear. 
I am, Sir, your most obedient, humble servant, 

T> rYT , A T-tTTx: ' Per ordor of the Com- 
Ut,y J A. ilLMl.N, J mittce of Donations. 

Mr. Wm. Williams, at Lebanon, in Connecticut. 

4th S. VOL. TV. . 13 

98 Letter from Farmington. 

„ Boston, October 13th, 1774. 


The Committee of Donations beg the favor that you 
will deliver the inclosed letter to Capt. Joseph Jones, on 
board the schooner Polly, bound to Maryland, from your 
place. It is in answer to a letter he brought with a dona- 
tion of one thousand bushels corn, from Worcester County, 

I am, Gentlemen, your humble servant, by order of the 
Committee of Donations, 

Alex'r Hodgdon, Clerk. 

To the Committee of Correspondence at Marble head. 


q Farmington, Oct. Uh, 1774. 

I have shipped on board Capt. Loveman's 1 sloop, bound 
for Boston, one hundred and forty-nine bushels of grain, 
contributed by the inhabitants of the parish of Southing- 
ton, in Farmington, for the relief of the industrious poor 
of the Town of Boston, who are suffering under the hand 
of power, viz., twenty- two and a half bushels of wheat, one 
hundred and eighteen bushels of rye, nine and a half bush- 
els corn, which I have ordered Capt. Loveman to deliver to 
yourself, excepting so much, which he is to take out at the 
market price, to pay the freight of said grain, which freight 
is to be 4:^d. the bushel. Your compliance herewith will 
much oblige 

Your friend and humble servant, 

Jonathan Eoot, j *fr&%£S££? 
To David Jeffries, Esq., Treasurer of Boston, and the Committee. 


q Boston, November 15th, 1774. 

I received your very acceptable favor per Capt. Love- 
land, 1 dated Farmington, October 4, 1774, which I commu- 

1 This name is printed as it appears in the MS. 

Reply to Farming ton. 9!) 

nicated to the Committee of Donations. Benevolence and 
bounty demand suitable returns of gratitude. This Com- 
mittee, therefore, in behalf of this much abused and dis- 
tressed Town, present their thankful acknowledgments to 
our worthy brethren, the patriotic inhabitants of Southing- 
ton, in Farmington, for their generous donation of grain, 
which (apt. Loveland has delivered in good order, and 
shall be applied, agreeable to the intent of our charitable 
benefactors, viz., " for the relief of the industrious poor of 
the Town of Boston, who are suffering under the hand of 
bower." For the satisfaction of such of our friends and 
fellow-countrymen, particularly, who not only sympathize 
with us, but afford their seasonable relief, under our great 
oppressions, I now inclose a printed account of the pro- 
ceedings of the Committee respecting the donations with 
which we arc intrusted, and I hope it will meet with your 
and their approbation. 

The Town is now filled with soldiers, who are gone into 
barracks, dispersed in every part. Some suppose their 
number to be four, others five thousand. Be that as it 
may, we are not intimidated, and by the continuance of the 
divine blessing and favor, we shall remain undaunted, and 
rise superior, not only to all the power, but also to all the 
policy of our enemies ; and, w T hile " they are brought down 
and fallen, we shall rise and stand upright," rejoicing in 
the salvation of our God. 

This day I saw a letter, dated London, Sept. 3d, 1774, 
from a person of distinction to a gentleman here. He 
writes to this purpose, that " he might have been expected 
over into these parts, but his friends urged his stay in Lon- 
don, until the result of the Congress should be known, — 
that the spirit, temper and firmness of this people, and 
their union respecting their rights, greatly surprised and 
disappointed our enemies, — that the current of conversa- 
tion, which heretofore had been much against us, was 
turned in our favor, and he (the writer) doubted not that 
by the time the Parliament met, it would be as general in 
our favor, as it had been against us ; and that there would 
be a great number of our friends in Parliament the next 
session, — that the non-consumption agreement, if faithfully 
adhered to, must be the ruin of the Ministry ; and our 

Sir, your very humble servant, 
David Jefi 
To Mr. Jonathan Root, Southington 

Da t-tti Tt?i?t?x?tt?c! \ rer order and in behalf of the 
AVID JLilKlLb, Committee of Donations. 


Coventry, Connecticut, Oct. l\th, [4/A,] 1774. 

To the Committee of the Towns of Boston and Charlestown, appointed 
to receive and distribute the charitable donations for the benefit of 
the poor, suffering in consequence of the late cruel and oppressive 
Act commonly called the Port Bill. 


After proper compliments, [we] beg leave to express 
our deep concern from a consideration of the threatening 
aspect of American liberty in general, and the most cruel 
and arbitrary hand of vengeance stretched over your Prov- 
ince and your respective Towns in particular, (by the afore- 
said cruel Act,) which hath exhibited universal detestation 
on the oppressors and compassion on the oppressed ; which 
matters we have had under serious consideration in town 
meeting, and upon mature deliberation have passed some 
resolves, wherein we have fully expressed our sentiments 
with regard to American liberties generally, as you may 
see at your leisure ; and also appointed a Committee to take 
in subscriptions for the relief of your poor, who have made 
a small collection of about two hundred and twenty sheep, 
partly stores and partly market sheep ; and we have given 
orders to dispose of the stores on the road, (if opportunity 
presents,) and remit to you the net proceeds, which we 
send by the hands of our Committee, Capt. Samuel Robert- 
son, Capt. Elias Buell, and Mr. Daniel Pomroy, hoping 
our inability will atone for the smallness of our gratuity. 

100 Letter from Coventry. 

friends would succeed ; when we might hope for such a 
constitution from the King, Lords and Commons, as would 
be agreeable to us, and for the benefit of the whole em- 
pire." This intelligence may be depended on. 

I hope we shall be able, shortly, to communicate further n 
agreeable accounts. In the mean time remain, with much 
affection and esteem, 

Reply to Coventry. 101 

It is the direction of this Town, that the Town of Charles- 
town share with Boston, in proportion to their necessities, 
and desire yon will direct accordingly, or in such propor- 
tion as in your wisdom shall judge just. We applaud the 
wisdom, prudence, and fortitude of your measures, and 
consider you as suffering in the common cause, and wish 
you firmness and patience in your sufferings and trials, (in 
which we sympathize,) hoping deliverance may soon arrive, 
and America be restored to our ancient franchises, and a 
happy, permanent union with the mother country estab- 
lished 14)011 a just foundation, which is the hearty desire of 
your affectionate friends and humble servants, 

Emu aim Root, "] 

Eben'r Kingsbury, j Committee 

Eli as Buell, 

Jno. Crocker, 

William Willson, 

To the Gentlemen Committee, 

Overseers of the Poor for the Towns of Boston and Charlcstown. 



Boston, Oct. \i)th, 1774. 

By our worthy friends, Capt. Samuel Eobertson, Capt. 
Elias Buell, and Mr. Daniel Pomroy, we received your very 
obliging letter, dated Coventry, in Connecticut, October 4, 
1774, informing us that you had sent two hundred and 
twenty sheep, for the benefit and relief of the poor in 
Boston and Charlcstown, suffering in consequence of the 
late cruel and oppressive Act, commonly called the Boston 
Port Bill. "We consider our brethren of Charlestown more 
immediately affected, and now suffering by means of the 
aforesaid cruel Act, and in consequence of an interview 
eight or ten weeks ago between the Committee of Corres- 
pondence of said Charlcstown, and the Committee of Dona- 
tions of this Town, it was proposed, and mutually agreed, 
that Charlestown should be entitled to seven per cent on 
all donations transmitted for the benevolent purposes afore- 
mentioned. This proposal was about that time communi- 
cated to this Town, at their legal meeting, and a vote passed 

102 Letter from Waterbury. 

agreeable thereto. It affords us particular pleasure that 
the act of this Town is so conformable to the sentiments 
and direction of our generous friends in Coventry. You 
are pleased to make an apology for the smallness " of this 
gratuity." This we look upon as expressions of your \ 
Christian sympathy and strong affection towards us, and 
your earnest desire to relieve, comfort and support us under 
our grievous trials and sufferings. If we have been ena- 
bled, hitherto, so to conduct, as to meet with the approba- 
tion of our fellow-countrymen, we cannot but experience a 
satisfaction far superior to what those can feel, whose joys < 
arise from the prospect they think they have, of building i 
their greatness on their country's ruin. We stand in need of 
great degrees of wisdom, prudence, fortitude, firmness and 
patience, -while struggling in the glorious cause of true 
constitutional freedom and liberty. The God of New Eng- ; 
land hath hitherto helped us ; to him, therefore, the whole 
glory is due, and to him we must render it. It greatly con- 
cerns us that we do not sacrifice to our own net, and burn 
incense to our own drag. By the influence and help of the 
same gracious, Almighty Being, we shall yet persevere, 
until desired peace and harmony between Great Britain 
and the Colonies, shall again take place, and never be 
interrupted more. 

The cordial acknowledgments of this Committee, in 
behalf of the Town of Boston, are hereby presented, and 
we trust will be accepted by our brethren of Coventry. 

We are, with great affection and esteem, Gentlemen, 
your obliged friends and fellow-countrymen, 

David Jeffries, j Pe ™ r d f e 

To Mr. Ephraim Root and others, 

Committee of Correspondence at Coventry. 


Waterbury, Oct. bth, 1774. 

A few of the inhabitants of Waterbury, first society, 
in the Colony of Connecticut, sensible of the sufferings you 

er the Commit- 

Reply to Waterbury. \m 

ire under by the hand oi oppression, in the cause of 
American liberty, have made a small collection toward your 
elief. viz. forty-eight and a half bushels of rye, three and 

i half bushels wheat, and three 1 barrels rye Hour, marked 

L, which is to be shipped to-morrow, and sent by Capt. 

lice, the bearer hereof, to be disposed of at your discretion, 
or the use of the needy in that Port, now blocked up, by 
ivhich means the inhabitants are very unjustly deprived of 
the ordinary means of life. Freight and customary dues 
o be deducted and paid said Rice. There are also other 
ttllections making in other parts of this Town; whether 
hey can be forwarded to Boston before winter, is uncer- 
ain. We rejoice that so many through the several Colo- 
hies consider you as suffering in the common cause of 
iberty, and are spirited for your support in it. We are 
Had to hear of your steadfastness and perseverance, tem- 
pered with prudence and patience under insults and abuses, 
[t has given us pleasure to see the animated resolutions 
bf your County of Suffolk. May Heaven succeed your 
Lttempts to recover your just rights. 

We are your affectionate and feeling friends, 

Josiaii Hopkins, 1 

Ezra Bronson, In the 

Isaac Bronson, Jun., [> name 
Timo. Clark, | of others. 

Ebenezer Beardsey, J 

To the Overseers of the Poor of the Town of Boston. 


Boston, Nov. 11th, 1774. 

Your kind letter of the 5th nit. directed to the Over- 
leers of this Town, this Committee have received, with the 
tenerous donation of our brethren, the inhabitants of 
kVatcrbury, first society, for which we sincerely thank you, 
pd for the notice you give us that " other collections were 
naking in other parts of the Town, but whether they can 
pe forwarded before winter, you say, is uncertain." This 
|ve leave with you, not doubting you will do every thing in 

104 Letter of Committee. 

your power to forward any donations that may be made for 
this distressed Town, as the necessities of many, this win- 
ter, will be great. It is great alleviation to us in the diffi- 
culties we are groaning under, that our brethren, not only , 
in Waterbury, but throughout the Colony of Connecticut, j 
are sympathizing with us, and are so generously supplying 
the necessities of many in this Town, who are deprived of 
getting a subsistence by the cruel Port Bill. We consider 
it as a common cause, and hope God will enable us to 
make such a stand in opposing these cruel and tyrannical 
acts of the British Parliament, levelled particularly against 
this Province, as that all America will reap the benefit 
thereof; and we are determined, by divine assistance, not 
to betray or give up the rights of America. 

I am, in behalf of the Committee of Donations, Gentle- 
men, your much obliged humble servant, 

Ben. Austin, j £%£$&. 

To Messrs. Joseph Hopkins, Ezra Bronson, Isaac Bronson, Jun., 
Timo. Clark, and Ebenezer Beardsey, Waterbury, in Connecticut. 


Boston, October 10th, 1774. 
Eichard Derby, Esq., 

Sir, — Inclosed is invoice of the rice. You will per- - 
ceive that we have not got the weight of the casks from 1 1 
to 20, but there is the total weight, therefore suppose it I 
will be equal between the buyer and seller to sell, the 
number from 1 to 10, at 540 net, and from 11 to 20 at 
520 lbs. net, each. As the season for conveying safely will 
soon be over, we shall be glad you would ship us the 
remainder of the rice, upon the easiest terms you can. It 
is very probable some vessels that want to come to this 
Town to winter, or repair, will be glad to take it on board 
to enable them to come into this port. We are much 
obliged to you for your care in these affairs, and when you 

Letter from New Hartford. 105 

send up the rice, please to forward an account of the 
charges that have attended the same for payment. 

We are, with great esteem, 

By order of the Committee, 

Nath'l Appleton. 

[At Salem.] 

1, K T T E R F R M N E W II A It T FORI). 

New Hartford, Oct 10*A, 1774. 
Dear Sir, 

The bearer of this is Mr. Aaron Austin, of New Hart- 
ford, in the County of Litchfield, who is one of the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence elected in this Town, who waits 
on you with our requests to be informed what kinds of 
supplies arc most wanted for the poor in Boston and 
Charlestown. that our charity might he directed suitable to 
their necessities, and to manifest our most hearty regards 
to you, amidst the late distresses in Boston, arising from 
the very unjust and severe policy of the British administra- 
tion. We heartily sympathize with you, gentlemen, in 
your late distresses, and you may depend on our continued 
and most vigorous exertions in your favor, in all those w r ays 
and methods suited to our condition, and which may gen- 
erally be adopted, as is most proper and effectual, to 
remove your present unhappy circumstances, and to restore 
your safety and prosperity. And we most heartily congrat- 
ulate you on the late discovery of your firmness, fortitude, 
and unanimity in defence of your valuable rights and priv- 
ileges, lately exhibited by your very worthy and patriotic 
delegates for the County of Suffolk, and the hearty appro- 
bation of the General Congress, of your spirited and judi- 
cious resolves. Our dependence still is, that you will 
resolutely persevere in the defence of our common liberties 
and privileges, with all that wisdom and prudence suitable 
to so alarming an occasion, so as still to merit the approba- 
4th s. — vol. iv. 14 

106 Reply to New Hartford. 

tion of all the brave and free people in America, and even j 
of millions yet unborn. 

We remain, Gentlemen, your very humble servants, truly 
and zealously engaged in one common and important 

The Committee of Correspondence in New Hartford. 

Joseph Cowls, } Committee 
Seth Smith, > of 

Edw'd Merrell, ) Correspondence. 

To Joseph Warren, Esq., 

Chairman of the Committee of Correspondence in Boston. 


Boston, Oct. 22d, 1774. 

Your favor of 10th instant, per Mr. Aaron Austin, 
directed to Doctor Warren, was by him communicated to 
the Committee appointed by this Town, for receiving and 
distributing the generous donations of our sympathizing 
brethren. We observe your request to be informed what 
kind of supplies are most wanted for the poor in Boston 
and Charles town, that your charity may be directed suitable 
to their necessities ; and for answer say, that any kind of 
provisions will be acceptable to us, and we cheerfully leave 
it to our benevolent friends in New Hartford, to send those 
which will be attended with the least trouble and inconven- 
ience to themselves, or, if money could be sent with less 
difficulty than provisions, it will be equally agreeable and 
as gratefully received. 

We sincerely thank you for the sympathy you express 
for us under our severe trials, and for the kind assurances 
of your ' continued and most vigorous exertions in our 
favor, in all those ways and methods suited to our condi- 
tion, and which may be generally adopted as the most 
proper and effectual to remove our present unhappy cir- 
cumstances, and restore our safety and prosperity.' It 
affords us great consolation under all our troubles, that our 
conduct meets with the approbation and applause of our 

Letter from Grototi. 107 

friends and brethren, and we can assure you that our firm- 
ness, fortitude, and unanimity in defence of our rights and 
privileges, remain unshaken, amidst all the dangers with 
which we art' surrounded. AW 4 trust our cause is good, 
and in a humble dependence on the Almighty for all those 
supplies of wisdom and fortitude we stand in need of, we 
are determined vigorously to exert ourselves in its support 
and defence, hoping we shall ere long have the happiness 
of seeing fair liberty, that heavenly plant, again flourishing 
in the fertile fields of America. We consider ourselves 
uncountable to our generous benefactors for the distribution 
of their charities, and have therefore enclosed you an 
account which we published some time ago, for the satis- 
faction of the public, and flatter ourselves it will meet with 
your approbation. 

We are. Gentlemen, your affectionate, though greatly 
distressed friends and brethren, 

Ht\t?v TTttt i Per order the Cdm- 
lj * Nlu lliLL : I mittee of Donations. 

To Joseph Cowls, Seth Smith, and Edward Merrcll, 

Committee of Correspondence, New Hartford. 


Grototi, llth October, 1774. 

Your agreeable favor of 18th August we received, and 
observe your leaving the time with us, with regard to send- 
ing the amount of the Groton subscription, which we now 
send by our friends, William Morgan, Esq., and Oapt. 
Joseph Gallop, which subscription amounts to one hundred 
and twenty-eight sheep, and seven young fat cattle, all 
which we hope will arrive safe with you, and to satisfaction. 
In our letter to you of the 10th of August, we never made 
mention of the poor of Charlestown, but am sure they will 
not be forgotten by you, Gentlemen of the Committee. 
The Gentlemen of this Town seem to be disposed to sub- 
scribe as much more for the support of the poor with you, 

108 Reply to Groton. 

if needed. We hope and believe you will all stand firm in 
the grand cause of liberty, and be assured of our prayers 
to the divine Being, that he will direct and bless you in 
this critical day. 

We are, Gentlemen, your sincere friends and very humble 

"\A7\t T t?-t»v a -d t-» S Per order of the rest 
V\ M. IjEDI ARD, j of the committee. 

To Nath'l Appleton, Esq., 

and the rest of the Committee for Donations in Boston. 


Boston, 18th October, 1774. 
Dear Sir, 

We have to acknowledge the receipt of your esteemed 
favor of the 11th inst., accompanying the generous dona- 
tion of our brethren of Groton, viz., one hundred and 
twenty-eight sheep, and seven fat cattle, and to thank you 
for the kind assurances you give us, if need be, of your 
further support. The sympathy and kindness of our breth- 
ren in Connecticut, refreshes and comforts our poor and 
necessitous, and encourages the hearts of the more affluent, 
in this greatly distressed Town, whose melancholy situation, 
and much more melancholy prospect, the coming winter, 
calls for pity and the prayers of all good men. The cause 
we are contending for, we think a righteous one, and when 
our liberties, civil and religious, with our lives and prop- 
erty, are all at stake, we may then venture to appeal to 
Him who judgeth righteously. 

You and our friends in Groton may be assured, that we 
in this Town think nothing too dear to part with, that 
America may enjoy her constitutional rights ; ever bearing 
in our minds, that we are making this stand, not for our- 
selves only, but for posterity. And while we are assured of 
" your prayers to the divine Being that he will direct and 
bless us in this critical day," we hope he will, in his own 
time and way, defend and save us. 

We would acquaint you that this Committee, very early, 
met a Committee of our brethren of Charles town, and 

Letter from Marblehead. L09 

mutually agreed they should receive seven per cent of all 
donations, and accordingly they are receiving the same. 

We are, with great esteem, 

Sir, your most obliged friend and humble servant, 

P, VT V ttbtt'n } Pe* order of the Com- 

I>1-.NJ. -'V I M I .\ , j mittee of Donations. 

To William Lcclyard, Esq., Groton, Connecticut. 


Marblehead, Oct. 12///, 1774. 


In compliance with your desire, we have procured a 
vessel to receive and carry to Boston the cargo of corn, 
mentioned in your favor. We were unable to conduct the 
matter so prudently as you hoped, as we could find no 
vessel bound to Boston, that could take it. However, we 
presume it will come now almost, if not altogether freight 
tree, as the owner of the vessel who brings it is too benefi- 
cently disposed to permit his master to receive freight on 
such an occasion, and the master has generously determined 
to receive none, till he has the approbation of his owner, 
(who is now absent.) It affords us the highest satisfaction 
to hear of, and see the truly charitable donations pouring 
in from all the Colonies to your much distressed and 
worthy inhabitants, which we hope, under Providence, will 
animate them patiently to hear the iron hand of affliction 
which is upon them, rather than suffer themselves, with all 
America, to be subjugated to the yoke of ministerial ty- 
ranny and oppression. We are too deeply impressed with 
a sense of your present burdens, not truly to sympathize 
with you under them ; but being assured of the righteous- 
ness of our cause, we humbly trust that lie, who is higher 
than the highest, will hear our groans and grant us all a 

110 Letter from Monmouth County, N. J. 

speedy and permanent deliverance; which is the ardent I 
wish of, 

Gentlemen, your humble servant, by the desire of the 
Committee of Correspondence, 

J. Orne. 

To the Committee of Donations at Boston. 


County of Monmouth, New Jersey, Oct. 12th, 1774. 

We send consigned to you, per Capt. Brown, twelve 
hundred bushels rye, and fifty barrels of rye meal, being 
the donation of the County of Monmouth, for the relief of 
your suffering poor. And we doubt not it will be faith- 
fully applied to the purpose intended by the donors ; and ! 
should a further supply be hereafter necessary to enable 
your devoted Town to stem the torrent of ministerial and 
parliamentary vengeance, we doubt not to be able to obtain 
from our constituents, a considerable addition to this. We j 
rely, under God, upon the firmness and resolution of your 
people, and earnestly hope they will never think of re- 
ceding from the glorious ground they stand upon, while 
the blood of freedom runs in their veins, and while a sup- 
ply can be found from the other parts of America for their 
needy inhabitants. You will be kind enough to furnish 
Capt. Brown, (whom we recommend to you as a gentleman 
much to be relied upon in the transaction of any business,) 
with your receipt for his cargo ; and, in addition to that, 
please to favor us with any information, either respecting 
your present situation or the general cause of American 
liberty, and it shall be thankfully acknowledged by us, 
who beg leave to subscribe ourselves, with real esteem, your 
most humble servants, 

The Committee of the County of Monmouth, in the 
Colony of New Jersey. 

By order, Edward Taylor, Chairman. 

Mr. William Cooper, 

Town Clerk of the Committee of Correspondence of Boston. 

Reply to Monmouth ( 1 ounty. 1 1 1 


Boston, 21st October^ 1774. 


The kind and generous donation of the County of 
Monmouth, in the Jerseys, we are now to acknowledge, 
and with grateful hearts to thank yon therefor, having 
received from the Committee of said County, per Captain 
Brown, eleven hundred and forty bushels rye, and fifty 
barrels rye meal, for the suffering poor of this Town, which 
shall be applied to the purpose intended by the donors. 
And what further cheers our hearts, is your kind assurances 
of a further supply, if necessary, to enable ns to oppose 
the cruel Parliamentary Acts, levelled not only against this 
Town, but our whole constitution. We in this Town are 
indeed suffering- greatly by the Tort Bill, &c, but as it is 
the cause of America, we the more patiently bear the 
leavy burthen, nor shall we reckon anything too clear to 
acrificc for the constitutional rights of our brethren 
throughout the Colonies, nor even think of receding from, 
or giving up, those rights. As we arc not insensible of 
the noble exertions and generous donations of our brethren 
of the Jerseys, and throughout the Colonies, we patiently 
Dear the burdens Providence has been pleased first to lay 
on us, not doubting but that all America will, with one 
mart, oppose every unconstitutional Act of Parliament, 
that shall any ways infringe upon our charters, and the 
lights which, as men, God and nature have given us. 

You, our brethren, pity us, and we doubt not, pray for 
us, but you cannot be fully sensible of what we bear ; our 
extensive trade being stopped and ruined, carries such a 
train of evils with it, that we cannot enumerate, and there- 
fore will not pretend to describe them. Your own reflec- 
tions will furnish you with some idea of our deplorable 
circumstances, better than we can picture it. We would 
only say, as to our present situation, that our Castle, the key 
of the Provinces, is in the hands of the troops ; our harbor 
clogged with ships of war; our Town filled with six regi- 
ments, and more coming ; the entrance of the Town forti- 
fied by a strong entrenchment, and cannon pointed against 
the whole* country. Hut we are not discouraged. God 

112 Letter to Marblehead. 

has done great things for ns ; he is still helping, and we 
trust he will, in his own time and way, deliver us. 

I am, with great respect and esteem, for the Committee 
of Donations in this Town, 

Sir, your most obliged, humble servant, 

Benj. Austin, per order. 

To Mr. William [Edwd.] Taylor, Monmouth County, New Jersey. 


Boston, 1 October 15th, 1774. 

Capt. Edw'd Herbert has this morning delivered the 
Committee of Donations, a letter from John Harvey and 
Joseph Hewes, Esqrs., of North Carolina, inclosing a bill 
of lading for two thousand ninety-six and a half bushels of 
corn, twenty-two barrels flour, and seventeen barrels pork, 
a generous present from the patriotic inhabitants of Per- 
quimans County. 

We must again request your favor in giving such advice 1 
and assistance to Capt. Herbert, as he may need. The 

1 The following description of Boston is copied from the Boston Gazette, of' 
Monday, October 17, 1774 : — " Upwards of five months have expired since this 
devoted Town has experienced all the horrors of the Port Bill ; and as if these I 
were not sufficient to satiate the malice of our enemies, severities which that 
Act, vengeful as it is, did not know of, have been grafted upon it. Many 
instances might be mentioned ; suffice it to say, that a scow, with boards and 
old iron, has been seized in a mill-pond and libeled in an admiralty court ; a 
boat, owned by one Stewart, with sand for our floors, has been taken in the har- 
bor, and the sand thrown into the sea, without the form of a trial ; as was a 
lighter-load of hay, coming up from Braintree. The produce of islands near the 
Town have not been suffered to be taken off; and a float carrying sheep to feed 
on one of those islands, has been obliged to carry them back again: Bread, meal, 
and other provisions, were not suffered to pass a little ferry to Charlestown, and 
their ferry-boats have been taken and detained for daring to attempt a passage 
after nine o'clock at night: Our numerous poor are suffering by the rise of wood, 
butter, cheese, and other provisions, not permitted to be brought up as usual from 
the little rivers and bays in our harbor ; and when our tyrants have been expos- 
tulated with for these illegal proceedings, they have insultingly replied, that, 
agreeable to the Act of Parliament, it was to distress us ; and this their intention 
has been so effectually accomplished, that it may be affirmed, without exagger- 
ation, the loss this town has sustained within only one month of our blockade, 

Letter from Old York. 113 

Committee have voted that the whole of tin 1 cargo be scut 
round to Boston. 

AW are under great and renewed obligations to our breth- 
ren of Marblehead. We have it in our power, at present, 
only to acknowledge those obligations, and that we arc, 
with great esteem, 

Gentlemen, your friends and humble servants, 

l)\vm 1 rrri;n\ { Per order of the Com- 
UA HI) .) l.l 1 K 1 l.s, j mitu . t . „,- Donations. 

To J. Omc and others, Committee of Correspondence, Marblclicad. 

1 - E T T E R F R M () L D YORK. 

In this you find an account of the donation of the 
inhabitants of the Town of York, to the oppressed poor of 
the Town of Boston, which we hope will be acceptable in 
kind, and doubt not will be applied to the most rational 
and salubrious uses, which, with the blessing of the great 
Author of nature, will tend to the restitution and continu- 
ance of our invaluable rights and liberties, inhumanly 
ravished from us. In the mean time we are, Gentlemen, 

exceeds the whole amount of those generous donations received from our sympa- 
thizing friends through the continent. Added to all this, our Town is surrounded 
with ships of war ; and it is said the fleet at Newfoundland are to winter in this 
harbor : Formidable fortifications are erected, and others erecting at the only 
avenue to the Town ; chains and chevaux-de-frise already provided to stop up the 
entrance at pleasure ; four regiments encamped upon the Common, with a large 
train of artillery and matrosses ; one regiment on Fort-IIill, one on the new for- 
tifications on the Neck, and another regiment at Castle-William; three compa- 
nies just arrived in the Rose man-of-war, from Newfoundland; transports dis- 
patched some time past to New York for two regiments from thence and the 
Jerseys, and to Quebec for two regiments from that quarter : Military stores and 
implements of all kinds are collecting in this town, which has now the appear- 
ance of a garrison. Reports are propagated here, and the English papers an- 
nounce, that six more regiments are coming from Europe. What may be the 
intention of all this, and what ought to be the conduct of this and the other 
Provinces upon so alarming an occasion, we shall not pretend to say. This capital 
IS B spectacle to them, and to the whole world ; a striking example of what is to 
be expected from the uncontrollable power claimed by a British Parliament over 
these Colonies that have not a single representative in it. But under all these 
sufferings and terrors, Boston has not as yet renounced the great and common 
cause for which it suffers." — Ed. 

4th s — vol. iv. 15 

114 Reply to Old York. 

in behalf of the Town, yonr fellow-sufferers in the glorious 
cause of liberty, and hope to continue your sincere friends, 
and very humble servants, in every rational view, 

John Swett, ) 7 . 
-r, , ^ •■ f Selectmen 
Edw d Grow, V k 

Joseph Grant, ) J 
Old York, October 11th, 1774. 
To the Committee Extraordinary for the oppressed poor in Boston. 

P. S. — The above donation is sent in the Sloop Isabel, 
Capt. Daniel Moulton, master. 


Boston, October 22d, 1774. 

By Capt. Moulton, the Committee of Donations re- 
ceived your obliging letter of the 17th instant, also a gen- 
erous and very acceptable present of wood, sheep and 
potatoes, sent by our worthy and patriotic brethren of Old 
York, to the oppressed poor of Boston. It will be the 
care and endeavor of the Committee to answer the inten- 
tions of the benevolent donors. The said Committee, not 
long ago, communicated to the public, in the newspapers, 
some account of their manner of conducting. It is possi- 
ble, that account may not have fallen into your hands ; we 
therefore inclose a half sheet printed copy thereof, and we 
hope it will meet with the approbation of our friends at 
Old York. We have been and are yet struggling hard to 
preserve our freedom. It is our duty to observe with 
thankfulness to God, that our enemy doth not yet triumph 
over us. By his countenance and favor we shall not only 
persevere in the common cause, but finally enjoy the inval- 
uable blessings of liberty and peace, civil and religious. 

The Committee, in behalf of this Town, present their 
thanks to our kind benefactors. We are partakers of your 
bounty, and we ask your prayers, which will, through our 

Letter from Middletown. 115 

Lord Jesus, be instrumental in obtaining from God, the 
mercies we so greatly need. 

We are, with great esteem, Gentlemen, your obliged 
friends and fellow-countrymen, 

n»vin TrT?i?i?TF<j J Per order of the Com- 
UAA I D J hi 1> RIES, j mittee of Donations. 

To Messrs. John Swctt, Edw'd Grow, Joseph Grant, 
Selectmen of Old York. 


Middletown, Oct llth, 1774. 

Your letter of the 13th of May last, directed to Mr. 
Benjamin Henshaw, with his answer thereto, has been 
communicated to us ; since which there have been several 
meetings of this Town, to consider the subject of your 
letter, when the following persons were chosen their Com- 
mittee of Correspondence, to wit, Matthew Tallcot, Richard 
Alsop, Titus Hosmer, Solomon Sage, Roger Riley, Nath. 
Gilbert, Isaac Miller, Eben'r Johnson, Stephen Hubbard, 
Francis Clark, Philip Mortimer, Benjamin Henshaw and 
George ; and the Town unanimously declared their resolu- 
tion to concur in every necessary measure to procure their 
rights and liberties entire and undiminished. 

The various measures adopted by the British Parliament, 
in their last sessions, and the steps Administration have 
already taken to carry them into execution, so plainly 
demonstrate our common danger, that this Town cannot 
assume it as a merit, that a claim to divest us of property, 
liberty and life, set up and asserted many years ago, and 
now attempted to be enforced by measures equally cruel, 
arbitrary and unjust ; by a blow aimed at our head, in the 
destruction of our ancient capital ; by the grossest violation 
of royal faith in tearing up by the roots the ancient charter 
of your Province ; by all the evils of Pandora's box let 
loose in the new form of government imposed upon you ; — 

116 Letter from Middletown. 

the security and protection given to your enemies and 
oppressors by the last Acts, and the train of licensed vil- 
lains entrusted to shake the rod over you, have roused our 
attention and zeal, and determined us to unite with our 
brethren through the continent, in a determined opposition 
to the destructive measures pursuing against us, and a vir- 
tuous and manly struggle, in every lawful and constitutional 
way, for our liberties and rights, which must never be given 
up nor parted with. 

In the course of things we are sensible many dangers 
will threaten, many evils overtake, and many hardships be 
felt and endured by those parts of America that shall 
become particularly obnoxious to the British ministry ; and 
that craft and policy, as well as open insult and violence, 
will be used to force a submission of particular places and 
Provinces, to weaken and disunite us, to which we appre- 
hend it is our duty to oppose a constant adherence to our 
rights, and a union of every part of America against the 
violence and oppression which may threaten or be inflicted 
on any part of it. The Town of Boston is honored by the 
first attack. As she has been the first to explain, assert 
and vindicate the rights of America, and detect and hold 
up to public view, stripped of every color and disguise, the 
wicked plans devised against them, her glory would have 
been incomplete, had she not been the first to suffer in the 
common cause. We congratulate you that you are found 
worthy to suffer in so good a cause. The resentment of 
wicked men are [is] a glorious proof of merit in the ob- 
jects of their revenge. Hitherto we have nothing to cen- 
sure, nothing to desire in the hard part you have to sup- 
port. We presume not to advise, we admire and applaud 
your constancy and perseverance, and do not so much wish, 
as assure ourselves, they will continue and rise superior to 
the malice, fraud and policy of your and our enemies. 

We feel ourselves greatly interested in your sufferings, 
their cause and event, and think it our indispensable duty 
to furnish you with every support and aid in our power. 
The inclosed bill of lading is the contents of a small collec- 
tion, which we commit to you to be issued according to your 
discretion for that purpose. This we consider as the first 

Reply to Middletown. 117 

payment of a large debt wc owe you, and we shall be 
ready to repeat it, from time to time, as long* as your neces- 
sity and our ability shall continue. 

We more than wish, we pray for your prosperity ; that 
you may have virtue to do and suffer all that wisdom and 
jound policy require of you at this juncture; that the craft 
and subtilty, the force and violence of your adversaries may 
be frustrated, and that you may have the honor, the glory, 
to save yourselves and your country from ruin. 

Wc are, Gentlemen, your assured friends, and obliged 
ramble servants, in the name and in behalf of the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence at Middletown. 

Titus IIosmer, Clerk. 

P. S. — Since writing the foregoing, the Committee have 
directed me to inclose copies of the bills of lading only, 
and retain the originals, as all our subscriptions are not 
collected. The freight is not paid. One of the bills of 
lading is taken by the young man that was employed by 
Kis, appointing payment of the freight in Boston, and as the 
vessel is gone, it is now too late to recall it. You will 
please to draw upon me for the freight of the whole, and 
your bill shall be honored upon sight. We have enough 
'subscribed and collected to answer the freight. 

& J 

I am, Gentlemen, your humble servant, 

Titus Hosmer. 
To the Committee of Correspondence at Boston. 


Boston, Nov. 11th, 1774. 

Your kind letter of the 17th of October, came safe to 
hand. When we reflect on the great importance of the 
controversy in which wc are engaged ; when we consider, 
that America will be free and happy, or servilely wretched, 
according as we conduct ourselves, we tremble. But that 

118 Reply to Middletown. 

we are contending for our rights — that the continent sup- 
ports us — makes us confident and determined. The plan 
which has been so long concerted to deprive America 
of her rights, seems now to be executing, and that the 
ministry have chosen the Town of Boston as their first 

That we are sequestered from all America, for a criterion 
by which they shall determine how far the idea of des- 
potic government is compatible with the sentiments of free 
born Americans, gives us no concern, because the spirit 
which is discovered in Middletown, has diffused itself 
through the continent. Many have been the devices, 
subtle have been the schemes, and low the artifices made 
use of, to sow dissension and division ; but the virtue of 
our country has risen superior to them all, and we see a 
band now formed, which will encourage our friends and 
confound our enemies. The ministry have hitherto kept 
the people of Great Britain ignorant of the true state of 
America. They have by bribes and falsehoods deceived the 
nation. Truth and justice were never so effectually envel- 
oped in the thick clouds of calumny and detraction. The 
mercenary writers they have employed to misrepresent, 
vilify, and abuse the Bostonians, afford us a striking in- 
stance of the base methods they pursue to ruin us. We 
have, however, the best grounds to think, that the tide is 
turning in our favor. The eyes of the people of Britain 
begin to be opened. " The coolness, temper, and firmness 
of the Americans' proceedings, — the unanimity of all the 
Colonies in the same sentiments of their rights, and of the 
injustice offered to Boston, and the patience with which 
those injuries are at present borne, without the least 
appearance of submission, have a good deal surprised and 
disappointed our enemies ; and the tone of public conver- 
sation, which has been so violently against us, begins evi- 
dently to turn." This is the language of as good a friend 
as America has in England, and whose authority we can 
rely on. And if this most desirable change had taken 
place before the proceedings of the American Congress 
were known in England, what may we expect upon their 
being known ] Had not the present ministry discovered 

Reply to Middled) w >i. 11!) 

such rancor and such malice in their proceedings with 
respect to America, we should expect every tiling to our 
wishes. But we have had such full demonstration of 
their diabolical designs against us, that we can look for 
nothing from them but what our own virtue and spirit 
can extort. 

The regular, firm, and spirited conduct of the continent, 
if they should even fail of success, will eternally redound 
to their honor ; and should they meet that success which 
their cause merits, they must be the happiest people on 
whom the sun shines. The propriety and zeal with which 
'the Town of Middletown have treated the indignity which 
is offered to their country, seems to be a renewing that glo- 
rious ardor which warmed the breasts of their progenitors. 
|It is a disposition which has heretofore been attended with 
(prosperity. The support which they have formerly so lib- 
•erally afforded the Town of Boston, in their sufferings, 
demands our warmest gratitude. This recent instance of 
Itheir good wishes for our success, and the readiness and 
forwardness which they discover to do everything in their 
power for maintaining and preserving the rights of their 
country, and for supporting and feeding any who are imme- 
diate sufferers by the vengeance of their enemies, cannot 
fail to excite gratitude from every friend to the rights of 
[mankind, and from the Town of Boston in particular. We 
pre not insensible, although there is a probability that our 
ui ievances will be redressed, that every thing yet depends 
on our own virtue and resolution ; great patience, vigilance, 
and public spirit are still necessary. The point has been 
so loner and so strenuouslv contended for, that our enemies 
(never will give it up, till they are compelled by the last 
and most unavoidable necessity. Our cause is so just, and 
we are so sensible how necessary it is to defend it, that we 
|have no doubt, but with the blessing of Heaven upon us, 
and upon the many good friends engaged for us, we shall 
:be able to hold on, and hold out, until oppression, injustice 
and tyranny shall be superseded by freedom, justice and 
igood government. And we cannot but flatter ourselves 
that while we are contending for justice for ourselves, we 
[shall be instrumental in calling back that virtue which 

120 Letter from Middleborough. 

of late years has fled from the councils of our parent 

We are, Gentlemen, your friends and obliged humble 

TnQTTPW "WaT?T?T?TV ^ Per order of the Com- 
J ObEI H YV ARKEN , j mittee of Donat ions. 

P. S. — We have just now, by Capt. Sheppard, from! 
London, received His Majesty's proclamation for dissolving j 
the late Parliament of Great Britain, whose conduct re- 
specting America will be remembered with horror through j 
all succeeding generations. 

To the Committee of Correspondence for the Town of Middletown. 


Middleborough, Oct. 18th, 1774. 

Gentlemen and Fellow Citizens, 

Deeply impressed with a sense of your uncommon suf- 
ferings from the operation of an Act of the British Parlia- 
ment, which for cruelty and injustice is unparalleled in his- 
tory, we have the honor of receiving your resolves, and the 
Towns contiguous to Boston, respecting the supply of the 
troops. We are well pleased with the contents, and cheer- 
fully co-operate with you, in that and every other rational 
measure, to the last penny of our fortunes, and the last 
drop of our blood. We have sent by the bearer, about 
eighty bushels of grain, for the use of the industrious poor, 
with the Pesolves of the Town, in which, if any thing 
amiss, please to correct, in order for the press. 

The painful sensations that constantly afflict us for the 
losses of your merchants, shopkeepers, and mechanics, and 
all your inhabitants, in stopping your Port, induces us to 
desire you to take an exact estimate of your estates as you 
conveniently can, and we make no doubt of the generosity 
of your American brethren, on your receiving an ample 

Reply to Middleborough. 121 

We regret the decay of God's image in man, when we 
behold the inhabitants of the other continent, so entirely 

sunk in luxury and despotism. The eyes of all the friends 
of liberty arc now fixed on America, and chiefly on your 
illustrious Town. Stand firm in the glorious cause of 
liberty, which is the principal thing that can make life 
desirable here, and promises to her pious votaries a glori- 
ous immortality hereafter. 

Gentlemen, we subscribe ourselves your affectionate 
friends, and fellow-sufferers, 

Per order of the Committee of Correspondence, 

John Western, Clerk. 

To the Committee of Correspondence in Boston. 


Boston, Oct. 2bt!i, 1774. 
Sir, t ■ 

Last week Mr. William Cooper, the Town Clerk, 
handed to the Committee of Donations, your acceptable 
favor of the 18th inst. Our good friend, Mr. Billington 
of Middleborough, has delivered us fifty-one bushels of rye, 
and thirty bushels corn ; a generous present from the 
worthy inhabitants of that patriotic Town. The bowels of 
the industrious poor, suffering by means of that oppressive 
and cruel Act, the Boston Port Bill, commonly so called, 
will doubtless be greatly refreshed, and many thanksgivings 
go up to God on account thereof. May the Lord reward 
our kind benefactors a thousand fold into their own 
bosoms. Please to present the thankful acknowledgments 
of this Committee, in behalf of the Town, for this instance 
of their Christian sympathy and affection. 

It affords much satisfaction that the conduct of this 
Town, hitherto, has met with the approbation of our breth- 
ren at Middleborough, as well as elsewhere. We have 
great difficulties and dangers to encounter, and they seem 
to be increasing, but we may set up our Ebenczcr, and say, 
" Hitherto God hath helped us." In all our darkness, we 
are not without some rays of light ; but what is in the 
4th s. — vol. iv. 16 

122 Ueply to Middleborough. 

womb of Providence, we cannot say. " It is not for us to 
know the times, or the seasons, which the Father hath put 
in his own power. 1 ' Duty is ours, events are God's. To 
Him let us look, for all that wisdom, meekness, firmness, 
and resolution, which our peculiar circumstances call for; 
and may we be enabled to pray and not faint. 

Your letter breathes a noble spirit, and becoming zeal 
and ardor in the glorious cause of American freedom, both 
civil and religious. It serves to encourage and animate us 
to persevere, in a manly, steady opposition to all tyrants, 
their abettors, and iniquitous measures. We may not 
boast of our own strength, but we may and ought to hope 
and trust in God. None were ever ashamed, who put their 
trust in him. If he be for us, no matter who or how many 
are against us. By his help, and that only, we shall be 
enabled to persevere. 

The generosity manifested in your proposal for taking an 
exact estimate of our estates, is very striking and endearing, 
and is a superadded instance of the benevolence of your 
hearts. It would be matter of no small difficulty, espec- 
ially as many of this Town are from day to day so engaged 
in affairs which concern the general interest, in this day of 
trial, as that all our attention and time is required, and all 
little enough. We would hope we shall never be reduced 
to such a necessity ; if we should, we must do the best we 
can. However this may happen, our obligations and grat- 
itude to our brethren are not a little increased, by so kind 
and charitable a proposal. It is not easy, and we do not 
know that it is possible, to determine with any degree of 
precision what loss and damage this Province and Town 
have sustained, by the almost annihilation of their trade 
and commerce. Some doubt whether two hundred thou- 
sand pounds sterling would be a compensation even to the 
Town. But when we take into consideration the anxiety 
and distress of mind the inhabitants have endured, we 
question whether even the wealth of Great Britain could 
countervail the damage. And for what \ What has the 
Province, what has Boston done to dese^ ve the carrying 
into execution measures so unjust, so oppressing, so cruel, 
so destructive ] It greatly stands in hand the promoters 
and favorers of such a pernicious plan, in stead, to have a 

Letter from Samuel Moody. 123 

satisfactory answer ready, when it shall at another, an infi- 
nitely more important day, be inquired of them, c What 
have the Bostonians done to merit such cruel treatment \ ' 
But we forbear. 

Inclosed is a printed half sheet, giving an account of 
the proceedings of this Committee relative to the charitable 
donations committed to their trust. If it shall be satisfac- 
tory to our kind benefactors, our end will in a good measure 
be answered ; but we cannot expect, in this corrupt state 
of things, to escape the censure of our foes. We hope our 
brethren will not place an undue confidence in the inhab- 
itants of this much abused and distressed Town, nor raise 
their expectation too high concerning us; but if our gra- 
cious God shall afford us strength equal to the day, we 
trust our brethren will not be disappointed. 

We are, with great esteem and much affection, Gentle- 
men, your much obliged friends and fellow-countrymen, 

D, VTn Tx-ttit^-ottt'o \ P er order of the Com- 
A VI JJ J E* 1 1U.LS, | mittee of Donatioris . 

To the Town Clerk and Committee of Correspondence at Middle- 


Newbury Fall, Oct. 20th, 1774. 

As a testimony of my good will to the cause of liberty 
and my country, and my sympathy with the Town of Bos- 
ton, under their present extreme sufferings, be pleased to 
accept for their industrious poor, by the hands of Doctor 
Cooper, five guineas, with the sincerest wishes of success 
to your generous efforts to recover and perpetuate all our 
just rights and privileges. 

I am, with great esteem, and respect, Gentlemen, your 
most obedient, humble servant, 

Samuel Moody. 
To the Committee of Ways and Means in Boston. 

124 Letter from Marblehead. 


Boston, Oct. 21th, 1774. 

Yesterday the Committee of Donations (or means and 
ways) received, by the hands of the Rev. Doctor Cooper, 
your obliging letter of 20th instant ; at the same time, also, 
your very generous donation of five guineas, for the relief 
of the industrious poor of Boston. The spirit of your 
letter is very sympathetic and truly noble. The Town are 
extremely obliged, and this Committee, in their behalf, 
return our grateful acknowledgments, for these expressions 
of your benevolence and charity. We take the freedom to 
inclose you. a printed half sheet, containing an account of 
the proceedings of this Committee respecting the donations 
with which we are entrusted. "We hope it will be satis- 
factory to you. We have been hitherto, we trust, directed 
and helped, and, by the favor and blessing of God, we shall 
yet persevere in our efforts to perpetuate all the just rights 
of this Province, and of all North America. 

And are, with great esteem, Sir, your affectionate friends 
and fellow-countrymen, 

Davttv Tpvprtvc! ( Per order of the Com- 
UAMD l^l<KIEb,j mittee of Donations. 

To Mr. Samuel Moody. 


Marblehead, Oct. 20th, 1774. 

We received your favor by Capt. Herbert, and in con- 
formity waited on the officers of the customs to know what 
must be done. They informed that a third of the cargo 
must be taken out, to have the vessel in order for searching, 
(the Captain at that time intimated he had some staves on 
board as dunnage ; they told him and us that would not be 
regarded,) in consequence of the prescription of their 
highnesses. We provided a vessel to receive as much of 
the corn as might be thought necessary by the scrutinizers. 

Reply to Scituate and Gloucester. 125 

The vessel accordingly received so much of the cargo as 
was directed by the officers to qualify her for searching; 

but alas, the officers, when waited on to search the vessel, 
declared the staves, the dunnage, must come out. Wo 
have since agreed with the master of the vessel whom we 
first applied to, to receive the corn, to take the whole cargo 
and carry to Boston. Since our engagement with him, have 
seen your order for four hundred hushels to be delivered 
Air. Vernon, which is accordingly done. You will receive 
the remainder of the corn, (God willing.) by the bearer of 
this, with the pork and flour. We have made no agree- 
ment with the master for freight of the articles, but submit 
it to you ; he being a son of liberty, we conclude will not 
be unreasonable. We by him remit you the balance of 
fifteen bushels damaged corn, and seven of good, sold by 
Capt. Jones, the bearer of the Maryland donation, which 
he paid us, on being told his corn was twenty-two bushels 
deficient. We have paid the laborers we hired to deliver 
the cargo, out of said sum, and remit the remainder. 

We are, Gentlemen, your humble servants, 

J. Orne, per order. 

N. B. — 15 bushels damaged com, a 1/4 1 
7 ditto good, a 2/8 





1 18 8 
Deduct 5/2 paid for labor, 5 2 

1 13 6 

Capt. Herbert has just informed us, to acquaint you, that 
he will not be able to w r ait on you at Boston, as such, begs 
you will write him. 

To the Committee of Donations at Boston. 


n Boston, Oct. 21 st, 1774. 

Gentlemen, ' ' 

The Selectmen, the Committee of Correspondence, and 

the Committee of Donations for this Town, being this day 

unexpectedly summoned to Cambridge, to attend the Pro- 

126 Reply to Tolland. 

vincial Congress upon some matters of importance in our 
public affairs, I am directed by the Committee of Donations 
to acknowledge the receipt of your kind and generous 
donation of one hundred and twenty sheep, received by the 
hands of our worthy friend, Mr. Ezekiel Corwell, for the 
benefit of the industrious poor of the Town of Boston, 
suffering by means of the cruel and oppressive Act of Par- 
liament, commonly called the Boston Port Bill, — which I 
trust will be held in detestation and abhorrence by all good 
men in this and future ages. Our distresses are very great, 
but the benevolence of our friends supports and refreshes 
our spirits, and you may rest assured that Boston will 
suffer all rather than submit to the power of tyranny. The 
cordial acknowledgments of this Committee, in behalf of 
the Town of. Boston, are hereby presented to our friends 
in Scituate. 

I am, with great esteem, in behalf and by order of the 
Committee, Gentlemen, your most humble servant, 

Alex'r Hodgdon, Clerk. 

N. B. — The above was sent to Scituate. A copy of this 
was sent to Gloucester acknowledging the receipt of ninety- 
five sheep. 

To the Committee of Correspondence at Scituate and Gloucester, 
Colony of Rhode Island. 1 


Boston, Oct. 2M, 1774. 

This is to acknowledge the receipt of your kind and 
generous donation of ninety-five sheep, by the hands of 
our worthy friend, Mr. Hope Lathrop, which shall be ap- 
plied to the relief of our poor, suffering by means of the 
cruel and oppressive Port Bill, according to the intention 
of the generous donors. We are struggling under the 

1 The Colony of Rhode Island was prompt to express a sympathy for Boston. 
The Essex Gazette of May 24, 1774, has the following paragraph : " On the 17th 
of May the inhabitants of the Town of Providence ' Resolved, That the Commit- 
tee of Correspondence of this Town be desired to inform the Town of Boston, 
that we do not consider ourselves disinterested in the present alarming conduct 

Reply to Tolland. l k 27 

heavy hand of tyranny. Our troubles are exceeding great ; 
but the kindness and benevolence of our friends and breth- 
ren in Tolland, as well as other places, greatly refreshes 

and raises our spirits. You may depend upon it, that by 
the divine help and blessing, Boston will sillier everything 
with patience and firmness, that a cruel and arbitrary 
administration can inflict upon us, even to tin 4 loss of for- 
tune and life, rather than submit, in any one instance, to 
the power of tyranny. We trust we have a righteous 
cause, and that the Supreme Ruler of the universe will in 
his own time and way arise and scatter the dark clouds that 

af the British Parliament towards them; but view the whole of the American 
Colonies as equally concerned in the event .' This meeting proposed 'a Con- 
gress, as soon as may be, of the Colonies and Provinces of North America.' " 

The Boston Gazette of May '2:*, 1774, names the towns of Newport and West- 
erly, as among those who, thus early, had given assurances of sympathy and 
union; and contains a letter dated Westerly, 19th May, 1774, which concludes 
in the following terms : '-This horrid attack upon the Town of Boston, we con- 
sider not as an attempt upon that Town singly, but upon the whole American 
continent. We are therefore determined to use our whole influence for the sup- 
port of the Town of Boston, in the same manner as if the attack had been made 
on the metropolis of this Colony. And we doubt not but the other Colonies will 
consider this arbitrary and tyrannical edict in the same light, and heartily unite 
with the friends of liberty in Boston, in support of the common cause." A town 
meeting was held in Newport, on the 20th of May, which passed resolutions ex- 
pressing "the deepest sense of the injuries done to the Town of Boston," by the 
Port Bill ; and ordered these resolutions to be sent to the Boston Committee of 

The following brief article was widely circulated in the journals. It is here 
icopied from the Essex Gazette of May 31, 1774 : " Newport, Rhode Island, May 16, 
1774. Join or Die ! ! The Act of Parliament for blockading the harbor of Bos- 
ton, in order to reduce its spirited inhabitants to the most servile and mean com- 
ipliances ever attempted to be imposed on a free people, is allowed to be infinitely 
more alarming and dangerous to our common liberties, than even that hydra the 
jStamp Act, (which was defeated by our firmness and union,) and must be read 
with a glowing indignation by every real friend of freedom, in Europe and 
jAmerica. . . . Though the Town of Boston is now intended to be made a 
victim to ministerial wrath, yet the insult and indignity offered to our virtuous 
'brethren in that capital, who have so nobly stood as a barrier against slavery, 
(ought to be viewed in the same odious light, as a direct hostile invasion of every 
Province on the continent, whose inhabitants are now called upon, by interest, 
honor and humanity, to stand forth with firmness and unanimity for the relief, 
support and animation of our brethren in the insulted, besieged capital of Mas- 
sachusetts-Bay. . . . The Generals of despotism are now drawing the lines of 
circumvallation around our bulwarks of liberty, and nothing but unity, resolu- 
tion and perseverance can save ourselves and posterity from what is worse than 
death— slavery." 

The Boston Gazette of July 25, 1774, has the following, dated Newport, July 
18: "Many parts of the country are raising subscriptions for the humane and 
generous purpose of supporting the poor of Boston : and there would have been 
a subscription vigorously put forward in this Town, last week, had it not been 
for the supplies which were sent from other parts, on which account it was thought 
best to omit it till the next session of our Assembly, when it is not doubted they 

128 Reply to Tolland. 

at present hang over us. We submit to him, and ask your 
prayers at the throne of grace for us. 

The sincere thanks of this Committee, in behalf of this 
greatly distressed and injured Town, are hereby presented 
to our worthy friends in Tolland, for their kind assistance 
in this our day of trial. 

We are, with great esteem, Gentlemen, your friends and 

TTtnt? v Htt t I Per order the Commit - 

J.±.fcJNltX ±±ILL,\ tee of Donations. 

To the Gentlemen Committee of Correspondence for the Town of 
Tolland, in Connecticut. 

will do something handsome, it being absolutely more necessary to assist the 
inhabitants of that Town, in this last struggle for American liberty, than if it 
had been laid in ashes." 

At a town meeting held in Providence August 12, its deputies in the General 
Assembly were instructed in the following terms:— "Gentlemen: The sufferings 
and distresses of the people of the Town of Boston, occasioned by a relentless 
execution of that cruel edict for blocking up the port, awakens our attention and 
excites our compassion. Their cause is our cause ; and unless aid and succor 
be afforded them, they may be discouraged into a hurtful submission ; and min- 
isterial vengeance may next be directed against this Colony, and in the end, 
alight upon all. You are therefore requested to use your endeavors, at the next 
session of the General Assembly, to procure a grant, to be made from this Col- 
ony, of such sum of money as they may think fit, towards relieving and mitigat- 
ing the difficulties and distresses which that Town must experience from the 
operation of that most unrighteous inhibition, the hostile manner of carrying the 
same into force, and a general arrest of their liberties. Permit us to observe, 
that in doing this it will be evidenced, that as a community, we shall do unto 
others as we would that they should do unto us in a like circumstance ; and that 
it will be a greater testimony of unanimity in the general concernments of Amer- 
ica, in this day of struggle and danger, than private contributions, and far more 

The Boston Gazette, of August 22, has a letter dated Newport, August 19, 
which says : " The tories in this Town, and some other parts of the Colony, are 
endeavoring to prevent any grant being made by our Assembly, and we are to 
have a town meeting this day to instruct the Deputies to vote for a grant for the 
Town of Boston. Our present Assembly, last session, promised they would 
assist the Town of Boston ; and as this Assembly can never exist again, after 
next week, if they don't do something, they will sink themselves into the lowest 
degree of contempt." 

The Essex Gazette, of September 20, has the following, dated Boston, Septem- 
ber 19 : " We hear that collections are making in the several Towns of the Col- 
ony of Rhode Island, for the suffering inhabitants here. It is said fifteen hundred 
dollars are already raised in the Town of Newport ; and that the Hon. Joseph 
Babcock, of Westerly, had generously subscribed one hundred dollars for the 
like purpose." 

At a Town meeting held in Providence, November 21, 1774, it was " Voted, 
That the Committee of Correspondence of this Town be hereby empowered to 
receive of the town treasury the sum of one hundred and twenty-five pounds, 
lawful money, and to transmit the same to the Committee of the Town of Boston 
for receiving donations for the distressed inhabitants of Boston and Charlestown ; 
and the treasurer is hereby ordered to pay said sum out of the first money he 
shall receive of the tax now ordered." — Ed. 

Letter from Concord. 1 89 


Province of Xeir Hampshire, 

Concord, Oct 29th, 1774. 

The people of this Town have subscribed a consider- 
able quantity of pease, for our suffering brethren in the 
Town of Boston, part of which I now send you by the 
bearer, the remainder T shall forward as soon as possible. 
You will excuse my giving you this trouble, not being par- 
ticularly acquainted with any other Gentleman of the 

I remain, your most obedient and very humble servant, 

Timo, Walker, Jun. 
To Mr. Henry Hill. 


Boston, Nov. 11th, 1774. 
Dear Sir, 

This morning Mr. Samuel Ames delivered me your 
agreeable favor of 29th October, informing me that the 
people of the Town of Concord, have generously sub- 
scribed a considerable quantity of pease, for their suffering 
brethren in this Town, part of which you have sent, and 
the receipt of which I hereby acknowledge, and in behalf 
of the Town desire you to accept our sincere thanks for 
this proof of your sympathy with us under our present 
trials, which, 1 assure you, are very heavy, and under which 
we fear we should sink, were it not for the support which, 
under Providence, we receive from our kind friends and 
brethren in this, and the neighboring Colonies. 

I am, Dear Sir, your obliged, humble servant, 

Henry Hill. 
To Mr. Timo. Walker, Jr., in Concord, Province New Hampshire. 
4th s. — vol. iv. 17 

130 Reply to Smithfield and Johnston. 


Boston, Nov. 2d, 1774. 

By the hands of Capt. Stephen Whipple and Mr. Wil- 
liam Potter, the Committee of Donations received your 
very acceptable present of one hundred and fifty sheep. 
The Committee, in behalf of the Town, return our grateful 
acknowledgments to our kind and generous benefactors, the 
patriotic inhabitants of Smithfield and Johnston. Such 
bounties greatly refresh our spirits, and encourage us to 
persevere in the glorious cause of true, constitutional free- 
dom and liberty. . We consider the cause as common, and 
therefore a cause in the defence of which, all North Amer- 
ica ought to be united ; and it affords us, as it must every 
true-hearted American, a peculiar pleasure, that such a 
union prevails at this day, as bodes well to the rights and 
liberties of North America, civil and religious. 

What judgment are we to form respecting those who 
would affect to be calm and unconcerned spectators, in this 
day of trouble and distress. But what shall we think and 
say of those who are constantly endeavoring, in a private, 
and when they dare, in a more open manner, to carry into 
execution a plan the most detestable, and calculated for the 
destruction of every thing accounted valuable and dear in 
the eyes of Americans. Surely, then, Americans must, they 
will, exert themselves to their utmost at such a day as this. 

The inhabitants of this Town are called, in providence, 
to stand, as it were, in the front of the battle. We have 
reason, in the first place, to be thankful to God, who hath 
thus far helped us, and nextly, to our generous and kind 
benefactors, by their affectionate letters, as well as their 
timely donations. May the Lord reward them. We 
greatly need wisdom, direction, prudence, zeal, patience and 
resolution. Our Christian friends may, by their prayers to 
God, contribute much towards a happy issue of these severe 
trials, and those mercies which are the fruit of the prayers 
of faith will prove mercies indeed. But we have not time 
to enlarge. 

Inclosed is a printed half sheet respecting the conduct 

Reply to Candia. LSI 

of the Committee on the improvement of the charities of 
our friends, which we hope will be to their satisfaction. 

Gentlemen, your much obliged friends and fellow-coun- 

David Jeffries, j 3^52522 

To Mr. Daniel Mom/, Jr., Town Clerk of the Town of SmUHfield. 

Acknowledging receipt of 150 sheep. 
And to 

Mr. Caleb Harris, Town Clerk of the Town of Johnston. 
Acknowledging receipt of 57 sheep. 


Boston, Nov. 4th, 1774. 

The Committee of Donations have received your very 
acceptable and kind present of ten dollars, and fifty-six 
sheep, from the Town of Chester, and twenty-eight sheep 
from the parish of Candia, in New Hampshire, and in 
behalf of the Town, return their grateful acknowledgments 
to our benevolent and generous benefactors, the inhabitants 
of Chester and parish of Candia, aforesaid. Such dona- 
tions greatly relieve us under our great and increasing 
difficulties, occasioned by the severe Boston Port Bill, and 
other disagreeable measures now carrying on against us. 
Inclosed you have a printed account, in which you will see 
the conduct of the Committee in the improvement of the 
charities of our friends, which we hope will be satisfactory. 
We are, Gentlemen, with great esteem, your obliged 
friends and fellow-countrymen, 

John Soley, per order. 

To the Selectmen of the Town of Chester, and parish of Candia, 
New Hampshire. 


At a town meeting held in the Town of Tiverton, on 
Tuesday the 30th August, 1774, Edward Gray, Esq., mod- 
erator, it was voted, — That Mr. Benjamin Jenks, Mr. Par- 
don Gray and Mr. William Durfee, be a Committee to go 

132 Reply to Tiverton. 

throughout said Town of Tiverton, to see what the inhab- 
itants of said Town would subscribe towards the relief of 
the poor of Boston, and to make report to said Town, at 
their next meeting, &c. This meeting is adjourned to the 
first Monday in October next, as of record appears. 

Witness, Walter Cook, Town Clerk. 

Received by Benjamin Jenks and Pardon Gray, Nov'r, 72 sheep. 

Tiverton, Nov. 5th, 1774. 

At said meeting by adjournment, on the 3d October, 
1774, it was voted, — That said Committee was thereby j 
impowered to collect the said subscriptions, and lay out the 
same, according to their discretion, as they should think 
most to advantage for said poor of Boston, and to be 
in readiness to [depart] for Boston with the same, on the 
10th day of November next, as of record appears. 

Witness, Walter Cook, Town Clerk. 

Tiverton, Nov. 5th, 1774. 


r < Boston, Nov. 12th, 1774. 


Having received by the hands of Messrs. Benjamin 
Jenks, Pardon Gray, and William Durfee, seventy- two 
sheep, for the relief of the poor, now suffering in this 
Town by means of the oppressive Boston Port Bill, the 
Committee of Donations, in behalf of the Town, return 
their grateful acknowledgments to our kind and generous 
benefactors, the inhabitants of the Town of Tiverton. 
Such bounties are a great relief to us under our distressed 
circumstances, for which we have abundant reason to be 
thankful to God, for his goodness to us herein, as also to 
our kind and benevolent friends, for the help and assist- 
ance afforded to us in this day of our distress. We send 
you the inclosed, that you may see the conduct of the 
Committee in disposing of the charities of our friends, 
which we hope will be satisfactory. 

We are, with great respect, 

TnxjAT Q/-vT -c-v S P er or <ier of the Com- 
O UtiSS OULL 1 , j mittee of Donations. 

To Mr. Samuel Durfee, President of the Town Council of Tiverton. 

Letter from Fairfield. 133 


Fairfield^ 8th Nov., 1771. 

The Town of Fairfield, by donations, have collected 
seven hundred and fifty bushels of grain, of various kinds, 
which is ordered to yon by (apt. 'Thorp, bound for Salem, 
which we wish safe to hand, and hope this little testimony 
of our attachment to the common cause, will comfort the 
hearts of all those worthy patriots in the Town of Boston, 
who have so manfully exerted themselves in the cause of 
liberty, as well as those poor who arc suffering under the 
operation of the unjust and cruel Tort Bill. Persevere in 
your glorious opposition. We are not insensible of your 
sufferings, and hope we shall yet consider ourselves bound 
to afford you such succor and relief, as our circumstances 
land your wants demand. 

We are with great truth and regard, your most obedient 

Signed by order of the Town's Committee of Donations, 

Jonathan Sturges. 

To be communicated to the Committee of Ways and Means in Boston, or Over- 
i seers of the Poor. 

I To Mr. Henry Hill, fyc, 

Committee of Ways and Means at Boston. 


Boston, Nov. 24tf?, 1774. 

The testimony which the patriotic inhabitants of the 
Town of Fairfield have given of their attachment to the 
common and glorious cause of liberty, by their liberal 
donation of seven hundred and fifty bushels of grain, by 
Capt. Thorp, has afforded much comfort, as well as season- 
able relief to their friends in Boston, who are now suffer- 
ing under the cruel rod of ministerial tyranny and oppres- 
sion. The sympathy of our friends is a great support to 
us under our trials, notwithstanding the greatness and 
severity of them ; and we trust, through the favor of our 
God, we shall be enabled to persevere in our opposition to 

134 Letter from Rehoboth. 

the enemies of America, and so answer the hopes and |j 
expectation of our friends, of whose generous donations wel 
trust we shall ever retain a grateful sense. 

We are particularly obliged by the assurances you give* 
us, " that you are not insensible of our sufferings," and the!; 
hope you express, you shall yet consider yourselves bound]! 
to afford us such succor and relief as your circumstances 
and our wants may demand. May a kind Providence I 
bountifully reward your liberality and kindness, and the] 
blessing of him that was ready to perish come down and 
rest on the heads of the generous inhabitants of the Town 
of Fairfield. 

"We hope the inclosed account of the manner in which] 
the Committee are distributing the donations of our friends I 
and benefactors, in whose cause, (as well as our own,) this • 
Town is suffering, will meet with your approbation, as it 
will afford great satisfaction to 

Your obliged friends and humble servant, 

U rvl j V TTttt < Per order of the Com- 
-LL-kiMil -i-J-l-Li-Lfj { mittee of Donations. 

To Mr. Jonathan Sturges and others, Committee for collecting 
donations in the Town of Fairfield, in Connecticut. 


Rehoboth, Nov. 9th, 1774. 

To the Committee of Donations of the Town of Boston. 


Whereas a number of the inhabitants of the aforesaid 
Town of Rehoboth, have raised and given a number of 
sheep and some money, as a donation for the poor sufferers 
of the Town of Boston, we the subscribers, hath delivered 
to Capt. Ebenezer Peck, fifty-four sheep, and twelve 
pounds in money, and to Capt. Shubael Peck, thirty-seven 
sheep, to drive down and deliver to the abovesaid Com- 
mittee of Donations for the use abovesaid. 

Aaron Head, } Selectmen 
\\ J 9i sheep. William Cole, > of 

Shubael Peck, ) Rehoboth. 

Letter from Nathan Applet on. 135 


Boston, November Wth, 1774. 

The sympathy and generosity which a number of the 
patriotic inhabitants of the Town of llchoboth, have shown 
towards the Town of Boston, suffering under the iron rod 
pf tyranny and oppression, demand their grateful acknowl- 
edgments. And we, the Committee of Donations, accord- 
ingly transmit them to you, by our worthy friends, Capt. 
Ebenezer Peck and Capt. Shubael Peck, by whom we have 
received ninety-one sheep, and fourteen pounds, eight shil- 
lings and ninepencc in cash, which we assure you shall be 
ipplicd to the benevolent purpose for which they were sent. 
We have inclosed you an account of the manner in which 
|\ve are distributing the liberal donations of our generous 
(benefactors, as we think ourselves obliged to satisfy them 
(that they are properly applied. We earnestly wish you the 
best of blessings, and subscribe ourselves, 

Your affectionate, though greatly afflicted friends and 

TTpvrv TTttt < Per order of the Com- 
J.J. J^xN ±t 1 _L_LI.L.L, ^ m ittee of Donations. 

To Messrs. Aaron Read, William Cole, and Shubael Peck, Select- 
men of the Town, Rehobolh. 

X. B. Copy of this was sent to East Greenwich, acknowl- 
edging the receipt of twenty-five sheep, and four oxen, 
received per the hands of Messrs. Preserved Pierce and 
William Pierce. 

Signed, John Soley. 

Directed to the Committee of Correspondence for East Greenwich, 
in the Colony of Rhode Island. 


Salem, Nov. 9th, 1774. 

I have shipped on board Capt. "Walker, thirty-five 
casks of rice, part of that which Capt. Derby has stored 
for the Town. The schooner belongs to Mr. John Webb, 

136 Reply to Wethersfield. 

of Boston. Capt. Walker presumes that Mr. Webb will 
not charge any thing for the freight, but expects to be held 
harmless in case he should. Capt. Walker was going to 
take wood on board to carry him up to Boston, but readily 
accepted the rice, I agreeing to pay all extra charges. I 
do not find any flax in Town and am apprehensive I shall I 
not, therefore would not have you depend upon it. I 
believe we shall dispose of all Capt. Williams's wheat and; 
rye. Capt. Loveland was sailed before I got down. 

Tendering the Committee any further services, and wish- 1 
ing them prosperity, I remain with great respect, Gentle- 
men, your most humble servant, 

Nath'l Appleton. 

To the Committee of Donations for the Town of Boston. 

31Teirces, ^. 
4 half Trs. $ Iuce# 


Boston, November, 1774. 

We would with gratitude acknowledge the receipt of 
fifty-five and three-quarters bushels rye, seven and three- 
quarters of wheat, and eight and three-quarters of Indian 
corn, received by Capt. Solomon Loveland, from our worthy 
brethren of Wethersfield, being a second donation to the 
poor, suffering by means of the tyrannical Port Bill. We 
cannot but eye the hand of Providence, inspiriting our 
brethren in the Colony of Connecticut, and indeed through- 
out this continent, to assist and strengthen this distressed 
Town. We trust our sufferings will, in the end, be for the 
advantage of North America, and are therefore animated 
to persevere in a cause which we reckon the whole conti- 
nent are concerned in. 

We wish you the smiles of Heaven, and the divine 
protection, and are, Gentlemen, your most humble servant, 

"R A TTCTTTM * Per order of tlle Com - 

XJ>. ^X U & 1 1JN , j m i t tee of Donations. 

To Ezekiel Williams, Esq., and others, the Committee of Corres- I 
pondence at Wethersfield. 

Letter from Colchester. 137 


Colchester, Nov. 15th, 1774. 

We send you by Capt. John Chamberlain, the bearer 
hereof, five cattle and ninety-four sheep, which arc given 
by the inhabitants of Colchester, to our distressed brethren, 
the inhabitants of the Town of Boston. Major Henry 
Champ[ion], one of the Committee of Correspondence, has 
already forwarded part of our Donations. Capt. Chamber- 
lain undertakes, on his own cost, to convey what we now 
send by him ; we wish the same safe to hand. 

We are, with great esteem, Gentlemen, your most hum- 
ble and obedient servants, 

Dudley Wright, ) Committee 
Elias Worthington, > of 

John Watrous, ) Correspondence. 

To the Gentlemen Committee of Correspondence in Boston, in the 
Province Massachusetts Bay. 


Boston, Nov. 23d, 1774. 

We have to acknowledge your favor of the loth ult., 
: and we heartily thank you for the very generous donations 
.accompanying the same, viz., five cattle and ninety-four 
sheep, received by Capt. Chamberlain from our worthy 
brethren, the inhabitants of Colchester. Nor must we 
iomit to acknowledge the kindness of Capt. Chamberlain, 
who has taken care of, and safely conveyed them to us at 
his own cost. The other part of your donation of cattle 
(by Major Champion are not yet come to hand. We hear 
they are upon the road, and when received shall acknowl- 
edge the same, and again write you more fully ; in the 
mean time would only observe to you, that the kindness 
and sympathy of our brethren in Connecticut refreshes our 
hearts and strengthens our hands to stand firm in the 
American cause. I am, in behalf of the Committee of 
4th s. — vol. iv. 18 

138 Letter from Litchfield. 

Donations for this Town, Gentlemen, your most obedient, 
humble servant, 

Ben. Austin, SJ^SL. 
To Messrs Dudley Wright, Elias Worthington and John Watrous, 
Committee of Correspondence for the Town of Colchester. 

Boston, Dec. Uth, 1774. 

We wrote you on the 23d ult., acknowledging the 
receipt of five cattle and ninety-four sheep, received by 
Capt. Chamberlain. Would now acquaint you the other 
part of your generous donation, by the bearer, Major 
Champion, we duly received, viz., three cattle and seven 
sheep ; for all which we return you our hearty thanks, 
and may our sympathizing brethren of Colchester be abun- 
dantly rewarded for their kindness to this distressed Town, 
who are struggling under the cruel hand of tyranny. The 
remarkable union of the Colonies gives us spirit. We 
have a righteous cause, and we trust that Providence will 
soon confound the devices of our proud oppressors, and 
shortly restore those charter rights, which have been so 
cruelly wrested from us ; and hope it will not be long before 
this metropolis will be a quiet habitation. And may our 
sufferings be the means of establishing the rights of North 

I am, with great regard, Gentlemen, your most humble 

Benjamin Austin, \ F ^£TLn^7: 

To Messrs. Dudley Wright, Elias Worthington and John Watrous, 
Committee of Correspondence for the Town of Colchester. 


Litchfield, 15th Nov., 1774. 

Deeply commiserating the unhappy fate of Boston and 
Charles town, we have made a small collection in several 

Reply to Litchfield. 139 

Towns in the County of Litchfield, for the relief of the 
sufferers in consequence of the Boston Port Bill, which 
you will receive at the hands of Mr. William Stanton, one 
of the Committee of Correspondence for the Town of 
Litchfield, who waits on you for that purpose. We imag- 
ine our collections would have been more considerable, 
notwithstanding [the] infant state of most of the Towns in 
this County, had not a report prevailed here, (which we 
doubt not originated from persons unfriendly to American 
liberty,) that the poor in Boston and Charlestown were 
abundantly supplied by the generous donations already 
made. We hope, (notwithstanding said report,) that our 
charity will be acceptable, and that by Mr. Stanton you 
will make us better acquainted with the circumstances of 
the poor in said Towns, assuring the people of Boston, &c., 
that we consider them as suffering in a common cause, and 
are ready to assist them with our lives and fortunes, when- 
ever there shall be occasion. We also desire you will favor 
us with an account of interesting occurrences as you shall 
have convenient opportunity. 

We are, Gentlemen, your humble servants, 

Lynde Lord, ) Committee of 
Reuben Smith, 3 Correspondence. 

To the Committee of Correspondence for the Town of Boston. 


Boston, Nov. 24/A, 1774. 

The ardor and zeal, the unanimity and firmness, of the 
truly respectable Colony of Connecticut, in asserting, and 
their manly, spirited resolutions, to support and defend the 
glorious cause of America, that is to say, true constitutional 
freedom and liberty, will be a means of handing down 
their names with esteem and honor to the latest generation. 
But when it shall also be made known what incontestable 
evidence they have given of their Christian sympathy and 
affection towards this much abused, distressed Town, by 

140 Reply to Litchfield. 

their kind and very liberal donations, the honor and esteem 
must and will be increased in a proportionable degree. 

An instance of this kind now presents itself, and the 
Committee of Donations do, in behalf of this once happy 
and highly favored Town, present our grateful acknowledg- 
ments to the patriotic inhabitants of Litchfield, for the 
obliging letter, dated Litchfield, 15th November, 1774, 
received per the hands of our good friend Mr. William 
Stanton, who has paid to the Treasurer of the Committee, 
nineteen pounds, two shillings and 1M., and also delivered 
us fifty-one cattle ; all for the relief of the sufferers in 
Boston and Charlestown, " in consequence of the Boston 
Port Bill." We shall apply this noble donation to the 
benevolent purpose for which it is designed. The inclosed 
printed half sheet will certify you of the proceedings of 
the Committee hitherto, and that our worthy, suffering 
brethren of Charlestown have not been, or are to be over- 

We are sorry such reports had prevailed as you mention 
in your letter. Doubtless an enemy hath spread those 
reports ; but as Mr. Stanton has been let into a general 
state of the donations already received, and of the poor in 
this Town, we think we need add nothing on this head, 
but refer you to him for satisfaction. Had our bottom 
been broader, we should before now have engaged in mat- 
ters which would more generally and more lastingly have 
employed the poor. But we must cut our coat according to 
our cloth. 

Your assurances that you consider the people of Boston 
" as suffering in one common cause, and are ready to assist 
them with your lives and fortunes whenever there shall be 
occasion," is such an expression of public virtue and true 
greatness of spirit, as must tend to confound our foes, and 
inspire the inhabitants of this Town to stand their ground 
to the last. This, by the favor and blessing of God, we 
are determined to do. He only can make us to stand. 
Our most humble and thankful praises are due to Him, 
for what He has already wrought for us ; and to Him our 
eye must be directed for all the further mercy and salvation 
we need. 

We have nothing very remarkable, more than what you 

Reply to Glastenbury. 141 

will meet with in the public prints, but we shall at all 
tinier be glad to communicate any interesting intelligence, 

when an opportunity presents. If any of your friends 
should come this way, the Committee would be glad to 
know it. 

We remain, with great esteem, Gentlemen, your affec- 
tionate and much obliged friends and servants, 

D\VTF> T-PFVTJTPQ J Per order of the Com- 
A \ ID J &£ t Kl-Lb, j mittee of Donations. 

To Messrs. Lyride Lord, and Reuben Smith, 

Committee of Correspondence, Litchfield. 


Boston, Nov. 16th, 1774. 

The zeal which the patriotic inhabitants of the Town 
I of Glastenbury have discovered in the glorious cause of 
liberty, by their readiness to support the Town of Boston 
'under their present sufferings, is truly laudable ; and the 
[Committee of Donations readily embrace this opportunity 
| of acknowledging, in the name of the Town, the obliga- 
tions they are under to them for their generous donation 
of one hundred sixty-three and a half bushels of rye, and 
three shillings and four pence in cash, by the hand of 
Capt. Solomon Loveland, and assure them it shall be ap- 
plied to the benevolent purpose for wdiich it was sent. 

When we consider the number and power of our adver- 
saries, our hearts are almost ready to fail ; but the justness 
of our cause and a firm reliance on the God of justice for 
support, inspire us with resolution to endure the extremest 
sufferings, rather than sacrifice the liberties of America. 
We natter ourselves our friends will continue to support 
our industrious tradesmen, many of whom are obliged to 
mortgage their little habitations, and others to sell their 
plate and furniture for the maintenance of their families. 
Unhappy Boston, to what miserable circumstances art thou 
reduced ! 

That you may be informed of the manner in which we 

142 Letter from Nathan Appleton. 

are distributing the donations of our generous benefactors, 
we have inclosed you an account, which we hope will meet 
with the approbation of our friends in Glastenbury. 

The following is an extract of a letter, dated London, 
September 3d, 1774, from a person of distinction to a gen- 
tleman here. He writes to this purpose, — that " he might 
have been expected over into these parts, but his friends 
urged his stay in London, until the result of the Congress 
should be known, — that the spirit, temper and firmness of | 
this people, and their union respecting their rights, greatly 
surprised and disappointed our enemies, — that the current 
of conversation which heretofore had been much against 
us, was turned in our favor, and he (the writer) doubted 
not that by the time the Parliament met, it would be as 
general in our favor, as it had been against us ; and that 
there would be a great number of our friends in Parlia- 
ment the next session, — that the non-consumption agree- 
ment, if faithfully adhered to, must be the ruin of the 
Ministry, and our friends would succeed ; when we might 
hope for such a constitutional charter from the King, Lords 
and Commons, as would be agreeable to us, and for the 
benefit of the whole empire." This intelligence may be 
depended on. 

We are, Gentlemen, your obliged friends and brethren, 

TT TTtt t \ Per order of the Com- 

±±.biMtt 1 J.J-1-LIj, j m ittee of Donations. 

To the Committee of Correspondence in Glastenbury. 


Salem, Nov. Yith, 1774. 

I wrote you the 9th instant, when I shipped thirty-five 
or thirty-six casks of rice, on board Capt. Jabez Walker, 
belonging to Mr. John Webb, which presume you have 
received. I say thirty-five and thirty-six casks, as the tally 
at delivering out the casks did not agree with the Captain's 
tally at receiving it on board. I shall be glad to receive 
the true quantity, in order to settle with Capt. Derby. 

Letter from Baltimore. 143 

Yesterday I shipped on board Capt. Thorp, who is going 
up to Boston with grain from Fairfield, nineteen casks of 
rice, which is all that remained undisposed of. (apt. 
Thorp appeared very uneasy at being obliged to go up to 
Boston with grain from Fairfield ; but hearing I had some 
rice to send up, applied for the freight of it, and to induce 
him the more cheerfully to go, I have put it on board, so 
that he will expect the customary freight, especially as he 
was obliged to go out of his way to take it on board. I 
have settled with Capt. Williams, for the grain he brought 
from Farmington. 1 propose to be at Boston next week, 
when I shall carry up the account, and also Capt. Derby's. 
IThey now ask twenty-five shillings for rye. If any more 
i comes in, perhaps it will be as well to sell here. Inclosed 
lis Fairfield letter, and Capt. Walker's receipt for the thirty- 
five casks rice, sent last week. 

With the greatest respect, I remain, Gentlemen, your 
most humble servant, 

Nath'l Appleton. 

P. S. — Capt. Thorp has a small quantity of flax, which 
he proposes to carry to Boston. There is none good to be 
bought here. 

To David Jeffries, Esq., Treasurer for the Town of Boston. 


Baltimore, Nov. 21st, 1774. 

Inclosed you have bill lading for one thousand seven 
hundred bushels of corn and rye, which is shipped on 
board the schooner Hawke, Nicholas Bartlett, master, 
bound to Marblehead, being a donation from the gentlemen 
of Talbot and Dorset Counties in this Province, for the use 
of the poor of Boston ; of which donation the account we 
received was eight hundred and fifty-three bushels corn, 
and a barrel of Irish beef from the Committee of Talbot 
County ; six hundred and twenty-two and a half bushels 

144 Letter from Durham. 

corn and three hundred and fifty-nine bushels rye, from the 
Committee of Dorset County ; but as the gentlemen who 
sent it to us observed that it was taken in by different 
measures, which might be variable, it accordingly fell short 
thirteen and a half bushels by our meas[ure]. Here you 
will please to observe, that there yet rests with us, one 
hundred and nineteen bushels corn, and the barrel of beef, 
which Capt. Bartlett could not take in ; these we hope to 
get shipped in Capt. Gorham's vessel, belonging to your 
port, which we are now loading. The gentlemen who 
addressed us this grain, have engaged to remit us the 
amount of the freight thereof to Boston, so that we shall 
remit to Capt. Bartlett' s owners. 

We have the pleasure of informing you that we have 
accounts from several friends in York and Cumberland 
Counties, in Pennsylvania, that they are now collecting 
contributions for your poor, which we hope will be liberal, 
and which we hope to have the happiness of soon convey- 
ing to you. 

We are, with the greatest respect, Gentlemen, your most 
humble servants, 

Saml. and Eobt. Purviance. 
To the Committee for receiving Donations for the Poor of Boston. 


Durham, in New Hampshire, Nov. 21st, 17T4. 

We take pleasure in transmitting to you, by Mr. 
Scammel, a few cattle, with a small sum of money, which 
a number of persons in this place, tenderly sympathizing 
with our suffering brethren in Boston, have contributed 
towards their support. With this, or soon after, you will 
receive the donations of a number in Lee, a parish lately 
set off from this Town, and in a few days, those of Dover, 
Newmarket, and other adjacent Towns. What you here- 
with receive, comes not from the opulent, but mostly from 
the industrious yeomanry in this parish. We have but a 

Letter from Durham. 145 

few persons of affluent fortunes among us, but those have 
most cheerfully contributed to the relief of the distressed 
in your metropolis. 

This is considered by us, not as a gift, or an act of 
charity, but of justice, as a small part of what we are in 
duty bound to communicate to those truly noble and pa- 
triotic advocates of American freedom, who arc bravely 
standing in the gap between us and slavery, defending the 
common interests of a whole continent, and gloriously 
struggling in the cause of liberty. Upon you the eyes of 
all America are fixed. Upon your invincible patience, 
fortitude and resolution, (under God,) depends all that is 
dear to them and their posterity. May that superintendent 
gracious Being, whose ears are ever open to the cry of the 
oppressed, in answer to the incessant prayers of his people, 
defend our just cause, turn the counsels of our enemies 
into foolishness, deliver us from the hands of our oppres- 
sors, and make those very measures, by which they are 
endeavoring to compass our destruction, the means of fix- 
ing our invaluable rights and privileges upon a more firm 
and lasting basis. 

While with the most painful sensations we reflect, that 
prior to the commencement of the evils which now sur- 
round us, supineness and inattention to our common inter- 
ests had so far prevailed, as almost wholly to sink in luxury 
and dissipation the inhabitants of these Colonies ; we are 
bound to acknowledge the divine wisdom and goodness, 
which by these calamities roused us from our lethargy, and 
taught us to defend those inestimable liberties, which other- 
wise must have been forever lost to us and our posterity ; 
and to evince his determination to save America, directed 
the attacks of our enemies to that quarter where the virtue 
and firmness of the inhabitants could brave the shafts of 
military tyrants, and set at defiance the threats of an exas- 
perated and despotic minister. 

We are pleased to find, that the methods by which the 
ministry sought to divide, have happily united us, and by 
every new act of oppression, more and more strengthened 
union. And we can, with truth, assure you, gentlemen, 
that in this quarter we are engaged, to a man, in your 
i defence, and in defence of the common cause. We are 

4th s. — VOL. TV. 10 

146 Letter from South Kingston. 

ready to communicate of our substance largely, as your 
necessities require ; and, with our estates, to give our lives 
and mingle our blood with yours, in the common sacrifice 
to liberty. And since we have no asylum on earth, to 
which we may fly ; before we will submit to wear the chains 
of slavery, a profligate and arbitrary ministry are preparing 
for us, we are determined upon an emigration through the 
gate of death, in hope of inheriting the fair land of prom- 
ise, and participating with our forefathers in the glorious 
liberty of the sons of God. 

That Heaven may support you, under your distressing 
circumstances, and send you a speedy and happy deliver- 
ance from your present troubles, is the earnest prayer of, 
Gentlemen, your cordial friends and very humble servants, 

John Adams, ) ^ 
TO > Committee. 

John Sullivan, ) 


r. South Kingston, 22d Nov.. 1774. 

Gentlemen, j ' ' 

This Town, being impressed with a sense of the 
calamities that must attend their distressed brethren in 
your Town, and also of the necessity and obligation that 
we are under to contribute towards your relief, and to hold 
fast the band of union so immediately necessary to support 
us against any infringement upon our liberties, have con- 
tributed towards your relief, and have remitted the same in 
sheep, which you will receive by the bearers, Mr. Nath'l 
Hawkins and Mr. Henry Reynolds. We have to recom- 
mend to you a continuance in that philosophic disposition 
towards your adversaries, so necessary to support your- 
selves amidst the hand of oppression, hoping, in a short 
time, your grievances will be redressed, and this once 
happy land may again enjoy perfect liberty. 
We are, Gentlemen, your obedient servants, 

B. Peckham, } 
Carder Hazard, > Committee. 
Wm. Potter, ) 
To the Committee of Correspondence in Boston. 
135 sheep. 

Letter from llehobotk. 147 


Boston, 29th Nov., 1774. 

When we reflect on the sympathy and generosity of 
our brethren in the several Colonies, in supplying the 
wants of this distressed Town, under the cruel yoke of 
tyranny, our hearts glow with love to them, and we are 
thereby strengthened and encouraged to bear our burthens. 
And as Providence has called us to stand in the front, we 
hope shall stand firm, and never desert the glorious cause 
of our country, nor give up the least right which North 
America, as men, as Christians, and good subjects ought to 
enjoy. And we arc happy to find this to be the voice of 
the several Colonies through the continent ; and we trust 
in that God, who will never fail them that confide in him, 
that shortly all our rights and privileges will be restored 
and confirmed to us. 

You will be pleased to return our hearty thanks to our 
brethren of South Kingston, for their very generous dona- 
tion of one hundred and [thirty]-five sheep, which we have 
received from them by Mr. Xath'l Hawkins and Mr. Henry 
Reynolds, and we trust they will be rewarded a thousand 
fold ; and may the blessings of them who are ready to 
perish rest on them. 

I am, with great regard, in behalf of the Committee for 
this Town, Gentlemen, your most humble servant, 

Benj. Austin, per order. 

To Messrs. Benj. Peckham, Carder Hazard, and Wm. Potter, 
Committee for the Town South Kingston. 


Rehoboth, Nov. Uth, 1774. 

Being in some measure sensible of the difficulty and 
importance of your undertaking, 1 wish you all that virtue 
and prudence necessary to the unexceptionable discharge 

148 Letter from Philadelphia. 

of a work of so good and salutary a nature as that in 
which you and your brethren, the Committee of Donations, 
are at present engaged, viz., in taking care of your afflicted 
fellow-citizens, suffering by virtue of the Boston Port Bill. 
I presume, as I could wish, that the paternal care of the 
Committee, and the liberalities of your distant brethren, 
will unremittedly continue, till our grievances are redressed. 
And I hope the time is not far distant, when you, and all 
North America, will reap the happy and lasting effects of 
your and their making so manly and virtuous a stand for 
those rights and privileges which God, nature and compact 
have given us. The Letter from the Committee, in conse- 
quence of the donation, was directed to the Selectmen of 
Eehoboth, in the Colony of Rhode Island, which was a 
mistake, Eehoboth being in the Massachusetts Bay. 

Your very good friend and servant, 

SUTTD a T?T "P-cntr ( One of the Seleet- 
11 U IS A.L.L -T .LL1V, men of itehoboth. 


Philadelphia, Nov. 25th, 1774. 

By an order of Committee of the City and County of 
Philadelphia, Messrs. John Nixon, George Clymer and 

i In Pennsylvania, on the 20th of May, 1774, a meeting of " between two and 
three hundred of the respectable inhabitants " of Philadelphia, was held, who 
appointed a Committee of Correspondence, and passed the following vote of 
instructions : " That the Committee be instructed to write to the people of Bos- 
ton, that we truly feel for their unhappy situation; that we consider them suffer- 
ing in the general cause ; that we recommend to them firmness, prudence and 
moderation ; and that we shall continue to evince our firm adherence to the cause 
of American liberty." John Dickenson, Thomas Mifflin, Joseph Reed, George 
Clymer and Charles Thompson were members of this Committee. Their letter 
dated May 21, was intrusted to Paul Revere, who had been sent from Boston to 
communicate with the patriots of Pennsylvania and other Colonies. The Essex 
Gazette of May 31, contains an article relative to this mission, dated Boston, 
May 30, from which the following is an extract : " On Saturday last, Mr. Paul 
Revere returned from Philadelphia, having been sent express to the Southern 
Colonies, with intelligence of the late rash, impolitic and vindictive measures of 
the British Parliament, who, by the execrable Port Bill, have held out to us a 
most incontestable argument why we ought to submit to their jurisdiction ; and 
what rich blessings we may secure to ourselves and posterity, by an acquiescence 
in their lenity, wisdom, and justice. Nothing can exceed the indignation with 
which our brethren in Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York and Philadelphia 

Letter from Philadelphia. 11!) 

myself, were directed to purchase and forward to your 
address, for the Town of Boston, five tons of rod iron, four 
hundred barrels of flour and two hundred barrels of ship 
stuff, under restrictions agreeable to the contents of a letter 

have received this proof of ministerial madness. They universally declare their 
resolution to stand by us to the lasl extremity." 

In Philadelphia, on the 1st of Juno, business generally was suspended. A 
letter dated June 'J, says : •• Yesterday we had a pause in the business of the 
city, and a solemn pause it indeed was. If we except the Friends, I believe 
| nine-tenths of the citizens shut up their houses. The bells were rang, muffled, 
all the day, and the ships in the port had their colors half hoisted." George 
Clymer, in a letter to Josiah Quincy, (Quincy's life of Quincy, p. J<>7,) dated 
Philadelphia, June 13, says : " The genera] subscription to be opened here, which 
I hope will be followed in other places, will show that your neighbors have not 
absolutely forsaken you in your day of distress." 

The Boston Gazette of July 4, contains the resolutions passed " at a very large 
and respectable meeting of the freeholders and freemen of the City and County 
of Philadelphia, on Saturday, June 18,1774." The fifth resolution is : "That 
the Committee be instructed immediately to set on foot a subscription for the 
relief of such poor inhabitants of the Town of Boston, as may be deprived of 
the means of subsistence by the operation of the Act of Parliament, commonly 
Styled the Boston Port Bill; the money arising- from such subscription to be laid 
out as the Committee shall think will best answer the ends proposed." On the 
'.2 1st of June, at a meeting held at Easton, Northampton County, it was resolved 
to raise contributions for the relief of the suffering inhabitants of Boston ; " and 
thai it is the duty of every inhabitant of this County to contribute, according to 
his circumstances, to relieve their suffering brethren." 

The Boston Gazette of June 20, says: " We hear that the patriotic inhabitants 
of Philadelphia, have generously voted to give the poor of this Town, one thou- 
sand five hundred barrels of flour, five hundred of which it is said may be soon 

On the 15th of July, the several Counties of Pennsylvania met in Convention 
at Philadelphia, when it was unanimously, " Voted, That we consider our breth- 
ren at Boston as suffering in the common cause of these Colonies." And " that 
it is the duty of every member of this Committee, [i. e. Convention,] to promote, 
as much as he can, the subscriptions set on foot in the several Counties of this 
Province, for the relief of the distressed inhabitants of Boston." 

The Boston Gazette of August 29, has the following: "Letters from Philadel- 
phia say, that City only has raised four thousand pounds, that currency, for the 
support of Boston, and that every other Town in Pennsylvania government are 
doing in proportion." 

On the 15th of December, the " Committee" for Bucks County, " Voted, That 
we hold it as our bounden duty, both as Christians and as countrymen, to con- 
tribute towards the relief and support of the poor inhabitants of the Town of 
Boston, now suffering in the general cause of all the Colonies ; and we do hereby 
recommend the raising a sum of money for that purpose, to every inhabitant or 
! taxable in this County, as soon as possible." 

On the 14th of February, 1775, at a meeting of a Convention of York County, 
the proceedings of the late Provincial Convention were approved; and it was 
M It* solved. That the township Committee-men in this County ought, as soon as 
[possible, to collect the flour and grain subscribed for the poor of Boston, and 
convert the same into cash; and that they immediately pay such cash and all 
other moneys subscribed into the hands of Messrs. Joho Donalson and George 
lErwin, who. with the direction of any ten of the Committee, are to remit the 
stme in billj of exchange to the Committee of Boston, for the poor of that 
pbce. w — Ed. 

150 Letter from Canterbury. 

from the Committee of Correspondence of Boston, received 
11th July, 1774. You have, agreeable to the above order, 
an invoice and bill lading inclosed, for two hundred and 
fifty-six barrels of flour, and one hundred and five barrels 
of stuff, on board the sloop Dolphin, Capt. Lemuel Church, 
which is all we could get on board, and this vessel is the I 
first we could obtain to take the goods since the above 
order. By Capt. Allen, in the sloop America, we have 
shipped about one hundred and fifty barrels of flour, which 
is all he could take, and have also engaged room in a Cape 
Cod schooner for the remainder of the order for flour, and 
stuff. The rod iron is not to be had, the late dry spell of 
weather having prevented any being made ; but the propri- 
etor of the works has very obligingly promised the first 
that shall be made, and we hope it will be in time for the 
Cape Cod vessel. This is in part of the subscriptions pro- 
cured in the City of Philadelphia, which amounts at present 
to about two thousand pounds. The rest, when collected, 
will be forwarded as the Committee shall direct, as also 
what shall be sent in from the country, from whence has 
been received the value of near one hundred and thirty 
barrels, being the donation of different Townships in one 
of our back Counties. We doubt not the other Counties 
will contribute considerably, when the new Committees 
shall be chosen. In mean while, tenderly feeling for the 
inexpressibly distressed situation of your Town, and wish- 
ing an happy and speedy issue from the exertions of 
tyranny, to the full enjoyment of peace, liberty and secu- 
rity, I have the pleasure to subscribe myself, with much 

Sir, your very humble servant, 

Jona. B. Smith. 
To William Phillips, Esq., Merchant, Boston. 


o Connecticut, Canterbury, Nov. 21th, 1774. 

Being affected with a sense of the righteousness of 
the cause that the people of Boston are suffering under, as 

Letter from Charlestown. L51 

it concerns all the people of America to be roused to sup- 
port them, that they may not faint under their distresses, it 
took hold on my covetous heart, and made me willing to 
contrihutc my little mite, which I have sent by Mr. Green, 
of Mendam, a beef cow for the distressed, and ordered him 
to deliver it to the Committee for that purpose ; and may the 
Lord deliver the people of America out of the hands of 
a wicked and despotic power, who are exerting all the 
suhtilty and malice of hell to enslave us. O may Almighty 
God still rouse and further unite the people of America, as 
one man, to a sense of their liberties, and never give them 
up, as long as sun, moon and stars shall endure ; and never 
submit to be slaves, but be willing to sacrifice life and all 
things to the defence and preservation of them ; which is 
the earnest desire of 

Your humble servant, 

Aaron Cleaveland. 

To the Committee of Boston, who take Donations. 


Charlestown, Nov. 21th, 1774. 

We have received your favor of 25th instant, and 
much approve of your making insurance on any interest 
that may be heard of as coining to us as donations for the 
relief of the sufferers, &c. As your proportion is so much 
larger than ours, we leave it with you to act for the whole, 
and engage to pay our proportionable part of the premium. 
Wishing a speedy deliverance from the distresses we jointly 
labor under, 

We are, Gentlemen, with great respect, your sincere 
friends, and very humble servants, 

Isaac Foster, j"^ 6 
To the Committee of Ways and Means in Boston. 

152 Letter from New Market. 


New Hampshire, New Market, Nov. 28th, 1774. 

The Committee of the inhabitants of New Market, by g 
their desire, crave leave to express the deepest concern at 
the many unconstitutional acts passed by the English Par- 1 
liament to enslave a free and loyal people, and the alarm- 
ing measures pursued to enforce them. It gives us the 
greatest uneasiness that the inhabitants of your Province, 
and more especially of Boston, most eminently distin-l 
guished for their vigilance, fortitude and public spirit in 
explaining and defending our liberties and privileges, are \ 
the unhappy subjects of several of these acts, and of the 
abuse of a British Minister. We observe his policy to 
change our constitution and religion, in introducing those 
acts upon only a small part of the people, at a time, and 
under very many circumstances, which seem to insure suc- 
cess. And this evinces to us the interesting ties of duty | 
and honor the community and each of its members are 
under, mutually to support, relieve and defend each other. 

Be pleased, gentlemen, to permit us to sympathize with 
you under oppression and distress, and to present you the 
donation of New Market for the relief of the poor of Bos- 
ton, in assurance of equal approbation of Heaven, and in 
your sight with those who of their abundance have given 

To sustain, repair and beautify our free constitution, 
was a charge intrusted with men who basely betrayed it. 
This charge is revested in the people who reposed it in 
them ; and should the times require it, we will unitedly 
risk our fortunes and lives in the protection of the liberty 
of Britons. " A duty which we owe to ourselves, who 
enjoy it ; to our ancestors, who transmitted it down ; and 
to our posterity, who will claim at our hands this the best 
birthright, and noblest inheritance of mankind." 

Your obedient servants, 

Jeremiah Folsom, ) Committee of 
Samuel Gilman, \ New Market. 

To the Committee for receiving Donations for the Poor of Boston. 

Reply to New Market. 153 


Boston, Dec. 1st, 1774. 1 

By the hands of Mr. Samuel Oilman, and Samuel 
Wiggins, the Committee of Donations have Teceived your 
very affectionate letter, and are greatly obliged to the in- 
habitants of the Town of New Market, for the brotherly 
love and sympathy discovered therein for the distressed 
inhabitants of this metropolis, occasioned by the cruel and 
unjust Boston Port Bill ; as also your kind and generous 
present of seven fat cattle, for the relief of the poor among 
us ; and, in behalf of the Town, return our thankful 
acknowledgments to our brethren, the generous and patri- 
otic inhabitants aforesaid, who discover such a readiness, 
not only to sympathize but also to share with us in our 
troubles. The cause is common, and we greatly rejoice to 
find that our friends and brethren in this and the other 
Provinces on this continent, consider it as such. In testi- 
mony hereof, we are frequently receiving their generous 
donations, which afford us great relief under the difficulties 
we are conflicting with. But we have not time to enlarge. 
We send the inclosed that you may see the conduct of the 

1 The following preamble and resolve appear in the Journals of December: 

" In Provincial Congress, Cambridge, Dec. 1, 1774: 

" Whereas, by the vigorous operation of the Boston Port Bill, the metropolis of 
this Province and the neighboring Town of Charlestown, have been brought into 
a most distressful state, many of the inhabitants being deprived of the means of 
their subsistence, and reduced to the cruel alternative of quitting their habita- 
tions, or perishing in them by famine, if they had not been supported by the free 
and generous contributions of our sister Colonies, even from the remotest parts 
of this continent, — 

" Resolved, That the grateful acknowledgments of this Congress be returned 
to the several Colonies, for having so deeply interested themselves in behalf of 
said Towns under their present sufferings in the common cause ; and that the 
Congress consider their donations, not only as unexampled acts of benevolence 
to this Province in general, which has also greatly suffered, and of charity to 
those Towns in particular, but as convincing proofs of the firm attachment of all 
the Colonies to the glorious cause of liberty, and of their fixed determination to 
support them in the noble stand they are now making for the liberties of them- 
selves and all America. 

Signed by order of the Provincial Congress, 

[En.] John Hancock, President. 

4th s. — vol, iv. 20 

154 Letter from Providence. 

Committee in disposing of the donations of our friends, 
which we hope will be satisfactory. 

We are, with great respect, Gentlemen, your much 
obliged friends and humble servants, 

T/^tttvt Q/-kT pv S Per order the Commit- 
JOHN £>OLEY,j tee of Donations. 

To Messrs. Jeremiah Folsom, and Samuel Oilman, 

Committee of Correspondence, New Market. 



Providence, Nov. 28th, 1774. j 
Gentlemen, | 

The Town of Providence, at a late meeting, voted, that 
the sum of one hundred and twenty-five pounds, lawful 1 
money, should be raised and remitted to the Committee for 1 
receiving Donations in the Town of Boston, to be applied 1 
as they should see fit, towards the support of the indus- j 
trious poor of the said Towns of Boston and Charlestown. | 
You will receive this as a testimony of the approbation ! 
that the Town of Providence mean to manifest to the firm ] 
opposition that the inhabitants of the Town of Boston have 
and are still making, to the tyrannical impositions of a cor- 
rupt ministry. By the bearer, Simon Smith, we send you 
one hundred thirty-six sheep, to be applied as you may « 
think best for answering the above intention. We should i 
not at this time have sent any part of our supplies in sheep, 
but these being a parcel that was brought into this Town, } 
to be exported to the West Indies, which had been pur- 1 
chased two months agone, and the people thinking that ■ 
it was against the resolves of the Congress, the Committee 
have thought best to forward them to you. The balance of | 
the donation will be remitted in cash, as soon as collected. 

I am, in behalf of the Committee for the Town of Prov- 1 
idence, your friend, &c. 

James Angell. 

To the Committee for receiving Donations in Boston. 

Letters from Philadelphia. 155 


Boston, Nov. 30th, 1774. 

Your very kind letter of the 28th instant, we have 
received, with one hundred and thirty-five sheep, by the 
bearer, Mr. Simeon Smith, and thank you for the intelli- 
gence given us, that our worthy brethren of Providence 
have generously voted this Town and Charles town, one 
hundred and twenty-five pounds, lawful money, towards the 
support of their industrious poor. We receive these sheep 
as part of the said donation, and doubt not of receiving the 
remainder as soon as it can be collected. The kindness 
and generosity of brethren of Providence, and the several 
Colonies, to this distressed Town, fill our hearts with love 
and gratitude. They may depend upon our steady adher- 
ence to the common cause, and that we shall not give up 
any of the rights of North America, but shall ever oppose 
the tyrannical impositions of a corrupt ministry. You 
will please to tender our thanks to the Committee of the 
Town of Providence, and through them to the whole 

I am, in behalf of the Committee of Donations for this 
Town, Sir, your most humble servant, 

Ben j. Austin, per order. 

To Mr. James Angell, in Providence. 


Philadelphia, Nov. 28th, 1774. 
■ Sir, 

By order of the late Committee for City and County of 

Philadelphia, we were directed to ship to your address, for 

j the employment or relief of the inhabitants of the Town of 

• Boston, four hundred barrels of flour, two hundred barrels 

156 Letters from Philadelphia. 

of ship stuff, and five tons of rod iron. We have accord- 
ingly shipped on hoard Sloop Dolphin, Lemuel Church, 
master, which sailed two days ago, two hundred and fifty- 
six barrels of flour, and one hundred and five barrels ship 
stuff, and on board the sloop America, Perkins Allen, mas- 
ter, (to sail to-morrow,) have shipped one hundred and 
fifty barrels flour ; these are the first vessels we could 
procure to take any of the goods, and the above is the 
whole of what we could get on board them. The rod iron 
is not to be had, owing to the very dry weather we have II 
had, and the works being out of repair. By the first : 
opportunity which shall offer, the remainder of subscrip- 
tions will be forwarded. 

We are, Sir, your very humble servants, 

John Nixon. 
Jon a. B. Smith. 
Geo. Clymer. 

To William Phillips, Esq., Merchant, Boston. 

Philadelphia, Nov. 28th, 1774. 

On the other side you have invoice, and inclosed is 
bill lading for one hundred and fifty barrels flour shipped 
by the late Committee for the City and County of Phila- 
delphia to your address. This is part of the subscriptions 
made in the City and Liberties of Philadelphia, for the 
relief of the Town of Boston, and is all we could procure 
room for on board this vessel. The flour is with us called 
condemned, but in the opinion of our officer, (who kindly 
connived at our shipping it on this occasion,) and others, 
you will find none but sound and healthy, and such as will 
make good bread, a very great proportion as such is always 
used by our bakers. 

I am, Sir, respectfully, your very humble servant, 

Jonathan B. Smith. 

To William Phillips, Esq., Merchant in Boston. 

Letter from Newport. 157 


Boston, January Gth, 1775. 


I am directed by the Committee of the Town of Bos- 
;on, appointed to receive and distribute the donations that 
ire made for the relief of the poor of this Town, to ac- 
knowledge the receipt of your favors of the 28th November, 
md to return their unfeigned thanks to the inhabitants of 
:he City and Liberties of Philadelphia for the generous 
lonations they have made and transmitted by Captains 
Church and Allen, consisting of four hundred and six bar- 
rels fionr, and one hundred barrels ship stuff, which, you 
may rely upon it, will be applied by the Committee to the 
benevolent purpose for which you designed it. Our situa- 
tion is truly distressing. Families that have lived in the 
greatest affluence, are now reduced to the most disagreeable 
circumstances ; but, through God's goodness, the hearts of 
our brethren have been opened for our relief. They have 
enabled us to bear up under oppression, to the astonish- 
ment of our enemies, and we trust we shall be enabled still 
to remain firm, and never to desert the glorious cause of 
pur country. 

I remain, with great truth, your friend and humble 

Thom's Cushing. 

To Mr. Jonathan B. Smith, Merchant, Philadelphia. 


Newport, Nov. 30th, 1774. 

To the Committee of Ways and Means for the Town of Boston : 


Having been appointed by this Town to take in sub- 
scriptions for the support of the distressed inhabitants of 
the Town of Boston, we have used our best endeavors to 

158 Reply to Newport. 

answer the end of our appointment, and have got sub- 
scribed to the amount of near one thousand dollars, five 
hundred and four and a quarter of which we have col- j 
lected, which you will herewith receive by Mr. Peter Mum- j 
ford, and will please to give him a receipt for the same, as 
received of us, in part of this Town's subscription. The 
remainder we shall collect and remit as soon as possible. 

"We sincerely condole the distresses of your Town and j 
Province, and at the same time highly applaud your firm- 
ness and prudence. We look on your troubles as our own, 
and shall not fail to exert ourselves for your future support, 
in case you are not soon relieved ; being fully convinced 
that at all events you must stand out against the present 
arbitrary and cruel proceedings, or all North America must 
inevitably fall a sacrifice to the most oppressive and brutal 
tyranny that ever disgraced the most savage nation upon the 
face of the earth. 

We are, Gentlemen, your sincere friends and very humble 

John Tanner. 
Jos. Clarke. 
Simon Newton. 
John Read. 
Solomon Southwick. 
George Gibbs. 
Joseph Anthony. 
Nath. Coggeswell. 
John G. Wanton. 
Jacob Rod Rivera. 
Peleg Barker. 
Josias Lyndon. 
Robt. Stevens, Jun. 


Boston, Dec. 5th, 1774. 

Your esteem[ed] favor of the 30th ultimo, per Mr. 
Mumford, we duly received, with the five hundred and four 
and a quarter dollars, being part, as you mention, of the 

Reply to North Yarmouth. 159 

generous donation of our worthy friends and brethren of 
:he Town of Newport, for the benefit of the poor of this 
Town, distressed by the late cruel Acts of Parliament. 
The kindness and generosity that is raised in the breast of 
our friends, not only in your Town and Colony, but in all 
the neighboring governments, surely can be imputed to 
none but the kind hand of Providence. It affords us no 
small satisfaction, under our distressed circumstances, to 
find that our friends truly sympathize with us, and make 
our troubles their own, which they prove not only to be in 
word but in deed. 

We return our grateful acknowledgments to the Town, 
and are, with much esteem, Gentlemen, your obliged friend 
and humble servant, 

Tr»xr ,\ IVf \ crnv S In behalf of the Com- 
J ON A. 1V1ASON , | inittee of Donations . 

To Messrs. John Turner, Joseph Clarke, and others, Committee for 
the Town of Newport, to receive Donations for the Poor of Boston. 


Boston, Bee. 6th, 1774. 

I Gentlemen, 

This day Mr. Stephen Hall, one of the wharfingers of 
i this Town, sent to the Treasurer of the Committee of 
Donations, a receipt of the following tenor, viz. 

Boston, December 5th, 1774. 
Landed on my wharf, by David Loring, from North Yarmouth, thirty -five cords 
of wood, which I promise to be accountable to the Committee of Donations for. 

35 cords. Stephen Hall. 

The Committee, therefore, in behalf of the Town, take 
this opportunity, by Capt. Loring, with gratitude to ac- 
knoAvlcdge the kindness of our worthy friends and brethren 
of North Yarmouth, in their seasonable and generous 
donation of the thirty-five cords wood, above mentioned. 
We are particularly obliged to you, gentlemen, as also to 
Capt. Loring, for your care and trouble in transmitting said 

160 Letter from Norfolk. 

donation to us. We shall endeavor to comply with the 
benevolent intent of the donors, in the distribution of their 
charity. And, that they may be more fully apprised of the 
rules of our conduct in general, we have taken the liberty 
to inclose a printed account thereof, which we hope will 
meet with their approbation. 

The Christian sympathy and liberality of our friends,; 
greatly refresh our spirits, and serve to support us under 
our pressing and increasing difficulties ; but, by the favori 
and blessing of God, we trust we shall be enabled still to 
persevere until the happy time shall arrive, when " every 
man shall sit under his vine and under his fig tree, and 
none shall make him afraid." 

We wish North Yarmouth temporal and spiritual pros-} 
perity, and are, Gentlemen, your much obliged friends and I 

David Jeffries, j MfD^tSST 
To Messrs. John Southward, and William Cutter, North Yarmouth, 


Norfolk, Virginia, Dec. 6th, 1774. 

We, the Committee appointed by the inhabitants of 
the County and Borough of Norfolk, (and Town of Ports- 
mouth,) for transmitting their donations for the relief of 
the indigent poor in your Town, inclose you the bill of 
lading accordingly, the freight being paid here. It is with 
pleasure we can inform you of the cheerful accession of 
all the trading interest of this Colony to the association of 
the Continental Congress, and they have all subscribed it 
as a proof of their approbation. We wish you persever- 
ance, moderation, firmness and success in this grand con- 
test, which we view as our own in every respect. Contri- 
butions for your relief are raising throughout this Domin- 
ion, and will, we hope, be looked upon as a small proof, 

Reply to Norfolk-. 161 

how much the good people of this Colony arc attached to 
the cause of Boston and American liberty. 

We arc, with respect, Gentlemen, your affectionate 

Edw'd Archer. 
John Goodrich, Jun. 
Alexand'r Mosely. 
John Boush. 
Tho m a s M ath ew s . 

To the Committee for receiving Donations for the Poor of Boston. 

Per Capt. Rysam. 


Boston, Feb. 1, 1775. 

Mr. Edward Archer and others, a Committee for the County and 
Borough of Norfolk, and Town of Portsmouth, in Virginia. 


The Committee appointed to receive and distribute the 
'donations made for the relief and employment of the suf- 
ferers by the Port Bill, have received your letter of the 6th 
December last, inclosing a bill of lading for seven hundred 
and fifteen bushels corn, thirty-three barrels pork, fifty-eight 
barrels bread, and ten barrels flour. We are sorry to 
inform you that the vessel was cast away, but being timely 
advised of the disaster by Capt. Rysam, we have, though 
].iot without considerable expense, the good fortune of sav- 
ing the most part of the cargo. 

The County and Borough of Norfolk, and Town of Ports- 
mouth, who made this charitable donation for the sufferers 
above mentioned, have the due acknowledgments of this 
Committee, and their hearty thanks, with assurance that it 
shall be applied agreeable to the benevolent design. The 
cheerful accession of the gentlemen of Virginia to the 
measures proposed by the late Continental Congress, is an 
nstance of that zeal for, and attachment to the cause of 
America, in which that Colony has ever distinguished 

This Town is suffering the severest strokes of ministerial 
4th s. — vol. iv. 21 

162 Letters from New York. 

vengeance, for their adherence to the same virtuous cause ; 
and while the sister Colonies are testifying their approba- 
tion of its conduct, and so liberally contributing for its 
support, we trust the inhabitants will continue to bear their 
suffering with a manly fortitude, and preserve a superiority 
over their insulting enemies. 

I am, in the name of the Committee, Gentlemen, your 
sincere friend and fellow-countryman, 

Sam'l Adams. 



New York, Dec. 1th, 1774. 

As a token that we have not forgot the poor of your 1 

Town, we send you by the Boston packet, Capt. Barnard, i 


1 The manner in which the intelligence of the passage of the Port Bill was ; 
received in New York, is stated in a letter dated New York, May J 4, ad- 
dressed to the Boston Committee of Correspondence, and printed in the Boston ! 
Gazette of May 23. The following is an extract from this letter: "Last Thurs- |' 
day, Capt. Couper arrived from London, in twenty-seven days. By him we have I 
received the shocking and detestable Act of Parliament, that shuts up your port | 
the first of June. We want language to express our abhorrence of this addi- 1 
tional act of tyranny to America; we clearly see that she is to be attacked and f 
enslaved by distressing and subduing you." 

A ''very general meeting of the inhabitants" assembled on the 16th of May, | 
1774, at " the Exchange," and appointed a Committee of Fifty to correspond 
with " sister Colonies." John Jay was a member. This Committee sent to Bos- 
ton a letter dated May 24, in which they say : "Asa sister Colony, suffering in 
defence of the rights of America, we consider your injuries as a common cause, 
to the redress of which it is equally our duty and our interest to contribute." 
They also made the following important recommendation: "We conclude that a 
Congress of Deputies from the Colonies in general, is of the utmost moment; 
that it ought to be assembled without delay, and some unanimous resolution 
formed, in this fatal emergency, not only respecting your deplorable circum- 
stances, but for the security of our common rights." 

A letter dated New York, June 26, 1774, says: "I am well informed that sub- 
scriptions are rapidly going on in Philadelphia, and some of the other Southern 
Colonies, for the relief of the suffering poor in your Town ; and a motion will 
be made to-morrow evening, at our Grand Committee, for the same laudable pur- 
pose ; which I am well assured will be carried, and a subscription immediately 

At a meeting of the Committee of Correspondence, July 19, ] 774, on motion 
of Mr. Jay, ordered, " That a Committee be appointed to take the distresses of 
the poor of the Town of Boston, and ways and means for their relief, into con- 
sideration, and make their Report, with all convenient speed." On the 7th of 
August, the General Committee appointed a Committee to procure proper per- 
sons " to go round in the different wards in this city, with a subscription," for the 
relief of the poor of Boston. On the 9th of August, the General Committee, in 

Letters from New York. !(>:{ 

one hundred and eighty barrels flour, nine barrels pork, 
and twelve firkins butter, as a donation in part from the 
inhabitants of this city to the poor of your Town, who 

a letter addressed to the Boston Committee of Correspondence, say: "The dis- 
tresses of tin? poor of your Town, and ways and means for their relief, have 
engaged the earnest attention of our Committee ; and for this necessary and be- 
nevolent purpose, we have agreed that a subscription shall be set on foot through- 
out the Colony, which we do not doubt will meet the wished for success." 

On the '20th August, the inhabitants of Westchester, New York, "Resolved, 
That we esteem it our duty, and think it incumbent on all the Colonies in Amer- 
ica, to contribute towards the relief of the poor and distressed people of Boston; 
and that a person of this Borough be appointed to collect such charitable dona- 
tions, within the same, as may be offered for their support." 

The Boston Gazette of Septen her 5, has the following: "New York, August 
25. We hear that last Monday morning, as two of the gentlemen appointed by 
the Committee to collect for our suffering brethren in Boston, set out upon that 

business. The first gentleman they called upon was Mr. D e, who generously 

presented them with ten pounds in cash, and the best pipe of brandy in his dis- 
tillery, valued at twenty-eight pounds; observing at the same time, that the 
generosity of the Virginians and Carolinians, &c, was great and honorable with 
respect to food, but he thought such glorious sufferers for the common good, 
ought to drink as well as eat." 

On the '27th of August, the inhabitants of Palatine district, Tryon County, 
"Resolved, That we will unite and join with the different districts of this County, 
in giving whatever relief it is in our power to the poor distressed inhabitants of 
Boston, and that we will join and unite, with our brethren of the rest of this 
Colony, in anything tending to the support and defence of our rights and 

At a meeting of " the Committees of Correspondence " for the County of Suf- 
folk, on the 15th of November, it was " Voted, That wo do recommend it to the 
several Towns in this County, to set forward a subscription for the employment 
and relief of the distressed poor in the Town of Boston, to be collected in such 
manner as the Committees of each Town shall judge proper ; to be in readiness 
to be forwarded early next spring." " Voted, That Mr. John Foster have the 
care of procuring a vessel to call at the several harbors in this County, to receive 
and carry the above donations to Boston, for the purpose aforesaid." 

On the (>th of December, at a town meeting in Jamaica, it was Resolved, That 
heir " brethren " of Boston, " as sufferers in the common cause, are entitled to 
he encouragement, compassion, and charitable assistance of all the friends of 
•liberty and foes of oppression, both in England and America." 

The Essex Gazette of December 13, has the following: "The Town of East 
iHampton, on Long Island, have laid a tax upon the Town, sufficient to raise one 
ihundred pounds, New York currency, for the support of the industrious poor of 
;Boston. A subscription is also set on foot in every parish in the County of 
iSuffblk, on Long Island, to raise donations for the same laudable purpose; a 
Committee appointed in each parish to receive the same ; and instructions given 
.to collect grain, flax, &c, to send to Boston in March next." 

The Essex Gazette of February 7, 1775, has the following : " The County of 
i Albany, in New York, in which are seventeen districts, have at a general meeting, 
adopted the Resolves of the Continental Congress, and kindly agreed to make 
(collections for our sufferers by the Port Bill — the measure having been as kindly 
[recommended to them by the Members of New York, who were at the late Con- 
jgress. A fresh instance of the happy union and spirit that prevails in the 
^Colonies, which must finally prove superior to the chicanery of a few ignorant 
and bribed representatives."— Ed. 

164 Letters from New York. 

suffer by the Port Bill ; also twenty-one barrels wheat and 
rye, sent as a present from the inhabitants of Marble Town,i 
in Ulster County ; the whole amounting to four hundred j 
and eight pounds, nineteen shillings, nine and a half 
pence, as per annexed invoice ; all which we wish safe to I 
hand, and that it may prove a seasonable supply, notwith- j 
standing it comes at the eleventh hour. In a few days we j 
expect to get a vessel, when we shall send you as much 
more, and some rod iron. In the mean time we remain, 
with respect, 

Gentlemen, your most obedient servants, 

Peter T. Curtenius. 
G. Duyckinck. 
Gerard Wm. Beekman. 

To Messrs. John Row, Sam'l Adams and others, appointed to receive 
the Donations, and for employing the poor sufferers by the Port Bill 
in Boston. 

Per Capt. Barnard. 

New York, Dec. llth, 1774. 


Our last to you was the 7th instant, per Capt. Barnard, 
by whom we sent you flour, &c, to the amount of four 
hundred and eight pounds, nineteen shillings, nine and a 
half pence, as a donation from this City to the poor of your 
Town. This serves to inclose you invoice and bill of lad- 
ing for flour, &c, shipped per the sloop Joseph, Capt. 
Linsey, amounting, with charges, to six hundred and fifty- 
three pounds, nine shillings, nine pence, as a further dona- 
tion from the inhabitants of this City to the poor of yours. 
We have between two and three hundred pounds more 
subscribed, but it is not collected ; when it is, we shall send 
you a further supply, per first opportunity that offers. 

In the mean time we remain, with respect, Gentlemen, 
your most obedient servants, 

G. Duyckinck. 

Peter T. Curtenius. 
To John Row, Esq., and others, the Committee for Donations. 

Letter to Col. Orne. 165 


Boston, Jan. 9th, 1775. 


The Committee appointed by the inhabitants of this 
Town, to receive and distribute the donations of our friends 
? or the benefit of the sufferers by the Boston Port Bill, 
icknowledge your several favors of the 7th and 17th of 
December last, inclosing invoices of flour, &c, amounting, 
with charges, to one thousand and sixty-two pounds, 9/6, 
which, agreeable to your kind wishes, are come safe to hand. 
I am directed by the Committee to request that you would 
assure our benefactors, the citizens of New York, of their 
warmest gratitude for the very seasonable relief they have 
afforded to their afflicted brethren in this place, by such 
generous donations, in this most difficult time of the year. 
While we acknowledge the superintendency of divine 
Providence, we feel our obligations to the sister Colonies. 
By their liberality, they have greatly chagrined the com- 
mon enemies of America, who flattered themselves with 
hopes that before this day they should starve ns into a 
compliance with the insolent demands of despotic power. 
But the people, relieved by your charitable contributions, 
bear the indignity with becoming patience and fortitude. 
IThey are not insensible of the injuries done them as men, 
as well as free Americans ; but they restrain their just 
resentment from a due regard to the common cause. 

The Committee beg the favor of you, gentlemen, to re- 
turn their thanks to our worthy brethren of Marble Town, 
[for the valuable donation received from them. 

I am, with due acknowledgments for the care you have 
taken, in the name of the Committee, Gentlemen, your 
obliged friend and servant, 

Sam'l Adams. 

To Mr. Peter T. Curtenius, at New York. 


^ Boston, December 1th, 1774. 


Our worthy brethren of Alexandria, in Virginia, have 
kindly shipped on board of Capt. "Woodbridge, now in your 

166 Letter from the Union Fire Club. 

harbor, about two hundred barrels of flour, (we cannot 
ascertain the exact quantity,) for the benefit of the poor of 
this Town, who are sufferers by the Port Bill. 

We beg the favor of you, gentlemen, to receive the flour 
of Capt. Woodbridge, and ship it to us as soon as you con- 
veniently can, which we doubt not you will do on the best if 
terms ; and please to draw on us for what expense you may I 
have been at. We ask pardon for repeatedly giving you 
so much trouble, but from your well known generous and 
patriotic disposition, we flatter ourselves you will readily 
forgive us. We are, with great respect, Gentlemen, your 
most humble servant, 

D AN . AY A LDO , j For the Committee. 

To Col. Azov Orne, and others, Committee of Correspondence, 


Marblehead, Dec. 16th, 1774. 

In compliance with your desire by your letter of the 
7th inst., we have received and shipped on board Capt. 
Martin, one hundred fifty-seven barrels flour, which he 
will deliver to your order. Capt. Woodbury told us the do- 
nation he brought consisted of no more. We have made no 
agreement with Martin for the freight, but refer him to 
you, concluding, as he is a son of liberty, he will not be 
unreasonable. We congratulate you on seeing your dis- 
tant friends so mindful of your distresses as to endeavor to 
alleviate them by their charitable donations, and are, with 

Gentlemen, your friends and fellow-countrymen, 

T Otjtvtt i B y order of the Commit- 
O . VyrXlNH,, | tee f Correspondence. 

To the Committee of Donations, at Boston. 


Salem, December 8th, 1774. 

At a time when cruelty and oppression ride trium- 
phant over right and justice, and is aiming the fatal arrows 

Letter from the Union Fire Club. 167 

of death at the last standing pillar of civil and religious 
liberty, that heart that glows not with a sympathetic benev- 
olence toward the intended victim ; that hand which refuses 
the assistance it has the power to lend, must be insensible 
to those exquisite feelings which happily a generous bosom, 
must be dead to all the tender ties of humanity. The dis- 
tressed situation to which our brethren in Boston are 
reduced, while with a noble resolution and an unexampled 
fortitude they are opposing the most arbitrary, tyrannical 
and oppressive measures of an infatuated ministry, exhibits 
the most cogent inducement to all who know the worth of 
Heavens richest gift, to appear and show themselves friends 
to the righteous cause for which America contends, for 
which our brethren suffer. 

From a full conviction of the weight of these consider- 
ations, and in testimony of the high sense we have of our 
, obligation to that valuable part of the community, our 
j brethren in Boston, who have so generously signalized their 
I unabated steadiness and fidelity to the most important 
cause that ever moved a people, the Union Fire Club in 
! this Town, at their last quarterly meeting, on Thursday 
j evening, December 8, 1774, when nineteen members were 
present, moved with an ardent cheerfulness, agreed to a sub- 
I scription for the assistance of our distressed brethren in that 
' Town. The sum of forty pounds, which was subscribed, we 
herewith send you, by our brother, Sam'l King. Were the 
j sum equal to our wishes, it would be adequate to your 
! merit ; but as our members consist chiefly of men in a 
| mechanical department, who arc in but a middling state of 
life, we can only by this little effort discover our disposition 
and readiness to exert the utmost of our abilities for the 
assistance and relief of those to whom we owe so much. 
Suffer us, gentlemen, upon this occasion, to return you our 
most unfeigned thanks for those important services you have 
rendered the Province and continent, in which, under the 
smiles of Heaven, we have so long enjoyed the blessings of 
a happy constitution, now invaded and broken in upon by 
a cruel exertion of the most unrighteous power. On your 
continued firmness, prudence and wisdom, we place much 
dependence ; on which, with the united assistance of Amer- 
ica, w r e ground our hopes of a restoration of justice and 

168 Reply to the Union Club. 

peace. That the great Overruler of all things may take 
you, with this devoted country, into his gracious protection, 
and grant those happy fruits may be the consequence of 
that ever memorable unanimity which subsists in America, I 
is the earnest prayer of, 

Gentlemen, your most assured friends and sympathizing 

Joseph Sprague. 
Joseph Hiller. 

To the Committee for receiving Donations for the poor inhabitants 
of Boston. 

REPLY to the union club. 

r < Boston. 16th December, 1774. 


I am directed by the Committee of the Town of Bos- 
ton, appointed to receive and distribute the donations that 
are made for the relief and employment of such as are, or 
may become sufferers by means of the Boston Port Bill, to 
return their sincere thanks to the members of the Union 
Club, in the Town of Salem, for the generous contribution 
they made, and transmitted by their worthy brother, Mr. 
Samuel King. It is an unspeakable consolation to the in- 
habitants of this devoted Town, that amidst the distress 
designed to have been brought upon them by an inhuman, 
as well as arbitrary Ministers, there are many whose hearts 
and hands are open for their relief. You, gentlemen, are 
among the happy number of those, of whom it is said, the 
blessing of him that is ready to perish hath come upon us, 
and through your liberality the widow's heart to sing for 

Our friends have enabled us to bear up under oppression, 
to the astonishment of our enemies. May Heaven reward 
our kind benefactors ten-fold ; and grant to us wisdom and 
fortitude, that during this hard conflict we may behave as 
becomes those who are called to struggle in so glorious a 
cause ; and, by our patience and perseverance, at length 
frustrate the designs of our country's inveterate foes. 
You may rely upon it that your donation will be applied 

Reply to Londonderry. \(\\) 

by the Committee to the benevolent purpose for which you 
intended it. 

Be assured that I am, in truth and sincerity, your friend 
and humble servant, 

Sam'l Adams. 

To the Union Club at Salem. 


Boston, Dec. 8th, 1774. 

The kindness and sympathy manifested to this truly 
distressed Town, by our worthy brethren in the two Par- 
ishes of Londonderry, in a generous donation received this 
day by the hands of Capt. Robert Moore and Ensign James 
McGregor, to the amount of forty-five pounds, eleven shil- 
lings and 10rf., demands our sincere gratitude. It ani- 
| mates us to persevere, (though under the iron rod of 
oppression,) and to stand firm for the preservation of our 
rights ; those rights which God and nature has given us, 
and which it is our duty to maintain and defend at the risk 
of life and all that we hold dear. There is nothing but 
our firmness that can protect us against the arbitrary meas- 
ures adopted by the present administration ; and with the 
kind assistance of our brethren in this and the other Col- 
onies, we trust that we shall be able to baffle their iniqui- 
tous plan, and hope that Being who superintends the 
universe, who often takes the wise in their own craftiness 
and renders their schemes abortive, may interpose in our 
behalf, and bring great good out of the evil intended us by 
our inveterate foes. The views of administration are too 
obvious to need any comment ; therefore it must depend 
upon our virtue to save ourselves, by withholding all com- 
munication with our parent state, till our grievances are 

We need not inform you of the distress the inhabitants 
of this once flourishing Town are reduced to ; there are 
thousands that have spent and are spending the little they 
4th s. — vol. iv. 22 

170 Reply to Cranston. 

have earned by hard industry. The gentlemen who kindly 
tendered us your donation, by our desire, have examined 
our books in order to inform themselves in what manner jj 
we apply the several donations received from our sympa- I 
thizing brethren; and we also herewith inclose you a 
printed copy of our proceedings, which we hope will be I 
acceptable. We can add nothing further, except present- j 
ing our best regards, and are with much esteem, 

Your friends and humble servants, 

Trk-cr-v A-\ T T?r>v $ In behalf of the Com- 
J UJrliN I± V ±,K 1 , j m ittee of Donations. 

To the Selectmen of the East and West Parishes of Londonderry. 


~ Boston, December 8th, 1774. 


By the hands of Messrs. Christopher Lippett and 

Nicholas Sheldon, Jr., the Committee of Donations have 

received your acceptable and kind present of four oxen, for 

the relief and benefit of the distressed sufferers in this 

Town, occasioned by the Act of Parliament for shutting up 

the Port of Boston. 

We esteem it a great smile of Providence, and desire 

thankfully to acknowledge it as such, that our friends and 

brethren in this and the neighboring Provinces, have shown 

their truly benevolent and generous dispositions towards us, 

in the supplies they are from time to time sending in, for 

our comfort and support, among which, are the generous 

inhabitants of Cranston, in Rhode Island ; to whom the 

Committee, in behalf of the Town, return their sincere 

and hearty thanks, and are, with great respect, their assured 

friends and obliged humble servants, 

T/-\tttvt Qr»T -r^-iT- ( Per order of the Com- 
JOHN OOLEY,| mitteeofDonations . 

By the inclosed you will see the practice of the Commit- 
tee in disposing of the donations they receive, which may 
be a satisfaction to you. 

To the Selectmen of the Town of Cranston, in Rhode Island. 

Letter from New York. 171 


New York, December 9th, 1774. 

Yesterday I received one hundred pounds, New York 
currency, equal to two hundred and fifty dollars, from 
William P. Smith, Esq., desiring me to remit it to Boston, 
hy hill of exchange or otherwise, as I shall think best, 
acquainting you or any gentleman of the Committee of 
Correspondence there, by letter, that I had done so, and that 
the money is a donation from the inhabitants of Elizabeth- 
town and Newark, in New Jersey, for assistance of their 
suffering countrymen in that Town. 

I have made all the inquiry I can, both yesterday and 
to-day, but cannot meet with a bill on Boston. I therefore 
request that your Committee draw on me for that sum, and 
their bill shall be paid on sight, or direct me to remit the 
money in a bill of exchange on London, which I can now 
procure at seventy per cent, exchange, or to dispose of it 
any other way they may think best. 

I am, Sir, your most obedient humble servant, 

P. V. B. Livingston. 
To Thomas Cushing, Esq., Boston. 


Medfield, December 12th, 1774. 


When a number of the inhabitants of the Town of 
Medfield, lately waited on you with a donation in wood and 
provisions for the relief of your suffering poor, under your 
present burthens and oppressions, you applied to me, as one 
of the Committee of Correspondence for said Town, to 
furnish you with the names of those who were assisting 
therein ; and I encouraged you with a compliance with 
your request — but upon further consideration and inquiry, 
find it attended with more difficulty than I supposed, the 

172 Reply to Medfield. 

greater part of the inhabitants of the Town being aiding 
and assisting in it, some in one part and some in another. 

I hope this will be accepted as a sufficient apology for 
my non-compliance, as it is next to impossible to collect 
every name. 

I am, Sir, your humble servant, 

Daniel Perry. 
To Mr. James Richardson, in Boston. 


Boston, Dec. 20th, 1774. 

To Mr. Daniel Perry. 


The tenderest regards manifested to this distressed 
Town, by the worthy inhabitants of Medfield, demand our 
sincerest gratitude. And permit us, in their behalf, to re- 
turn you our grateful acknowledgments for the same. Be 
assured the liberality of our worthy brethren, in this and 
the other Colonies, animates us to stand firm in the glori- 
ous cause, and determines us to risk even life itself; though 
without their assistance we must have inevitably sunk 
under our burthens, and become a prey to as villainous a 
set of men as now are on this habitable globe. Being sur- 
rounded with ships, and our Town filled with troops, and 
we enduring every indignity, and suffering the greatest pov- 
erty, yet trusting that our cause is righteous, we submit it 
to that Being who governs the world with infinite wisdom 
and goodness, to extricate us in his own due time ; but it 
must depend upon our virtue and a firm reliance on Him 
for support. The harmony in the several Towns in this 
Province, and the remarkable unanimity in the Colonies, 
will disappoint our inveterate foes, and must render their 
wicked schemes abortive ; therefore let us with one voice 
cultivate that friendship, and firmly maintain those rights 
and privileges, which God and nature has given us. Our 
enemies are trying every art to sow the seeds of dissension 
in the several Towns, by associations, &c, but let us guard 
against them and watch their motions, and, by every pru- 

Letter from Amelia and Dinwiddle. 173 

lent and justifiable method, baffle their weak attempts. We 
should be extremely well pleased, if any of the worthy 
nhabitants of Medfield are coming to Boston, that they 
vould examine our books, and satisfy themselves with 
•espect to our application of the several donations received 
rom our kind brethren on this continent, which are open 
;o the inspection of the whole world, and hope will meet 
vith their approbation. 

We herewith inclose you a copy of our proceedings, 
md are, with the greatest esteem, your friends and humble 

Txrn 4vrpv Tt? J In behalf of the Com- 
JiNU. AVLK1, JK., mittee of Donations. 


Virginia, December 16th, 1774. 


The spirited conduct which the people of Boston have 
maintained, in a time of oppression, and their great per- 
severance in the cause of American liberty, has justly 
entitled them to the assistance of their fellow-subjects in 
:he other Colonies. Actuated by this principle, the inhab- 
itants of Amelia and Dinwiddie Counties, have sent them 
a small contribution of grain, to alleviate, in some degree, 
the sufferings which an exclusion of commerce and want 
f employment have occasioned among your laboring peo- 
le. Sensible of the confidence reposed in you by your 
country, and uninformed of any particular Committee to 
whom we could address this donation, we have taken the 
liberty to desire you would order it into such a channel as 
that it may be productive of the end proposed. 

We are, Gentlemen, with the greatest respect, your most 
obedient servants, 

John Tabb, of Amelia. 

KOB'T BOLUNG, > DinwMie 

Jno. Bannister, ) 
To Sam. and Jno. Adams, Esqrs. at Boston. 

174 Reply to Amelia and Dinwiddle. 


To Messrs. Jno. Tabb, Robt. Boiling, and Jno. Bannister, at Amelia 
and Dinwiddie, in Virginia. 

Boston, February 1th, 1775. 

I duly received your letter of the 16th December, I 
1774, directed to Mr. Jno. Adams, and myself, acquainting 
us of a donation made to the sufferers in this Town by the 
Boston Port Bill, and desiring us to order it into such a 
channel as that it may be productive of the end proposed. 
I have accordingly laid your letter before a Committee 
appointed by the Town to receive and distribute donations 
made for that benevolent purpose, and am now, in their | 
name, to thank you for the care you have taken, and the 
gentlemen of Amelia and Dinwiddle Counties, for their [ 
generous donations, assuring them that it shall be applied I 
for the benefit of those sufferers, agreeable to their design. 1 
It affords great satisfaction to the Committee, to have 1 
your testimony that the spirited conduct which the people j 
of Boston have maintained in a time of oppression, and [ 
their great perseverance in the cause of American liberty, ! 
has entitled them to the assistance of their fellow-subjects i 
in the other Colonies. While the virtuous tradesmen and [1 
others in this Town are struggling under the hand of tyr- 
anny for their adherence to so great a cause, our friends 
in all the other Colonies have shown an equal attachment 
to the common liberty, by their liberal contributions to 
alleviate their sufferings. Thus united and resolved to aid 
each other, may not the Colonies indulge a prospect that, 
under the influence of divine Providence, the plans of a 
corrupt and infatuated British Administration to enslave 
them, will soon be defeated, and that the restoration and 
establishment of the liberties of America may be the happy 
fruits of all our sufferings, is the ardent wish of the Com- 
mittee, in whose behalf I subscribe, 

Gentlemen, your affectionate friend, and obliged humble 

Sam'l Adams. 

Letter from New Brunswick N. J. 1 75 


>, Providence, December 16th, 1774. 


With the letter inclosed, we Teccived a bill of lading 
or two barrels rye flour ; eight barrels wheat ditto ; two 
>arrels pork ; one tierce of wheat, quantity six bushels ; 
ne tierce and two barrels, quantity fourteen bushels corn ; 
71 bushels rye ; sent as a donation from the County of 
Middlesex, in New Jersey. We have taken care to have 
he goods stored, and now wait your orders for the further 
lisposal of them. If there is any of the articles that you 
hoose should be transported to I3oston, we will endeavor 
o forward them on the easiest terms we can, and what you 
nay think best to be sold here for cash, shall be negotiated 
,s you may order. Wishing you to persevere in the good 
ause in which you are assigned so hard a lot, we are your 
iiends. Signed per order of the Committee of Correspond- 
nce of the Town of Providence, 

James Angell. 

Po the Committee for receiving Donations for the Town of Boston. 

Neiv Brunswick, Nov. loth, 1774. 


Here inclosed is a bill lading for sundry articles, 
ifhiefly the donation of the County of Middlesex, in New 
Mersey, for the use of the sufferers in Boston, which I hope 
kill arrive safe to hand, and as there is some money in my 
kand, and more expected, please to let me know what will 
pe most beneficial ; whether cash, rye, flour, or any other 
trticle that may be purchased here, and if it may be con- 
venient to ship it to Providence, which we can readily do, 
is we have two sloops trading from this place to Newport, 
ind what directions you give shall be cheerfully complied 
ivith by, 

Your very humble servant, 

James Neilson. 

To the Honorable Committee for the Sufferers in Boston, or to 
heir Attorney in Providence. 

176 Replies to New Brunswick. 


Boston, December 21, 1774. 

Your agreeable favor of 16th instant, inclosing one 
of the 15th ult, from Mr. James Neilson, of New Bruns- 
wick, came to hand the last evening. We observe, with 
gratitude, the generous donation from our worthy brethren 
of New Brunswick, as also the kind part you have under- 
taken respecting the same. We could wish to have re- 
ceived the provisions themselves ; but as we apprehend the 
transportation by water may now be difficult and hazardous, 
if not impracticable, and the charges, whether by land or 
water, very considerable, it is the opinion of the Committee 
that the donation should be sold at Providence, to the best 
advantage, and the cash sent per some good opportunity. 
Your very friendly offer in this way to afford us your fur- 
ther assistance respecting this matter, lays us under addi- 
tional obligation. 

We hope that by the continued favor of our God, we 
shall be enabled still to conduct in such manner as shall 
in the issue secure the just rights and liberties, not only of 
this greatly distressed and injured Town and Province, but 
also of all North America. 

We are, with great respect, Sir, your much obliged 
friends and servants, 

TWi7-tt\ T-r>T7iTriT>TT7c ( Per order of the Com- 
J^AVIJJ J-L-b-tKll^, | mittee of Donations. 

To Mr. James Angell, at Providence. 

Boston, December 21, 1774. 

Last evening the Committee of Donations received a 
letter from Mr. James Angell, of Providence, dated the j 
16th instant, inclosing your agreeable favor of New Bruns- 
wick, 15th ult. He has received two barrels rye flour, 
eight barrels wheat flour, two barrels pork, one tierce, 
quantity six bushels, and one tierce and two barrels, quan- 
tity fourteen bushels corn, and four hundred and seventy- 
one bushels rye, (as per his letter,) the seasonable and 

Letter from New York. 177 

generous donation of the patriotic inhabitants of Middlesex 
County, &c., in New Jersey. 

Yon will please to present the grateful acknowledg- 
ments of this Committee, in behalf of this much injured 
and greatly oppressed people, for this instance of their 
Christian sympathy and affection. And, as to what remains 
in your hand, and what you further expect, of which you 
kindly inform us in your letter, perhaps, as you suggest, 
it may be as well to forward it in cash, as in anything else, 
the season being so far advanced. However, we shall leave 
it with our kind benefactors to act in this matter as shall 
be most convenient and agreeable to them. 

This Committee, considering the risk and difficulty, as 
well as expense, of transporting from Providence the above 
said donation, especially at this time of year, have desired 
our worthy brethren at Providence to sell the same to the 
best advantage and forward the money to us per some good 
opportunity. To this purpose we now write them. 

If our brethren of New Brunswick should think it best 
to send the remainder in provisions, would it not be as con- 
venient to forward it to New York, as to Providence, from 
whence (i. e. New York) it maybe full as easy to transport 
to Boston, via Salem, as from Providence. 

We have nothing of a public nature to communicate, 
save that a gentleman of this Town has received a letter, 
dated Bristol, October 22d, wherein the writer, who had 
had a long conference with Lord Clare, says, that by a steady, 
manly, firm conduct in the Colonies united, we should most 
assuredly succeed to our wish. 

We are, with great respect. Sir, your affectionate and 
very obliged friend and fellow-countryman, 

DAVTn Tfvt^-RTT-c j Per order of the Com- 
A \ ID Jtl^Kl±,b,| mittee of Dona tions. 

To James Neilson, Esq., at New Brunswick, New Jersey. 


V New York, Dec. 16th, 1174. 


W r e have now to advise that a few months since we 
received, in company with Philip Livingston, Esq., three 
4th s. — vol. iv. 23 

178 Letter from New York. 

hundred and seventy-five tierces of rice, from our friend 
Mr. Levinus Ciarkson, of Charleston, South Carolina, 1 for 
sales on account of the poor at Boston. This quantity we 
have finished the sales of, and the whole will soon fall due, 
so that we shall be glad of your instructions for applying 
the proceeds, which it was judged might be ordered in flour 
from this. 

By the schooner Chester, Henry Hicker, master, who 
arrived a few days since, we received the further quantity 
of one hundred and three tierces, addressed to ourselves by 

1 The intelligence of the passage of the Boston Port Bill was received in 
Charleston, South Carolina, on the 3Jst of May, by a packet from Philadel- 
phia ; and excited general indignation. — Essex Gazette, June 28. On the 13th 
of June, the Charleston Committee resolved to call a meeting of the inhab- 
itants of the whole Province, to take place on the 5th of July, and "to write to 
leading men in every part of the country, acquainting them with the present state 
of America" and requesting them to send deputies to this meeting. — Boston 
Gazette, July 4. Meantime a subscription was opened for the relief of Boston in 
the manner indicated in the following public notice : — 

Charleston, S. C , June 24, 1774. 
Many generous and charitable persons in this Colony, being desirous to send, and 
we the Subscribers having been requested to receive donations for the relief of our 
distressed brethren of Boston, now suffering tor the coamon cause of America, under 
the late most cruel, arbitrary and oppressive Act of the British Parliament, for the 
shutting up of that Port— in order that so laudable, and at the same time necessary a 
mark of our real sympathy and union with our sister Colonies, may not appear to have 
the least slight shown to it : Give this public notice, that whatever shall be sent to us, 
or either of us, for that purpose, shall be faithfully, and as expeditiously as possible, 
forwarded to the direction of gentlemen of known probity, public spirit, and honor in I 
Boston, for the benefit of such poor persons, whose unfortunate circumstances, occa- 
sioned by the operation of that unconstitutional Act, may be thought to stand in most 1 
need of immediate assistance. 

Daniel Horry. Paul Trapier. 

James Parsons William Elliott, 
William Williamson. of Beaufort, 

Miles Brewton. John Neufville. 

Levinus Clarkson. Charles Elliott. 

Thomas Lynch. Charles Pinckney. 

Thomas Ferguson. Christ. Gadsden. 

N. B — Any rice that shall be sent to Mr. Gadsden's wharf, for the above purpose, 
shall be there landed, shipped, and (if occasion) stored without a farthing's charge. 

The Essex Gazette of July 19, has the following paragraph, dated Charleston, 
June 27 : — " A sloop is now loaded, at Mr. Gadsden's wharf, and ready to clear 
out with rice, being a part of the benevolent contribution of the inhabitants of 
this Colony, for the immediate relief of those poor of Boston, for having exerted 
themselves in defence of the constitutional rights of America. Subscriptions 
and collections are also making in different parts of the country, for the same 
purpose, from whence it may be seen, whether we will desert any sister Colony 
in distress." A letter dated Charleston, June 30, states : " The inhabitants of 
Boston are cruelly treated. The people here pity and feel greatly for them. 
Subscriptions are open, and large donations are made every day for their relief. 
A sloop sailed yesterday for Salem, with 20 barrels of pork, besides a consider- 
able sum in specie, and it is expected they will be able to collect the value of 

Letter from New York. 171) 

Roger Smith, Esq., for the same benevolent purpose, of 
which we shall dispose on the best terms in our power, and 
transmit you sales of tho whole when completed. We 
shall wish to receive your instructions as soon as convenient, 
and are, respectfully, 

Gentlemen, your most obedient servants, 

('has. McEvers & Co. 

To Jno. Howe, and Jno. Hancock, Esqrs., at Boston. 

one thousand barrels of rice. A gentlemen of this Province, now in England, 
wrote to his correspondent here to give not less than fifty pounds sterling, but if 

he thought it proper, to give as far as five hundred pounds." (A cordial this, for 
the industrious poor.) 

The Boston Gazette of July 25, 1774, contains the " Resolutions unanimously 
entered into by the inhabitants of South Carolina, at a general meeting held at 
Charleston, in the said Colony, on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, the (!th, 
7th, and ^th days of July, 1774." They occupy over a column, and state that 
the Acts of the British Parliament, "though levelled immediately at the people 
of Boston, very manifestly and glaringly show, if the inhabitants of that Town 
are intimidated into a mean submission to said Acts, that the like are designed 
for all the Colonies : "' "That not only the dictates of humanity, but the sound- 
est principles of true policy and self preservation, make it absolutely necessary, 
for the inhabitants of all the Colonies in America, to assist and support the peo- 
ple of Boston, by all lawful ways in their power : " and " that, while the oppres- 
sive Acts relative to Boston are enforced, we will cheerfully, from time to time, 
contribute towards the relief of such poor persons there, whose unfortunate 
circumstances, occasioned by the operations of those Acts, may be thought to 
stand in need of most assistance." 

The Boston Gazette of the 15th of August, contains about two columns of "fur- 
ther particulars" relative to this meeting, copied from a South Carolina journal. 
It is here stated, that it was " the largest body of the most, respectable inhabitants 
that had been ever seen together upon any public occasion," in Charleston, "or 
perhaps any whore in America : " that it was determined to transmit its resolu- 
tions "to every Colony on this continent, from Canada to West Florida, accom- 
panied with a letter to each, respectively, signed by the Chairman, inviting them 
to unite with us." This relation closes in the following language : " Be com- 
forted, ye oppressed Bostonians ! and exult, ye northern votaries of liberty! that 
the sacred rays of freedom, which used to beam from you on us, are now rever- 
berated, with double efficacy, back upon yourselves, from your weaker sister, 
Carolina, who stands foremost in a resolution to sacrifice her all, in your defence. 
And tremble, minions of slavery, — a blow will soon be struck, if you urge us 
to that extremity, which will convince you, that one soul animates three mil- 
lions of brave Americans, though extended over a long tract of two thousand 
miles. Ye vainly thought we were a rope of sand, but you will find, unless we 
are put on the same footing with Englishmen, before nine months, millions of 
people who depend on America for their daily bread, will curse you with their 
dying groans." 

The South Carolina Provincial Congress, which met at Charleston, on the 
11th of January, 177o, and of which Charles Pinckncy was President, passed the 
following resolution: " Resolved, That it be strongly recommended to the Paro- 
chial and District Committees, to use their utmost endeavors to obtain liberal 
donations for the relief of the suffering people in the Town of Boston and Colony 
of Massachusetts Bay. And that all such donations as may be collected from 
time to time, be transmitted to the General Committee in Charleston." — En. 

180 Reply to New York. 


Boston, 1th February, 1775. 
Philip Livingston, Esq., and Messrs. C. McEvers fy Co. (New York.) 


Your esteemed favors of 16th December, addressed to 
John Hancock and John Howe, Esqrs., also your favor 
30th ultimo, directed to John Howe, Esq., have been com- 
municated to the Committee appointed by the Town of 
Boston to receive Donations for the relief and employment | 
of the unhappy sufferers by the Port Bill, who have di- 
rected us to answer them. 

We observe by your favor 16th December, that you had 
completed the sales three hundred and seventy-five tierces 
rice, which you sometime since received from our worthy, 
sympathizing brethren at Charleston, South Carolina, the 
net proceeds to be applied for the support, &c, of the dis- 
tressed, industrious tradesmen and others in this Town, and 
that you had more lately received from the same place, one 
hundred and three tierces rice, the net proceeds thereof to 
be applied to the like benevolent purposes. 

We should be much obliged, gentlemen, if you would favor 
us with an account of what monies you may have in hand 
from the sales of the rice, in order that the Committee may 
be enabled to draw for the same, provided they can find 
purchasers for their bills. 

We are also to desire you would let us know the value 
with you of sterling bills on London, and would beg leave 
to ask whether you think it practicable to invest the whole 
monies in heavy guineas and hard dollars, so that it might 
be brought here by land carriage without loss. Any bills 
that you have already or may hereafter procure on Boston, 
the Committee will gladly receive. 

We are to request your answer, as soon as may be con- 
venient, which when we receive shall communicate to the 
Committee, and acquaint you in due time with their deter- 

We have it, gentlemen, in particular charge from the 
Committee, to return you their hearty thanks for the kind 

Letter from Chesterfield County. 181 

and friendly part you have taken in this affair, which we 
now do with great pleasure, and are, very respectfully, 

Gentlemen, your most obedient, humble servants, 

John Brown, > Two of the Comniit- 
Daniel Waldo, ) tee of Donations. 


Virginia. Chesterfield County, 11th Dec, 1774. 

Agreeable to a Resolution entered into by the Dele- 
gates of this Colony in August last, subscriptions have been 
made for the unhappy inhabitants of Boston, whose case 
we look upon as our own, and cannot enough admire their 
fortitude under such cruel oppression as they, for their own 
and the common cause of America, have and are yet suffer- 
ing. We now send to your address the donation of our 
constituents, which we make no doubt you will have prop- 
erly disposed of to such as are objects of charity. It would 
have been sent sooner, but we could not procure a vessel 
until grain for the same purpose was brought in from 
Counties more remote, as what w r as subscribed in this 
County was not sufficient for a load ; indeed our county 
grain is not yet all brought in, so that we expect to send it 
with what is not yet brought down from the upper people ; 
but as we have not all the subscription papers in our 
possession, we cannot ascertain how much is left, but judge 
about two hundred bushels. 

The bill of lading inclosed is for 1,436£ bushels, but of 
that there is 210 bushels of wheat and 12 J of corn, deliv- 
ered in our granary by the people of Cumberland, and by 
mistake a receipt taken and bills of lading given as from 
Chesterfield. There was but little money subscribed ; what 
was we have paid the captain in part for his freight. The 
captain has said in his bill of lading that the whole freight 
is here paid, but it is not so, and you are desired to sell as 
much of the grain as will pay the balance. Inclosed you 

182 Reply to Chesterfield County. 

have an account of what is paid. We are told the freight 
is rather high. As we were not accustomed to that branch 
of business, we left it to Mr. John Tabb, to make the agree- 
ment with the owner of the vessel, and he agreed to give 
one shilling this currency per bushel. We understand 
there is about 3,500 bushels in this vessel from the several 
Counties nigh this. We are desired to inform you that 
there is on board 192 J bushels of wheat, a donation from 
the people of Goochland County, the freight of which is 
paid here. We natter ourselves you will excuse the trouble 
we give you on this occasion. It is a tribute you must pay 
to the high confidence your countrymen have placed in you, 
by which your characters are made known to us. 

We are, Gentlemen, with the greatest esteem, your 
obedient, humble servants, 

Archibald Cary. 
Benja. Watkins. 

To the Honorable Thomas Gushing, Esq., Jno. Adams, Esq., Mr. 
Samuel Adams and Robert Treat Paine, Esqs., Boston. 


February 1, 1775. 

Messrs. Benja. Watkins and Archibald Cary, Chesterfield County, 


Capt. Tompkins duly delivered your letter, dated Vir- 
ginia, Chesterfield County, Dec. 1774, directed to Mr. 
dishing, Mr. John Adams, Mr. Paine and myself, with a 
bill of lading inclosed for 1,054 bushels of wheat, 376£ 
bushels corn, and Hye bushels peas, of which 210 bushels 
wheat, and 12J corn we perceive comes from the people of 
Cumberland. As this Town have appointed a Committee 
to receive and distribute donations made for the relief and 
employment of the sufferers by the Boston Port Bill, for 
which charitable purpose these donations of your constitu- 
ents are appropriated, your letter and the bill of lading are 
assigned to them, and in their name I am now to desire you 
to accept of their grateful acknowledgments for the benev- 

Reply to Chatham. 1 83 

olent part you have taken, and also to make their returns 
of gratitude to the worthy gentlemen of Chesterfield and 
Cumberland County, for the very generous assistance they 
have afforded for the relief of the inhabitants of Boston, 
yet suffering, as you express it, under cruel oppression for 
the common cause of America. It is a sense of the dignity 
of the cause which animates them to suffer with that forti- 
tude which you are pleased candidly to attribute to them ; 
and while they are thus encouraged and supported by the 
sister Colonies, they will, by God's assistance, rather than 
injure or stain that righteous cause, endure the conflict to 
the utmost. 

The Committee have received 192 £ bushels of wheat, 
mentioned in your letter, as a donation from the people of 
Goochland County. You will greatly oblige the Committee 
if you will return their hearty thanks to their generous 
friends in that County. 

I am, with truth and sincerity, Gentlemen, your respect- 
ful friend and humble servant, 

Sam'l Adams. 


Boston, December 11th, 1774. 

Sensible of the many obligations that we are under for 
the many acts of kindness received from our kind and 
sympathizing brethren in Connecticut, and in particular 
for the kind donation received from our worthy brethren 
in Chatham, of ten sheep, which we esteem as expres- 
sive of the most endearing friendship and tender regard, 
and it is with pleasure we now take this agreeable oppor- 
tunity of making some grateful return, which, though 
inadequate to so great kindness, yet it is all in our power, 
but hope the Parent of nature and of every good, will 
reward you. 

Our situation is truly distressing ; families that have 
lived in the greatest affluence are now reduced to the most 

184 Letter from Henrico County. 

disagreeable circumstances ; and was it not for the sympa- 
thy manifested by our worthy brethren in the other Colo- 
nies, we must have fallen a prey to a most cruel and 
arbitrary ministry ; but, through God's goodness, the hearts 
of our brethren are open, which animates us to persevere, 
though under the severest trials, and makes us determined j 
to risk even life itself rather than give up our rights and 

We should have esteemed it as a great pleasure to have 
seen the gentleman who brought us your kind donation, in 
order that he might have seen our books, and the method 
we take of relieving the necessities of our distressed inhab- 
itants, which perhaps would have been satisfactory. How- 
ever, we herewith inclose you a printed copy of our pro- 

We are, Gentlemen, with the greatest esteem, your very 
obliged friends and countrymen, 

John Avery, Jijk., J S£?SSS5£Sr 

To the Selectmen, to be communicated to the Committee of Corres- 
pondence in Chatham, in Connecticut. 

Per favor Major Champlin. 

letter from henrico county. 


As soon as [we] were informed of the unjustifiable 
attack made on the liberties of our worthy brethren, the 
Bostonians, the County of Henrico set about a subscription 
for the relief of the poor of its inhabitants. Lest necessity 
should prevent their giving their noble leaders such assist- 
ance as is most sincerely and unanimously wished for by 
every Virginian, therefore take the freedom to inclose you 
bills of lading for three hundred twenty-nine and one half 
bushels wheat, one hundred and thirty-five bushels corn, 
and twenty-three barrels flour, which we wish safe to hand ; 
and we doubt not your giving the necessary instructions 

Reply to Henrico County. 1 85 

to your Overseers to answer the intention of my con- 

I have the honor to he, Gentlemen, your most obedient 
and very humble servant, 

Richard Randolph. 
Curls? Virginia^ Henrico County, December 19th, 1774. 


Boston, February 1, 1775. 
Richard Randolph, Esq., Virginia, Henrico Comity. 


Your letter of the 29th December last, directed to Mr. 
Gushing, Mr. John Adams, Mr. Paine and myself, inclos- 
ing bill of lading for three hundred twenty-nine and a half 
bushels wheat, one hundred thirty-five bushels corn, and 

enty-three barrels flour, was delivered to us by Capt. 
ompkins, and we have laid it before the Committee of this 
Town appointed to receive and distribute Donations made 
for the relief and employment of the sufferers by the Port 
Bill. I am, in the name of the Committee, to desire you to 
return their hearty thanks to the worthy gentlemen of 
Henrico County, who have so generously contributed for 
that charitable purpose, and to assure them that their dona- 
tions shall be applied so as duly to answer their benevolent 

The Colony of Virginia made an early stand, by their 
ever memorable Resolves in 1765, against the efforts of a 
corrupt British Administration to enslave America, and has 
ever distinguished herself by her exertions in support of 
our common rights. The sister Colonies struggled separ- 
ately, but the Minister himself has at length united them, 
and they have lately uttered language that will be heard. 
It is the fate of this Town to drink deep of the cup of 
ministerial vengeance ; but while America bears them wit- 
ness that they suffer in her cause, they glory in their suffer- 
ings. Being thus supported by her liberality, they will 
never ungratefully betray her rights. Tnheritiug the spirit 
4th s. — vol. iv. 24 

186 Letter from James River County. 

of their virtuous ancestors, they will, after their example, 
endure hardships, and confide in an all-gracious Provi- 
dence. Having been born to be free, they will never dis- 
grace themselves by a mean submission to the injurious 
terms of slavery. These, Sir, I verily believe to be the 
sentiments of our inhabitants, and if I am not mistaken, 
such assistances are to be expected from them, as you 
assure us are most sincerely and unanimously wished by 
every Virginian. 

I am, in the name of the Committee, Sir, your sincere 
friend and fellow-countryman, 

Sam'l Adams. 

letter from james river county. 


This will be delivered you by Capt. Eobert Tompkins, 
in my schooner, the Dunmore, who brings you a load of 
donation wheat, corn and flour from James River, for the 
poor of your City. I refer you for particulars to the letters 
he will deliver you from the several gentlemen who had the 
management of the subscriptions for the different Counties 
from which this supply comes. The charter party run for 

twenty days here, but the gentlemen found so much 

inconvenience in the collecting, that she has been detained 
near two months. However, the affair being of so public 
and very laudable a nature, I never thought of damage, 
and hope it may be some incitement for dispatch with you. 
The gentlemen were willing the Dunmore might discharge 
at Salem, should there be any apprehension of her being 
froze up at Boston. This may be thought but reasonable, 
as, had she met with the dispatch expected here, she might 
and would have been now on her inward passage. The 
captain has orders on you for some freight, which could 
not in time be so conveniently made up here, has other 
monies to lay out in your country, rum, molasses, &c. 
"Were it [not] thought too much, I should venture to recom- 
mend Capt. Tompkins, being a stranger, to your notice and 
advice, in laying out his money to the best advantage in such 

latter from James River County. 181 

of vour commodities as may at the time be most reasonable 
with you. He has also a quantity of butter to dispose of, 
which I hope may come to a saving market. 

A report at this time prevails here, that men of war are 
ordered to he stationed at New York, Pennsylvania, here, 
and to the southward, to prevent our exports. I have for 
some time expected such a measure, hut still hope our 
intelligence is premature. You may depend the A'irginians 
arc unanimous, steady and firm to the cause they have 
emharked in, and will struggle hard for the prize now con- 
tending for. 1 have this very day heard, that in that tract 
of Virginia called the Northern Neck, and which lies 
betwixt Rappahannock and Potomack rivers, they have 
lately raised one thousand volunteers, as fine fellows and 
good woodsmen as any on our continent, who have put 
themselves under the command of Col. George "Washing- 
ton, a brave and experienced officer, whom it is said, has 
undertaken the command of them, and that they are soon 
to march for your place. Governor Eadon, of Maryland, 
is just arrived with his lady, at Annapolis, from London, 
and it seems has brought in some tea with him, I presume 
for his own use, but that the inhabitants will not let him 
land it. All this, if true, you will soon have in the papers, 
probably before this reaches. Our governor has at last 
concluded a peace with the several nations of Indians on 
our frontiers, and brought in hostages. The Indians in the 
treaty have ceded as much of their lands as will sell, to 
reimburse the expenses of the war, thought to be above 
£100,000. Our assembly stands prorogued to the 6th of 
February, and will not meet sooner, unless anything from 
beyond the water should occasion it. Some ships lately 
arrived here, having brought in goods, they are all ordered 
to be stored agreeable to association, and a ship from Lon- 
don who had only two half chests of hyson tea on board, 
was sent back again to England, in ballast, and the tea 
thrown into York river. 

I am, with respect, Gentlemen, your most obedient and 
very humble servant, William Black. 

To the Honorable Thomas Cushing, Esq., Messrs. Adams's and 
Paine, in Boston. 

Dec. 22(/, 17[74,] James Riirr, Virginia. 

Per the Dunmore, Capt. Robt. Tompkins. 

188 Reply to James River County. 


To Mr. Wm. Black, in James River, Virginia. 


Your letter of the 24th December last to Mr. Gushing 
and others, by Capt. Tompkins, of the schooner Dunmore, 
in which was brought several valuable donations from our 
friends in Virginia, to the sufferers in this Town by the 
Port Bill, was communicated to the Committee appointed 
to receive such donations, and by their direction I am to 
acquaint you that they cheerfully consented, at your request, 
that the schooner should be discharged at Salem, thinking 
themselves under obligation to promote her dispatch, more 
especially as there was unexpected delay in her loading, 
and you have very generously declined receiving demur- 

We have repeatedly had abundant evidence of the firm- 
ness of our brethren of Virginia in the American cause, 
and have reason to confide in them that they will struggle 
hard for the prize now contending for. 

I am desired by the Committee to acquaint you that a 
ship has lately sailed from this place bound to James River, 
in Virginia ; the master's name is Crowd Hatch. When 
he was building his ship, a proposal was made to him by 
some of the Committee, to employ the tradesmen of this 
Town, for which he should receive a recompense by a dis- 
count of five per cent on their several bills, but he declined 
to accept of the proposal. This, you are sensible, would 
have been the means of his employing our sufferers at their 
usual rates, and at the same time as cheap to him as if he 
had got his vessel built by more ordinary workmen from 
the country. There is also another circumstance which I 
must relate to you. Capt. Hatch proposed that the Com- 
mittee should employ our smith, in making anchors for his 
vessel, at a price by which they could get nothing but their 
labor for their pains, because he could purchase cast an- 
chors imported here, for the same price, which was refused. 
At this he was very angry, and (perhaps in a gust of pas- 
sion) declared in the hearing of several persons of credit, 
that he was used ill, threatening repeatedly that he would 

Reply to North Kingston* L89 

stop nil the donations he could, and that no more should 
come from the place where he was going to, meaning 
Virginia. These lads the Committee thought it neces- 
sary to communicate to you, and to beg thr favor of you 
to use your influence that (apt. Hatch may not have it in 
his power, (if he should be disposed,) to traduce the Com- 
mittee and injure the sufferers in this Town, for whose 
relief our friends in Virginia have so generously contrib- 

1 am, in the name of the Committee, Sir, your obliged 
{friend and humble servant, 

Sam'l Adams. 


Boston, December 21th, 1774. 

We have once and again had occasions to acknowledge 

the receipt of very kind and seasonable donations, for the 
Relief and support of the sufferers in this Town, by means 
bf the Boston Port Bill, from our sympathizing and chari- 
table brethren in the patriotic Colony of Rhode Island, as 
well as elsewhere. And we have now to acknowledge the 
pesh receipt of a like favor, that is to say, of seventy sheep, 
from a number of our worthy countrymen, in North Kings- 
ton, yesterday. 

You will please to return the sincere thanks of the Com- 
mittee of Donations, in behalf of this much injured and 
greatly oppressed Town, to our generous benefactors, to 
whom we wish a plentiful reward from our most gracious 
Mod, who has inclined your hearts thus to consider your 
afflicted brethren, and who is able to multiply your seed 
pown, and to increase the fruits of your righteousness, and 
finally, to grant us the desire of our hearts, by delivering 
Lis from the hands of our enemies. We are particularly 

mliged to you. gentlemen, for your care and trouble in 

landing the above donation to us. 
Inclosed is an account, heretofore communicated to the 

'ublic, of the general method observed by the Committee 

190 Letter from WeUfleet. 

in the distribution of the charities of our friends, which we! 
hope may be satisfactory to them. A sovereign and all- 
wise Providence has been pleased to appoint us our present I 
lot. God is merciful and righteous, and we may not find 
fault with his dispensations ; but we may complain of men 
who have dealt unrighteously and cruelly with us. We 
are commanded, in every thing to give thanks; these we J 
would render to God, for all his kind interpositions and! 1 
gracious appearances in our behalf, and who has hitherto 
directed and assisted us, and to Him it is our duty to look! 
for future help and direction, and further supplies. 

We wish you prosperity, and are, Gentlemen, your most 
obliged friends and fellow countrymen, 

David Jeffries, j S^^gST 

To Peter Phillips, Esq., Messrs. Charles Tillinghast and Ezekiel^ 
Gardner, at North Kingston, King's County, Rhode Island. 


WeUfleet, December 29th, 1774. 
Mr. Sharp — Sir, 

We understanding you are one of the gentlemen that 
was appointed to the service of such donations as should 
be sent for the relief of the poor of the Town of Boston, 
we have sent you, by the bearer, forty pounds lawful money, 
which was obtained by subscription in Wellfleet, and as 
soon as we have had our contributions, we shall send it the 
first opportunity. 

From your friends and well-wishers, 

Elisha Cobb. 

Joseph Higgins. 
To Mr. Gibbens Sharp, in Boston. 


Mr. John Hancock, or the Overseers of the Poor of the Town of Boston. 

Inclosed you will receive sales of a parcel corn, I 
received by the schooner Sally, Capt. James Perkins, who 

Letter from Isaac Van Dam. 11)1 

belongs to Virginia and was bound to Boston, for the 
relief of the distressed inhabitants of that Town, and by 
meeting of frequent gales of wind was obliged to put into 
this port, where 1 have sold the corn to the best advantage, 
and now inclose you a bill of exchange drawn by Mr. 
Sampson Mears, on Isaac Moses, of New York, at thirty 
days' sight, for one hundred and seventy-one pounds, eight 
shillings, New York currency. And as this amount was a 
generous donation from Essex County, in Virginia, to those 
people who have virtuously dared to oppose a wicked and 
corrupt ministry, in their tyrannical acts of despotism, I 
think myself happy in having this opportunity of doing 
the business without charging a commission, or any other 
expense attending it here. 

Wishing them a speedy relief from this new Parliament, 
and am, Sir, your most obedient servant, 

Isaac Van Dam. 


Boston, Feb. 28, 1775. 

To Isaac Van Dam, Esq., at St. Eustatia. 


Your letter of the 30th December, addressed to John 
Hancock, Esq., has been laid before the Committee ap- 
pointed by this Town, to receive and distribute the dona- 
tions made for the employment and relief of the sufferers 
by the Act of Parliament, commonly called the Boston Port 
Bill. I am directed by the Committee to return you their 
hearty thanks for the care you have generously taken in 
the disposal of a parcel of corn, (free of charge,) which 
Was shipped for that charitable purpose, by our friends in 
Essex County, in Virginia, on board the schooner Sally, 
James Perkins, master, driven by stress of weather to St. 
Eustatia. An account of sales of the corn was inclosed 
in your letter, together with a bill of exchange drawn by 
Mr. Sampson Mears on Mr. Isaac Moses of New York, for 
one hundred seventy-one pounds, eight shillings, that cur- 
rency, being the amount thereof. 

The opinion you have formed of the inhabitants of this 

192 Letter from Bristol. 

Town, as having so virtuously dared to oppose a wickec 
and corrupt ministry, in their tyrannical acts of despotism.!; 
must needs be very flattering to them. The testimony of] 
our friends so fully in our favor, more especially of those j 
who are not immediately interested in the unhappy contest 
between Britain and her Colonies, must strongly excite this 
people to a perseverance in so righteous a cause. 

Be pleased, Sir, to accept of due acknowledgments fori 
your kind wishes for our speedy relief, and be assured that 
I am, (in the name of the Committee,) 

Your very obliged friend and humble servant, 

Sam'l Adams. 


Rhode Island, Bristol, 30th December, 1774. 

Agreeable to a vote of the Town of Bristol, appoint- 
ing me to send you the money that should be raised in said 
Town for the support of the distressed inhabitants of Bos- 
ton, I now send you by Mr. Mumford, the small sum of 
forty-seven pounds, seventeen shillings and six pence, law- 
ful money, to be by you disposed of for the purpose afore- 
said, at your discretion, which was all that could be at this 
time collected. Should have been exceeding glad it had 
been more ; but you may depend that all due care will be 
taken in this Town, from time to time, to afford you that 
relief your circumstances may require, and our abilities will 
afford, to enable you to hold out in so just a cause against 
the combination of all wicked and mischievous beings, from 
the highest source of evil down to Lord North. That you 
may be so enabled to hold out, and be finally victorious 
over your and our enemies, shall be my constant care, by 
all the industry in my power to contribute, as it will afford 
me the greatest pleasure on earth. 

I am, Gentlemen, your most humble servant, 

William Bradford. 

£47 17 5 . 6d. 
To Sam'l Adams, Esq., and others, the Committee for receiving the 
Donations for the Town of Boston. 

Letter from Salem. 193 


Boston, Jan. 2d, 1774. 

We are much obliged for your care in forwarding to the 
Committee of Donations the generous subscriptions of our 
worthy brethren of Bristol, for the support of the distressed 
inhabitants of Boston, amounting to forty-seven pounds, 
seventeen shillings, six pence, per Mr. Mumford. It shall 
be applied agreeable to the intent of the benevolent donors. 
Inclosed is a printed account of the general method ob- 
served by the Committee in the distributions of the charities 
of our friends, which we hope will prove satisfactory. 

The Committee present their sincere thanks, in behalf of 
the Town of Boston, for this instance of their kindness, 
and are particularly obliged for their purpose to afford fur- 
ther relief in time to come, should the case require it. 
Our humble acknowledgments are due to God, w f ho has 
raised up benefactors to this much abused and oppressed 
Town. Under ail our darkness, some light hath been made 
to arise. 

We trust our cause, which indeed is a common cause, 
and of the greatest importance to America, is a righteous 
cause, and that God will maintain it. If he shall please 
to grant us the wisdom and prudence, the firmness and help 
and blessing we need, we shall put our enemies to shame, 
and in due time have cause to rejoice in his great salvation. 

We are, with great respect, Sir, your much obliged suf- 
fering friends and fellow-countrymen, 

D, -TTTT-. T-r'T-'T^-r. tt^o \ Per order of the Com- 

mittee of Donations. 

To Dr. William Bradford. 



Salem, January 2d, 1775. 


The distress of Boston has I0112: called on us to reach 
out the hand of help for your relief. I and my people 
4th s. — vol. iv. ' 25 

194 Letter from Salem. 

heard the cry, and plotted for your relief; but as it was 
proposed that the Town, as such, should raise a generous 
sum, we were prevented making a collection, till God in 
his holy and wise providence was pleased to take away our 
meeting-house by fire, by which my people, poor before, 
were reduced to distress, which is greatly increased by an 
unhappy division which has taken place among us, the 
separation headed by Mr. Daniel Hopkins, who taking 
advantage of our distress has set up another meeting-house, 
by which our society is greatly diminished, so that we are 
unable to build another house, without large charitable 
assistance of our Christian brethren abroad. 

But notwithstanding these great difficulties, and the 
smallness of the place where we meet, viz. the school- 
house, which prevents many from assembling, we have, out 
of our deep poverty, been the first society in Town which 
has contributed to your relief. The sum is small, viz. 
£24c 16s. 8d.; we wish it had been ten times more ; but con- 
sidering our circumstances, we presume you, and the wor- 
thy Committee, will accept it as a token of our love and 
tender concern for your distressed state, and account it as 
the widow's mite. 

Should you publish an account of this collection, you 
may greatly serve this poor afflicted society should you add 
a word by way of motive to the charitable to lodge such 
donations as they may make for our relief in the hand of 
Capt. Thomas Mason, of Salem ; but this I submit to your 
prudence, hoping in God, whose is the earth and the full- 
ness of it, to supply all our wants, and to remove from you 
the iron rod of oppression, and restore to you and this 
whole land all our civil and religious privileges. 

I am, in the name of my people, your humble servant, 

Nath'l Whitaker. 

N. B. — I hope our forwardness has provoked many to 
the same good work, for I hear the lower parish are exert- 
ing themselves. Mr. Gould, one of my people, is the 

Reply to Salem. 195 


_» Boston, January 3c/, 1775. 

Reverend Sir, l/ 

I am to acknowledge your favor of the second instant, 
per Mr. Gould, by whom we received the generous dona- 
tion from your parish in Salem, of twenty-four pounds, 
sixteen shillings and eight pence, lawful money, which we 
esteem very highly under your present distressing circum- 
stances, occasioned by the holy providence of God depriving 
you lately of your meeting-house by fire, so that out of your 
deep poverty, we can add, your liberality has abounded to us, 
in this distressed Town. We trust this act of kindness 
shown to us under our present difficulties, will be abundant- 
ly made up to the generous donors, not only in temporal 
but spiritual blessings ; and may God unite, strengthen, 
stablish and settle you in his good time. I am also to 
desire you would return the thanks of the Committee of 
Donations, in behalf of the Town, [to the] donors, and that 
you would accept the same for your friendly assistance 
therein, and am, with great respect, 

Reverend Sir, your most humble servant, 

Ben. Austin, j^lSI, 
To the Rev. Dr. Nathaniel Whitaker, at Salem. 


Boston, January [ ] 1775. 

While struggling under the cruel hand of oppression, 
we are animated and enabled to persevere in our opposition, 
by the sympathy of our kind friends and countrymen, dis- 
covered in their generous donations for the relief and sup- 
port of our industrious poor, who are by the Port Bill 
thrown [out of all busijness, and would otherwise be 
reduced to the greatest poverty and distress. We have 
frequent occasions of returning our hearty thanks to our 
kind benefactors for their generous donations, and particu- 
larly, now, have the pleasure of returning you our grateful 

196 Letter to Warren and Lothrop. 

acknowledgment for your generous donation of four quar- j 
ters of beef, weighing 593 lbs. And may the blessing of 
those who are ready to perish come upon you. 

We are, with great respect, Sir, your most humble ser- 

[~| I In behalf of the Com- 
J | mittee of Donations. 

To Col. Nathan SparhaivJc, Rutland. i; 


Boston, 3d January, 1775. 
James Warren and Isaac Lothrop. 


From a knowledge of your natural good disposition 
and readiness to serve your brethren in this place, who are 
suffering under the iron hand of oppression, and have 
taken the liberty to recommend to your countenance Capt. 
William Johnson Rysam, who has lost his vessel near the 
Gurnet, and had on board for our suffering poor, seven 
hundred and fifteen bushels Indian corn, [ x 

] fifty-eight barrels bread, and ten ditto 
flour, which is landed at the Gurnet. 

The Committee of Donations beg that you will be so 
good as to get some small vessel to take in as much of the 
corn, bread, flour, and pork, as may be fit to eat, and send 
them to Boston. But such as will grow worse by keeping, 
or are not fit to be used for the people, please to sell for the 
most it will fetch, on the Committee's account. 

The Captain informs us that he thinks the biggest part 
of the corn may do for use ; but I expect it all in a bad 
condition, but leave it with you to act as you think best, and 
whatever expense you may be at, shall be paid on demand, 
and am, in behalf of the Committee, 

Gentlemen, your most humble servants, 

1[ ] 

P. S. — Any assistance that you can give Capt. Rysam, 
will be gratefully acknowledged by the Committee. 

1 The MS. is here torn. 

Letter from Salem. 197 


~ Boston. January 4th, 1775. 

Gentlemen, j 

The many generous donations from our worthy and 
patriotic friends in this and the other governments, call for 
our grateful acknowledgments ; by which we are enabled 
to support the many industrious poor and distressed fami- 
lies in this Town, which would otherwise be reduced to the 
greatest difficulties, at this time, when we are struggling 
under the cruel hand of oppression, in support of the com- 
mon cause of liberty. We consider ourselves as stationed 
by the providence of God, in the first rank of opposition 
to the cruel measures of an incensed ministry; and our 
duty is, firmly to maintain our ground, which we trust God, 
the Supreme Ruler of the Universe, will enable us to do, 
so as to defeat the designs of administration, to enslave not 
only this Province but all America. We return you our 
unfeigned thanks for your donation of three pounds, thir- 
teen shillings and six pence, lawful money, by the hands of 

i our worthy friends, Messrs. Pain and Davis, and you may 
assure yourselves it shall be applied (with all other dona- 

j tions) to the benevolent purposes designed by the donors, 
notwithstanding any representation of our adversaries to 
the contrary. The above gentlemen have had the perusal 

8 of our books, and we flatter ourselves are satisfied with our 

I method of distributing the donations committed to our care. 
We inclose you a printed account of our proceedings, 
and are, with respect, Gentlemen, your hearty friends and 

1 r ""] ( In behalf of the Com- 

L J { nrittee of Donations. 

To the inhabitants of the South Parish, Eastham. 


r, Salem. January 9th, 1775. 


Being sensible of the suffering of your whole Town, 
and in particular the distressed circumstances of your poor 
at this alarming crisis of affairs, take this opportunity to 

1 The signature to several of the letters has been cut out. 

198 Reply to Salem. 

express our sympathy with you in your distresses, and send 
you by the hands of Mr. John Andrew, the small pittance «ji 
collected in the society (in the east part of Salem) where 1 
the Reverend Mr. James .Dimon officiates, which you will 
please to accept. 

Dayid Phippen, 

Benj. Ward, Jun. )> Committee, 

John Andrew, 

P. S. — Sum sent is £8G 15s. lawful money. 
More, . . 6 

£87 1 — including- £6 lawful money which Capt. Derby's | 
charge of storage of rice, &c. 1 


Boston, January IQth, 1775. 

Your favor of 9th inst. per Mr. Jno. Andrews, our 
worthy friend, the Committee of Donations received the 
last evening, together with the sum of £87 Is. lawful 
money, a donation from the East Parish in Salem, for the 
relief of the poor in this difficult season of the year, and 
while we are suffering under oppressions from the hand of 
power. The cause in which we suffer, we look upon not 
only as the cause of Boston and Salem, or even the Prov- 
ince of the Massachusetts Bay, but the common cause of 
North America. Providence has allotted us our particular 
place and station, and the part we are to bear during the 
important struggles. God has hitherto helped and sup- 
ported us ; and if he shall be pleased to favor us, we shall 
prove victorious, notwithstanding the policy and power, the 
envy and restlessness, the pride and rage of our inveterate 

The union of the Colonies, and their liberality in the 
supplies afforded for the relief of this greatly distressed 
Town, demand a tribute of praise to God, who in these 
respects, as well as many others, has so remarkably smiled 
upon, and favored this people. Why should not we look 
upon these things as tokens for good % Certainly we are 
to consider them as light arising in our darkness ; and 

Letter from Copt, llysani. 199 

inspiration informs ns that it is good both to hope and 
quietly wait for the salvation of God. As for God, his work 
is perfect. Our friends at Salem are to be reckoned among 
the number of our kind benefactors. Their Christian sym- 
pathy greatly affects us. You will be pleased to present 
the grateful acknowledgments of this Committee, in behalf 
of the Town of Boston, for this instance of their tender 
affection and love. May the Lord reward them abundantly. 

Enclosed is a printed account of the general conduct of 
the Committee, respecting the distributions of the charities 
of our friends, which we hope will be satisfactory. 

"We are, Gentlemen, your much obliged friends and 

Du-rn Tf^PTCTFQ < Per order of the Com- 
A\ 1 1) J Lb k 11ILS, | mittee of Dona tions. 

To Messrs. David Shippen, Ben. Ward, Jun., and John Andrews. 


Gurneth, Jan. 11, 1775. 

I have, according to your request, shipped all the 
goods for the donations of Boston that was saved out of 
the sloop Friendship, Thomas Pierce, Master, from Vir- 
ginia, on board the sloop Three Friends, Capt. William 
Bartlet, who is to bring them to Boston, for which I have 
left you to settle the freight as you may think fit. Shipped 
768 bushels corn, 30 barrels pork, 38 barrels ship bread, 9 
barrels flour, which I hope will be serviceable in your great 
wants, which is all the goods that we have saved. The 
expense has been very great, which I shall give you an 
account of in a few days, as soon as I shall be able to set- 
tle with different people. 

Gentlemen, I am, with respect, your humble servant, 

Wm. Johnson Rysam. 

7C>8 bushels corn, The Capt's account. 77<>£ bushels corn, 

30 barrels pork, 10 barrels flour, 

38 barrels bread, 40 barrels bread, 

!) barrels flour. 30 barrels pork. 

200 Letter from Temple, N. H. 


New Hampshire, January 12, 1775. 

You will receive, we suppose, by the bearer, Mr. John I 
Cragin, of Temple, a small quantity of rye, about forty 
bushels, from an infant settlement, collected by a free and 
cheerful contribution from most of the inhabitants, in con-ij 
sequence of a previous recommendation by the TownJ| 
Agreeable to the proposal of the Town, we send it to you, 
to be disposed of by you for the benefit of the poor of the 
Town of Boston, that have been reduced to straits by the 
unjust and cruel Port Bill. We assure you that we hear- j 
tily sympathize with you, and earnestly pray, that as your 
day is your strength may be. That you may be undaunted, 
faithful and wise, and by your steady, undisguised conduct, 
put to silence those that wait for your halting. That your 1 
enemies may be ashamed ; that your friends, at present as 
we suppose the friends of America and of justice, may be 
united, both in good wishes for you and in just and kind 
conduct towards you ; and that God in his own wise and 
holy time and way may subdue the hearts, divert the de- 
signs, and effectually counteract the violence of your ene- 
mies, and soon restore you and us, America and Britain, 
to that security and peace which we cannot but hope will, i 
in issue, be more firmly established, even by those very 
means which vain ambition uses to attain its own purposes. 

The little we do or can do for the mitigation of the evils 
you suffer, we consider rather as an act of justice, than \ 
kindness, to those that are called by Providence to stand in 
the post of danger, and suffer for their adherence to the 
common cause, from the enemies of America, the being 
shut out from the usual channels from which they had been 
wont to derive a decent competence or increasing fortune. 

We are sensible that the same injustice which deprives I 
you of your usual method of support by trade, because 
some tea was destroyed, by somebody in your Town, would 
as readily, and on the same principles, deprive us, in whose | 
country the tea was destroyed, of the cheerful warmth of j 
the sun and refreshing rain, till the tea was paid for, if this j 

Reply to Temple. 201 

were equally in its power. It attacks you, rather than us, 
because this they can do ; in which for our caution and 
sympathy they express their ill will, and for our satisfaction 
their impotence. We rejoice in your general firmness 
hitherto, and would not forget to give thanks to a kind 
Providence that, as we trust, you have been enabled to 
conduct with so much prudence. 

We are particularly pleased, as you declare you are 
determined to be very open and exact in your accounts of 
what you receive and how you employ it, as, with all your 
care, amazing pains is taken to propagate stories to the 
disadvantage of the Committee and Town, the extensive 
and very fatal consequences of which, nothing but the 
plainest facts can prevent. 

With hearty good wishes for your welfare, and humbly 
commending you and ourselves, and the cause of America, 
to Him that has hitherto so wonderfully defeated the secret 
plots and open violence of our common enemies, 

We subscribe your friends, 

Ephraim Heald, " 
Francis Blood, 
David Spafford, 
Sam'l Webber, 
John Cragin, 

Committee of 
and Inspection 

for Temple. 


Boston, Jan. 16, 1775. 

The Committee for receiving Donations for the Town 
of Boston, acknowledge the receipt of your very generous 
bounty, viz. forty bushels rye, by Mr. Cragin, and in behalf 
of said Town return their hearty thanks to the inhabitants 
of the Town of Temple. We cannot but look on it as 
from divine influence, that the hearts and hands of our 
brethren are so opened, and so united in assisting this dis- 
tressed Town ; and we hope and believe, there are many 
thanksgivings going up to Him, who is the Author of all 
good to his creatures, and hope you will be rewarded in 
4th s. — vol. iv. 26 

202 Letter to E. Gerry. 

temporal and spiritual blessings. Through this kindness] 
of divine Providence, we hope we shall be enabled to per- 
severe, and must say it is truly remarkable, the quiet sub- I 
mission to divine Providence there seems to be in all the j! 
friends of the common cause, notwithstanding what our j 
cruel taskmasters have laid on us ; as we think it better to 
bear this heavy burden for a time, than to be slaves, and j 
our posterity forever. As to the reflections cast on the i 
Town and the Committee, by our enemies, I am glad your 
worthy pastor had an opportunity of seeing for himself,! 
and so can assure the people of Temple, that fair and open j 
accounts are kept of all we receive, and how it is distrib- j 
uted, and expressed great satisfaction in it, and doubt not] 
he has satisfied you, and we look on this present as a j 
token of it. 

I am, Gentlemen, in the name and at the desire of the ( 
Committee, your hearty well-wisher, 

Wm. Whitwell, One of the Committee. 

To Messrs. Ephraim Heald, Francis Blood, David Stafford, SarrCl 
Webster and John Cragin, Committee of Temple. 


Boston, 12 January, 1775. 

Capt. Lindsey, from New York, informs the Commit- 
tee that he left under your care four tons nail and bar iron, 
and one pipe brandy, being part of the generous donation: 
from our benevolent, sympathizing brethren of that city, for 
the relief and employment of the sufferers in this Town, 
by the operation of the Port Bill. We do now, by order 
of the Committee, desire you would deliver the said iron; 
and brandy, to Messrs. Edward Blan chard and Joseph 
Henderson, truckmasters, with whom we have agreed to 
bring the same to Town. 

We are, very respectfully, Sir, your obedient, humble 

John Brown, ) Two of the 
Peter Boyer, ) Committee. 

To Elbridge Gerry. 

Letter from West Springfield. 203 


West Springfield^ January 13th, 1775. 

I am desired to inform you, in behalf of a number of 
the inhabitants of "West Springfield, who, taking into con- 
sideration the unhappy and distressed situation of the Town 
of Boston, as suffering in the common cause, have collected 
and sent twenty-five head of swine, as a token of their 
affectionate regard to, and approbation of, the virtuous and 
disinterested conduct of the said Town, the same to be 
disposed of towards the relief of the suffering poor. 

I am, in the behalf of said inhabitants, your very humble 
md affectionate servant and fellow-sufferer, 

Chauncy Brewer, Chairman. 

To the Committee or Overseers of the Poor of Boston. 


Boston, January 21st, 1775. 


I am directed by the Committee of Donations to 
(acknowledge your favor of the 13th instant, and to return 
lour hearty thanks to the inhabitants of West Springfield, 
|for their generous donation of twenty-three head of swine, 
Ifor the relief of the suffering poor of this Town, five of 
which, the gentlemen who had the care of them, disposed 
of on the road, as thinking it more for the advantage of the 
iTown, than to drive them in, and have paid the money 
| they produced, viz. three pounds, 18/1, lawful money. The 
j sympathy of our friends serves to animate us, and their 
! liberality to support us, under our sufferings in the com- 
mon cause ; and it gives us great pleasure to find that our 
| conduct meets with their approbation. 

The gentlemen who brought us your donation have had 
Ian opportunity of examining our books, and we flatter our- 
selves are satisfied with the falsity of the malicious reports 

204 Letter from Salem. 

which are spread abroad to our prejudice, by those who 
are enemies to the liberties of America. 

I am, with great respect, Sir, your most humble servant, 

l [ ] 

To Chauncy Breiver, Chairman of the Committee of Correspond- 
ence for the Town of West Springfield. 


Salem, Jan. 13th, 1775. 

"We send you by the hands of Mr. John Archer, an 
addition of three pounds, nineteen shillings, which, with 
the sum you received of Mr. John Andrews, makes ninety- 
one pounds, which you will please to accept. 

David Phippen. 
Jno. Andrews. 
Benja. Ward, Jun. 

To the Committee of Donations. 

letter from wells, me. 

Wells, January 16, 1775. 

Previous to the recommendation of the Provincial 
Congress, a number of the inhabitants in the second parish 
in Wells, made a small collection, which they send in 
wood, (by the care of Capt. Eben'r Hovey,) judging that 
may be an article as acceptable and useful as any other at 
this season of the year, for the comfort of the needy and 
afflicted under your care. 

The above we only mention as a small token of that 
deep affection we feel for our Capital, in their present dis- 
tressed condition, on whose former open and friendly com- 

1 The signature of this letter has been cut out of the volume. 

Reply to Wells. 206 

merce, we on this eastern shore more absolutely depended 
for support than any other part of the Province. For your 
sakes and for our own we prayerfully wait the kind inter- 
positions of divine Providence, and the smiles of our gra- 
cious King, for the redress of our general grievances, and 
in particular, for the removal of the present obstructions to 
our trade with the Town of Boston. 

In the mean time, the patience and firmness with which 
you endure so great affliction, gives us joy. May Christian 
patience, prudence and fortitude be equal to every future 
trial, and hasten the day, the most desired day of generous 
liberty and righteous government. 

Stephen Larribee, > „ 

T tit } Committee. 

Jno. Mitchel, ) 

To the Committee of Donations for the Poor of the Town of Boston. 

reply to wells. 

Boston, February 8, 1775. 

I am directed by the Committee of Donations, to 
acknowledge the receipt of your affectionate letter, and 
generous donation of twenty-six and three-fourths cords of 
wood, by Capt. Eben'r Hovey, a necessary article, and very 
acceptable at this season of the year ; more especially as 
the call for it seems to be daily increasing amongst us. 
We esteem it a great smile of Providence, and desire thank- 
fully to acknowledge it as such, that our friends and breth- 
ren in this and the neighboring Provinces, have shown such 
a ready disposition to help us under our difficulties, and 
we are much obliged to the inhabitants of the second par- 
ish in Wells, in particular, and return them our most sin- 
cere and hearty thanks, and rejoice to see that they arc not 
only ready to sympathize with, but also willing to afford us 
such relief for the comfort of the needy and afflicted under 
our care. 

The cause is common, and it gives us great pleasure to 
hear that you are prayerfully waiting for the kind interpo- 
sitions of divine Providence for your and our relief. We 

206 Letter from Sandwich. 

desire heartily to join with you herein, and hope that in due 
time we shall happily reap the fruits thereof. 

We are, with respect, Gentlemen, your sincere friends 
and humble servants, 

Jno. Soley, Per order. 
To Messrs. Step^n Larribee and Jno. Mitchel, at Wells. 


Sandwich, Jan. 11th, 1775. 
For Mr. SamH Adams. 

We send you by Capt. Tobey, the money contributed 
by the Congregational societies in this Town, for the relief 
of the sufferers by the Boston Port Bill, amounting to 
£19 Is. 9d. lawful money, which please to give him a 
receipt for. We shall only add that we wish our brethren 
in Boston a speedy relief from the hand of oppression, and 
that reward which their steady adherence in the cause of 
liberty ought to insure them. 

We subscribe ourselves, with much respect, Gentlemen, 
your most humble servants, 

Tn« "1STa t tt J In behalf of the Committee of Corres- 
OV&. 1> I Hi, I pondence for the Town of Sandwich. 


Boston, Feb. 21, 1775. 

Your letter of the 17th of January, written in behalf 
of the Committee of Correspondence for the Town of Sand- 
wich, came duly to hand. Capt. Tobey, the bearer, was 
kind enough to deliver to the Committee of this Town, 
appointed to receive Donations for the relief and employ- 
ment of the sufferers by the Boston Port Bill, a charitable 
collection from the Congregational societies in Sandwich, 

Letter from Cape Elizabeth. '207 

amounting to nineteen pounds and three pence, for which 
he has our Treasurer's receipt I am to desire you, in the 
name of our Committee, to return their sincere thanks to 
our worthy brethren, for the kindness they have shown to 
those sufferers by so generous a contribution for their sup- 
port under the cruel hand of oppression. It affords us 
abundant satisfaction to have the testimony of such respect- 
able bodies of men, that the inhabitants of this Town arc 
not sufferers as evil doers, but for " their steady adherence 
to the cause of liberty," and we cannot but persuade our- 
selves that the Supreme Being approves our conduct, by 
whose all powerful influence the British American conti- 
nent hath been united, and thus far successful, in disap- 
pointing the enemies of our common liberty, in their hopes, 
that by reducing the people to want and hunger, they 
should force tliem to yield to their unrighteous demands. 

I am, Sir, in the name of the Committee, with sincere 
good wishes, your friend and countryman, 

Sam'l Adams. 

To Joseph Nye, at Sandwich. 


Cape Elizabeth, Jan. 18, 1775. 

To the Committee of Correspondence. 

This you will receive by Capt. Judah Dyer, by whom 
this District have sent about forty-eight cords of wood, as 
a small present to the poor sufferers at Boston. We shall 
assist in relieving their wants as far as our ability will 
admit, until that detestable Act for blocking up the harbor 
of Boston is repealed. We pray God it may be soon re- 

We are, Gentlemen, your hearty friends in the cause of 
liberty, by order of the (Committee of ( 'orrespondence, 

David Strout, Clerk. 

208 Letter to Warwick. 


February 1, 1775. 


Boston, 18 Jan. 1775. 

I am directed by the Committee of Donations in this 
Town, to acknowledge the receipt of five cattle per the 
bearer, Mr. Greene, and to return our hearty thanks to the 
generous subscribers in Warwick, for the relief of this 
distressed Town, and we trust their liberal donations of our 
friends in the Colony of Rhode Island, will be abundantly 
rewarded, and we hope the stand we are now making 
against an arbitrary and tyrannical ministry, will be to the 
lasting benefit of North America. 

I am, in behalf of the Committee, Gentlemen, your most 
obedient servant, 

B. Austin, Per order. 

To Messrs. Sam'l Tillingtef, and Adam Gumstock, in Warwick. 


Mr. David Strout, at Cape Elizabeth. 

The kind relief you have afforded our industrious 1 ! of 
poor in your generous donation of forty-four and a half )| sin 
cords wood, merit our grateful acknowledgments. Though i| in 
grievously oppressed, and suffering the most severe trials by | pa: 
a most cruel and arbitrary ministry, yet we are determined to J. 1 erf 
stand firm, and hope that we shall be favored with a con-ilrei 
tinuance of your friendship, which we shall ever esteem ife 
ourselves happy in maintaining, by a steady and uniform wl 
conduct. Being in haste, we only wish the Parent of the lea 
Universe may shower down the greatest blessings on our lei 
benevolent friends, and am with much esteem, to 

Your sincere friends and humble servants, 

Jno. Avery, Per order Committee 

Letter from Falmouth. 209 

1 . 1 : T T E R PRO M F A LMOU T II . 

Falmouth, Casco Bay, January 19th, 1775. 

We now send you by Capt. Wright, fifty-seven cords 
of fire wood, purchased with the money which was long 
since contributed here, for the use of the poor and indigent 
in your besieged Town. As this is the charity of but a 
part of the Town, w r e hope the other part will soon be lib- 
erally disposed to send another load. We wish a concur- 
rence of our unfortunate circumstances did not prevent our 
giving a more bountiful supply to those worthy patriots, 
who nobly persevere in patient suffering for our country's 
cause. As our hearts applaud their conduct, and commis- 
erate their oppressed condition, they may depend on us 
that we will use our influence for a further bounty. 

Imploring Heaven's blessing on their laudable endeav- 
ors to save our country from impending slavery, we are, 
Gentlemen, with regard, your friends and very humble 
servants, by order of the Committee of Correspondence, 

Enoch Freeman. 

Committee for receiving Donations, Boston. 


Boston, %lst January, 1775. 

Enoch Freeman, Esq., Falmouth, Casco Bay. 

Your kind favor by Capt. Wright, have received, at- 
tending your kind donation of fifty-one cords wood, which 
we shall apply agreeable to your intentions, which doubt- 
less will be a great relief to our suffering poor. The sym- 
pathy manifested by our worthy brethren at Falmouth, 
Casco Bay, animates us, though most severely oppressed by 
a most cruel ministry, to stand firm and suffer still greater 
distresses, rather than give up our rights and privileges, 
even at the risk of life, and all that we hold dear. Please 
to accept of our grateful acknowledgments for your benev- 
olence, and only wish it was in our power to make you an 

4th s. — VOL. IV. '11 

210 Letter from Spotsylvania. 

adequate return ; however, hope that the Parent of nature 
and of every good, will reward you. We esteem ourselves 
happy in meriting your applause, and hope the Town of 
Boston will never forfeit your kindness. 

We inclose you a printed copy of our proceedings, as also 
a justification of our conduct against many cruel attacks on 
our characters which we hope will be acceptable. We 
have nothing further to add, except presenting our best 
regards to our worthy friends who have been so liberal in 
their charity, and are with much esteem, your sincere 
friends and humble servants, 

T\ Tr . A Tr-n-ov S ? er order the Commit- 
J IN U . IX V _L H Y , tee of Dona tions. 


Virginia, FreoVg, Spotsylvania County, 
January 2M, 1775. 

To the Overseers of the Poor of Boston. 


By order of the Committee of this County, we inclose 
you bills of lading for seven hundred and thirty-six bushels 
and one peck of wheat, twenty-five bushels of Indian corn, 
three barrels of flour, and three barrels of bread, put on 
board the schooner Betsey, Capt. John Foster, being the 
contributions of this County, to the suffering poor of your 
Town, that could be collected in time to go by this oppor- 
tunity. We cannot close this business without expressing 
our sympathy in the distresses of your Capital, and ac- 
knowledging the obligations of all America so justly due 
to the inhabitants of the Massachusetts Bay, for the noble 
stand they have so timely made against the infamous and 
tyrannical attempts of the late British Parliament. 

Wishing success to so noble a work, we are, Gentlemen, 
your most obedient, humble servants, 

Chas. Dick. 

Chas. Washington. 

Geo. Thornton. 

Per agreement, freight of the grain at \M. per bushel ; flour and bread at 4/ 
per barrel. 

Letter from North Providence. 211 


Boston, Mar elf, 1775. 
To Messrs. Charles Dick, Charles Washington, and George Thorn- 
ton, at Spotsylvania County, Virginia. 


Your letter of the 23d of January last, directed to the 
Overseers of the Poor of the Town of Boston, has been 
laid before the Committee appointed to receive and distrib- 
ute Donations for the sufferers by that cruel and unright- 

I eons Act of the British Parliament, commonly called the 
Boston Port Bill. I am now in behalf of this Committee 
to acknowledge the receipt of seven hundred thirty-six and 
a quarter bushels wheat, twenty-five bushels Indian corn, 
three barrels flour, and three barrels bread, shipped on 

j board the schooner Betsey, Capt. John Foster, being a very 
generous contribution of Spotsylvania County, in Virginia, 

I to those sufferers. 

You will be pleased, gentlemen, to return the sincere 

; thanks of the Committee to our friends of that County, for 
the warm sympathy they have in this instance discovered 

jwith their distressed brethren in this Capital. Encouraged 
by these liberal donations, the inhabitants of this Town 
still endure their complicated sufferings with patience. As 
men, they feel the indignities which are offered to them. 
As citizens, they suppress their just resentment. But I 

| trust in God, that this much injured Colony, when urged to 
it by extreme necessity, w r ill exert itself at the utmost haz- 
ard in the defence of our common rights. I flatter myself 
that I am not mistaken, while they deprecate that necessity, 

| they are very active in preparing for it, 

I am, Gentlemen, in behalf of the Committee, your 

♦obliged and affectionate friend and countryman, 

Sam'l Adams. 


North Providence, Jan. 23, 1775, 

A number of the inhabitants of North Providence, a 
jsmall Town lately taken off from Providence, in the Col- 

212 Reply to North Providence. 

ony of Rhode Island, taking into consideration the dis- 
tressed situation of the Town of Boston, who are now 
suffering by the cruel hand of tyranny and oppression in the 
glorious cause of liberty, which equally affects this Colony 
as well as all North America, have raised by subscription 
the small sum of eighteen pounds, lawful money, which 
you will receive as a donation by the hand of the Hon. 
Elisha Brown, Esq., the bearer hereof, which sum we make 
no doubt but will be appropriated towards such purposes 
as you in your wisdom judge most expedient. 

We are, Gentlemen, for ourselves and by the request and 
in the behalf the other donors, your most humble servants, 

Stephen Jenks. 
Jon a. Jenks, Jr. 

To the Committee of Donations for the Town of Boston. 


Boston, January 24th, 1775. 

The Committee of Donations for the employment and 
support of the poor of this Town, received your favor last 
evening, by the hand of the Honorable Elisha Brown, Esq., 
and return their grateful acknowledgments for the generous 
donation accompanying it, from the inhabitants of the Town 
of North Providence, of eighteen pounds, 2s. <i\d. lawful 

This Town is in truly distressed circumstances, strug- 
gling under the cruel hand of oppression ; our industrious 
inhabitants reduced to such straits, as to implore that 
charity of our beneficent friends and brethren, which they 
were once in a capacity to extend to others. But we have 
hitherto, through the goodness of God, been supported, and 
we trust he will support us in the defence of the rights and 
privileges, not of this Town and Province only, but of 
every Colony in America. And we hope that day is not far 
distant, when every man shall sit quietly under his own 
vine and fig tree, and have none to make him afraid. 

You may rely on our distributing this, and all other 

Letter from Providence. 213 

donations, to the benevolent purposes of the donors. We 
refer you to Mr. Brown, for a full account of the manner 
of our proceedings, and the method of keeping our hooks, 
who has had an opportunity of examining them, and of 
satisfying himself of the falsity of the malicious reports 
that have been industriously propagated by the friends of 
tyranny and despotism. 

1 am, with great respect, in behalf of the Committee, 
Gentlemen, your most humble servant, 

1 [ ] 

To Messrs. Stephen Jenks, and Jonathan Jenks, Jr. in North 


Per favor the Honorable E. Brown, Esq. 


Providence, January 23, 1775. 

Agreeable to your order I have sold all the rye and 
born, one barrel flour, and one do. rye flour, and shall sell 
the remaining part of the donation as soon as possible, for 
fcash, and transmit the money to you by some safe hand, as 
II do now, by the bearer, Mr. Nathan Angell, send you the 
pet proceeds of the above articles, to wit ; — four hundred 
twenty-seven and a half bushels rye, a 3/, amounting to 
[664 2/6 — one barrel wheat flour, 2c. : Oqr. : 51b, tare 18 a 
16/6 is £1: 10: 8. 1 barrel rye Hour, 2:0: 18. Tare 
B31b a 9/6 is 18/7, and 11 bushels Indian corn a 3/, is 33/; 
Ithe whole amounting to £68 : 7 : 4£, which I hope you will 
receive by Mr. Angell. 

N. 13. — The expenses for landing and storing the rye, 
&c, was five dollars, which w T as paid in rye, and exclusive 
bf the above quantity. 

I am, with respect, Gentlemen, your friend and servant, 

J. Angell. 

The money Mr. Jeffries received Jan. 24, 1775, amounting to £(5i): 13: 1. 

The signature has been torn from the volume. 

214 Reply to Barnstable. 


Boston, 24Jh January, 1775. 

Rev'd Sir, 

Sensible of the many kind favors received from our i 
worthy and generous benefactors of this and the other?-; 
Provinces, and especially the generous donation (by the I 
hands of Doct. Samuel Savage) of twelve pounds, 10.?. 3d., 
from the respectable inhabitants in the East Parish of Barn- J 
stable, demands our sincerest gratitude. Be assured that] 
notwithstanding we are suffering under the severest trials, il 
we are determined to stand firm, relying on the great II 
Parent of the Universe for relief in his own due time. 
When we reflect on the many expressions of tenderness | 
from our worthy brethren on this wide and extensive con- 1 
tinent, it animates us to be steady, firm, and prudent, and ; 
we esteem it an interposition of Providence that the hearts [i 
of our brethren are opened for our support, which, without I 
their aid and assistance we must have fallen a prey to as j 
abandoned a set of men, as are upon the face of the earth. i| 
But we hope the time is not far distant, when we shall rise -j 
superior to their villainous measures to subjugate us, and ji 
that we shall enjoy that inestimable blessing (liberty) that 
we have been so long contending for, and be able to trans- 
mit it entire to the latest posterity. The cruel and most ! 
barbarous Port Bill, with the many other iniquitous acts,! 
must fall on the heads of the vile perpetrators of them, and 
meet with the just indignation of all good men. 

The firmness and unanimity of the continent, (under 
Providence,) will prove salutary, and we make no doubt : 
that if we firmly adhere to the prudent and legal measures 
that our worthy Congress have wisely adopted, that we 
shall render abortive the little, low arts of our enemies, 
who are exulting in the slender prospect of building their 
fortunes on our ruin. We must act with the greatest cau- 
tion and circumspection, as they leave no stone unturned 
to drive us to desperation. But, if the time should come, 
that we can no longer act on the defensive, and are com- 
pelled to defend those rights and privileges at the risk of 

Reply to Barnstable. 215 

life, and all that we hold dear, we shall think it our dnt\ so 
to do, for death is preferable to slavery. 

AW herewith inclose you a printed copy of our proceed- 
ings, as also a vindication of our conduct against the many 
late cruel attacks on our characters, by our worthless ene- 
mies, which we hope will prove satisfactory. 

"With our best regards to our worthy brethren in your 
benevolent Parish, we are. Reverend Sir, your sincere and 
obliged friends and humble servants, 

Tun^: flavin Tr | Per order of the Com- 

J.11US. CHA1' IS, «Jl.,j niittei- of Donations. 

To the Rev'd Timo. Hilyard, at Barnstable. 

Boston, January 25, 1775. 


I am directed by the Committee of Donations to ac- 
knowledge the receipt of six pounds, 13s. 4^., per the hands 
pf Mr. May, which sum w T as committed to his care by you 
as a donation from the inhabitants of the West Parish in 
Barnstable, for the relief of the sufferers in this Town, 
occasioned by the Port's being shut up, as also sixteen shil- 
lings, being a donation from the Indians, in and about said 
Parish, for the like benevolent and charitable purposes. 
These with other donations which we are from time to time 
receiving, are a great relief to us under our difficulties and 
Distress, especially at this season of the year, when our 
numbers which call [ 1 ] yly 

Increasing amongst us. 

You l [will please, Sir,] to communicate our thankful 
acknowledgments to our friends and brethren, the inhabi- 
tants aforesaid, for their kind and benevolent regards shown 
l;o us herein. 

We are, with great regard, Sir, your most obliged, hum- 
|)le servants. 

TVr» Qr»T t?v J rer order of the Com " 
O ^,U. &VL,L, I , j m ittee of Donations. 

To Col. James Otis, at Barnstable. 

1 Manuscript torn. 

216 Letter from Rittery. 


ri Kittery, January 24dh, 1775. 

(jtentlemen, j j 

We have some time since promoted a subscription in 
this Town for our poor suffering brethren in the Town of 
Boston, who are suffering for and in behalf of all the Brit- 1 
ish inhabitants in North. America ; and by means of said 
subscriptions and contributions, we have collected the sum 
of forty-one pounds, three shillings and five pence, lawful 
money, which sum we send by Edward Cutt, Esq. ; though 
a small sum, yet freely given according to our ability, and 
doubt not will be accepted, and applied to that good use 
for which the donors designed it ; the greater part of the 
donors apprehending it rather paying a just debt, than a 


We are, Gentlemen, your most humble servants, 

Wm. Leighton, "I 
Sam'l Weeks, 
John Frost, \ 

Ben j a. Farnald, 
Wm. Lewis, 

To the Committee appointed for receiving the Donations for the 
suffering Poor in Boston. 


letters to marblehead. 

Boston, 21th Jan., 1775. 

The Committee for receiving Donations for the un- 
happy sufferers in this distressed Town, have, in compli- 
ance with your owners and your own request, consented 
that your vessel may be discharged in Marblehead, and I ; 
now do, by their order, write to Col. Orne and Mr. Gerry, j 
two principal gentlemen in that Town, who will immedi- 
ately provide vessels to take in your whole cargo, that you 
may have all reasonable dispatch. The Committee will 

Letter from Berwick. 217 

cheerfully and punctually settle and pay the freight when 
they may have the pleasure of seeing you. 

I am, in behalf of the Committee, Sir, your very humble 
servant, John Browne. 

To Copt. Robt. Tompkins, Cont'd schooner Dimmorc, Marblehead. 

ri Boston, 27 Jan. 1775. 


The Committee of Donations again take the liberty to 
apply to you, to ask your care of a cargo of grain, now in 
your harbor, on board the schooner Dunmore, Robert 
Tompkins, master, being the very generous donation of our 
worth}', sympathizing' brethren in several Counties in Vir- 
ginia, for the relief and support of the sufferers in this 
unhappy Town. In compliance with the request of the 
owner and master, the Committee have consented the vessel 
may be discharged in Marblehead. I am therefore to beg 
the favor you would provide proper vessels to take in the 
whole cargo, to be delivered in this Town. You will please 
to agree for the freight upon the best terms you may be 
jable, and draw 7 upon the Committee for the same, together 
with any other charges that may arise. 

Gentlemen, I can now with pleasure assure you of the 
[just sense the Committee entertain of your many kind 
[offices, and am, very respectfully, Gentlemen, your most 
lobedient, humble servant, John Browne. 

P. S. — Capt. Tompkins has on board, for the Committee, 
iin the whole, 3,352| bushels grain, including 5 bushels 
peas, and twenty-three barrels flour. 

To Messrs. Azor Orne, and Elbridge Gerry, Marblehead. 


Berwick, Jan. 30, 1775. 
\To the Committee of Donations. 


In compliance with the request of the Provincial Con- 
gress, the Resolve or recommendation of said Congress 
4th s. — vol. iv. 28 

218 Reply to Berwick, 

relative to the suffering patriots in the Town of Boston and 
Charlestown, has been publicly read to the congregation, 
in the first parish in the Town of Berwick, and the people 
have cheerfully contributed the small sum of money £11 6/8 
which they have sent by the hands of Mr. Ichabod Good- 
win, Jr. This is sent not as an act of charity, but as an 
act of justice, and as a token of gratitude to the good peo- 
ple of the aforementioned suffering Towns, for their firm- 
ness and resolution in opposing the hand of tyranny, and 
sacrificing their ease and affluence to preserve the invalua- 
ble rights of the people of this Colony. This is not from 
men of affluent fortunes, but from the industrious yeomanry 
of this small parish. The season of the year, which prevents 
such business as promotes the circulation of cash among 
us, forbids a larger collection, but we hope our two mites, 
which we of our penury have cast in, will be as acceptable 
as what others of their abundance have bestowed. We 
still depend upon your firmness and resolution as means in 
the hand of God of preserving the liberty and consequently 
the happiness of ourselves and posterity. And that you 
may speedily be delivered from the cruel hand of tyranny 
and oppression, is the constant and fervent prayer of your 
humble servants. 

Tatoti Fn^TPR V D M 1 Signed in behalf of the Congrega- 
OALUH XUblJiK, V . XJ, 1VX., (tion in the first parish in Berwick. 


Boston, February 6, 1775. 
Rev'd Mr. Jacob Foster, at Berwick. 
Rev. Sir, 

Permit us to return you our unfeigned acknowledg- 
ments for your kind favor, attended with a benevolent 
donation of eleven pounds, six shillings and eight pence, 
for the poor of this Town, oppressed by a most cruel and 
unjust Act of Parliament, and who must have fallen a prey 
to an abandoned ministry, had it not been for our kind and 
sympathizing brethren in this and the other Colonies. A 
contribution so liberally and so cheerfully bestowed, is 
expressive of the most endearing friendship and tender re- 
gard, and will not fail of animating us to stand firm, and 

Letter from North Bene Irk. 219 

sacrifice ease and affluence, to maintain our invaluable rights 
and privileges. It is from the worthy yeomanry that Ave 
expect assistance to defeat the wicked designs formed 
against us, and be assured, Sir, the industrious in your par- 
ish merits our highest regard and esteem. The favor they 
have heaped upon us, we shall never be wanting in duty to 
make a suitable return, and by our conduct to deserve their 
friendship and esteem, by a steady adherence to a firm res- 
olution never to submit. The prospect doubtless must be 
agreeable, to perceive the most distinguished persons 
through the continent exerting themselves in our behalf, 
and using their utmost influence to promote frugality and 
industry, which are the wisest and the best measures to 
convince our inveterate foes on the other side the Atlan- 
tic, of their great mistakes ; but if we should be obliged to 
make our last appeal, we hope that we shall have every 
needed assistance from that Being who governs the world 
with infinite wisdom and goodness. However, we cannot 
but flatter ourselves that the time is not far distant, that we 
shall rise superior to their wicked attempts to enslave us, 
and that we shall have our rights secured to us on a per- 
manent basis, which God grant ! 

We herewith inclose you the proceedings of the Com- 
mittee, as also a defence of our much injured characters, 
which we hope will be acceptable to you. Please to pre- 
sent our hearty thanks to your worthy parish. 

We are, with great esteem, your much obliged friends 
and humble servants, 

TnPTM AvTJRV Tttat J I > erorderoftheCommit- 
J OHN i^VERY, J UN., | tee of Correspondence. 


Berwick, North Parish, 20th Jan. 1775. 

To the Committee of Donations. 


In compliance with the recommendation of the Pro- 
vincial Congress, to afford further assistance and support to 

220 Reply to North Berwick. 

the Towns of Boston and Charlestown, under their cruel 
burdens, we have by contributions collected the trifling sum 
of two pounds, two shillings, which is herewith transmitted 
by Mr. Goodwin, our delegate, to be made use of for the 
benefit of such as stand in need, which we desire may be 
considered not as the measure of our regard and concern 
for you and the public cause of the country, but as a small 
token of it ; and should there be further need, we want not 
a disposition to contribute our mite. I speak it in behalf 
of my people, and with humble confidence in Him who 
has planted a vine in this land, that he will not suffer it to 
be plucked up or trodden down by wicked oppressors. I 
would not forget daily to intercede in your behalf for 
deliverance from all your burdens and distresses, and for 
the restoration and establishment of the rights, liberties 
and privileges of the country, upon the most happy and 
lasting foundation, who am, 

Gentlemen, your hearty friend and humble servant, 

Matthew Merriam. 


Boston, Feb. 1th, 1775. 
To the Rev'd Matthew Merriam, in Berwick, North Parish. 

Eev'd Sir, 

With minds deeply impressed with the highest sense 
of your goodness for your kind favor of 30th January, ult, 
as also for the liberality you have manifested in a generous 
donation of two pounds, two shillings, received by the 
hand of our good friend Mr. Goodwin, for our suffering 
poor, we return you our sincere acknowledgments. We 
shall apply the said donation as their necessities require. 

The kindness and sympathy of our worthy brethren in 
this and the other Colonies, towards us, sufficiently demon- 
strates their approbation of our conduct in this day of trial, 
and animates us to persevere in our steadfastness to main- 
tain our just rights, those rights which God and nature 
has given us, and which no man on earth has a right to 
deprive us of. The cruelty and oppression extended by 
our once parent state to this poor devoted Town, are be- 

Letter from Neiv York. 221 

yond expression severe, and perhaps history cannot furnish 
mii example of the kind, even among the most barbarous 
nations at the earliest period. Their conduct evidently 
manifests that paying for the tea was not their sole; motive ; 
they vainly imagined that by sending the cruel Port Bill, 
attended with a large fleet and army, we should he so 
amazingly intimidated that we should immediately comply 
Avith their demand, and for this reason they ventured on the 
other hills. But through a good Providence, their schemes 
have been hitherto frustrated, and the wicked attempts 
formed against us has had this happy tendency of uniting 
the hearts of this wide and extensive Continent, by the 
strongest tics of love and friendship, which, we flatter our- 
selves, will in due time prove salutary, relying with firm 
confidence, as you will ohserve, in Him who has planted a 
vine in this land, that he will not suffer it to be plucked up 
or trodden down by wicked oppressors. Be assured, Sir, 
your kind assurances of further tokens of your goodness, 
will never be obliterated from our minds, and may your 
kind intercessions to the God of all justice, be heard and 

By the last accounts from England, the American affairs 
would not be hurried with that rapidity as in the last 
wicked administration, but we were to have an impartial 
hearing. Justitia fiat pereatve mundus. 

Please to tender our sincere thanks to your worthy 
Parish, and beg your acceptance of a printed copy of our 
proceedings, as also a vindication of our conduct against 
many cruel aspersions from our inveterate foes. 

We are, with much esteem, Reverend Sir, your obliged 
friends and humble servants, 

TnwAr A vpt? v Ttttv \ B J' order of the Com " 
J UHiN J\ VER\ , J UJN., | mittee of Donat i ons . 


New York, Jan. 30, 1775. 
John Row. 

We duly received your favor of the 5th inst., by which 
we observe our error in applying to you as one of the Com- 

222 Letter from Chester Town. 

mittee for receiving the Donations for the Town of Boston. 
We have now to request that you will make known to such 
Committee the purport of oar first letter, and that they 
may favor us with instructions to whom we may remit the 
moneys that are and will be coming to us from the sales of 
rice. In the mean while we shall be taking up such bills 
as may offer on Boston, and are respectfully, Sir, 

Your very humble servant, for P. Livingston and selves, 

Charles M. Evers & Co. 


Glastenbury, Jan. 30, 1775. 

Gentlemen, \ 

Inclosed is a letter for Isaac Smith, Esq., and an order 
on him for £6 13s. 4:d., which desire you will accept of for 
the benefit of the sufferers in Boston. 

From your most obedient, humble servant, 

Eben'r Plummer. 

To the Committee of Donations in Boston. 


Chester Town, Maryland, January 30, 1775. 

To David Jeffries, Esq., one of the Committtee of Donations. 


Your very polite letter of the 6th October last, was 
delivered us by Capt. Harden, of the schooner Endeavour, 
and we are happy to hear that our donation arrived at a 
time so seasonable for your distressed poor. Capt. Har- 
den's bill for £4 : 10, sterling, on his owner, Mr. Braddock, 
was duly honored. We determined on the receipt of your 

Letter from C. Higgins* 223 

favor to remit you the sum you had advanced to Capt 
Harden, but have not had it in our power to procure a bill 
on your Town, until a few days ago, and that not to the 
full amount of your advance. 

Herein we send you Robt. Hacford Byrnes's draft on 
Nathaniel Coffin, Esq., for 5:15: (>, sterling, which you will 
please to apply to the credit of the money advanced Capt. 
Harden, and am, with respect, 

Your most obedient, humble servant, 

Thomas Smyth, 
Chairman of the Committee. 


Lyme, Jan. 31, 1775. 
Col. Jackson. 


As there has been gentlemen chosen in this Town for 
o make a collection for the Town of Boston, but it seems 
;o be in slow motion, my father and my brother and myself 
concluded to take this opportunity to send in our mite by 
he post, which we should be glad if you would receive the 
ame, and give it to your Committee for the use of our 
>oor brethren in Boston. My father desires to be remem- 
)ered to you and all friends there. 

This from your humble servant, 

Chris'n Higgins. 

P. S.— My father sent £ 2 

My brother Jos. ] 16 
I have sent 1 10 

£5 6 

N. B. — I did not know who was the Standing Committee, 
r I should sent to them. 

C. Higgins. 

Capt. Jos. Higgins. 
Mr. Jos. Higgins, Jun. 
Capt. Christian Higgins. 

224 Reply to Captain Higgins. 


Boston, Feb. 7, 1775. 

By the hands of Col. Jackson, we received a kind dona- 
tion from your worthy father, your brother Joseph, and 
yourself, amounting to five pounds, six shillings, lawful 
money, for the use of your poor brethren in Boston. 

The Committee of Donations, who are appointed the 
distributors of those charities, return their sincere thanks 
to the benevolent donors. The conduct of the said Com- 
mittee respecting the monies, &c. with which they are 
intrusted, may be collected from the two printed publica- 
tions they have been called upon to make since they en- 
gaged in this important business. We now inclose them, 
not doubting they will afford satisfaction to all the friends 
of true constitutional liberty. 

Our troubles are many, our oppressions great, our oppo- 
sition mighty, and our conflict sharp, but patience and 
fortitude have been communicated from above, and if God 
shall continue to favor our cause, which we indeed think is 
a common cause, and the cause of truth and righteousness, 
we shall finally rise superior to those who, we think, are 
seeking the destruction of our civil and religious liberties. 
It was a frequent saying of the late venerable Doctor 
Sew&U's " That civil and religious liberty always go to- 

The Christian sympathy our fellow countrymen have j 
expressed from time to time in their letters, and their gen 
erous donations for the relief and employment of the poor | 
in this Town, suffering by means of the Boston Port Bill, 
greatly refresh our spirits, and encourages us to persevere 
in the noble cause, and by the divine blessing we may hope 
for the desired success. 

I am, with due respects to your father and brother, Sir, 
your obliged friend and humble servant, 

T\ T (Per order of the Com- 
* J% ** '5 \ mittee of Donations. 

To Capt Christian Higgins. 

Letter to Eastham. 225 

I. 1. IT E R TO N. A V VI. ETON. 

I lost on, Jan, 31, 1 1 1-"). 

Mr. Nath'l Apple ton. 

Dear Sir, 

The bearei is ('apt. Ephm. Linnell, master of a sloop 
mm Eastham, South Parish, who brings us fifty bushels 
■orn, being a donation from our benevolent, sympathiz- 
ing brethren there, for the relief of the unhappy sufferers 
n this Town. Should there he any opportunity of sending 
he corn to Town, the Committee wish you would do it; if 
lot, you will please to store it with Mr. Malloone, the miller, 
here to wait their order. The freight you will also please 
o settle with, and pay the master, which the Committee 
vill reimburse you, together with any other charges that 
nay arise. 

I am, with esteem and regard, dear Sir, your very hum- 
le servant, 

John Brown, Per order. 

P. S. — You will he kind enough to write a letter to the 
iouth Parish in Eastham, to return them the thanks of the 
onimittee for their charitable donation. 


Boston, Feb. 1, 1775. 

IR ' 

The Committee of Donations for this Town has re- 
vived, by Capt. Eph. Linnell, fifty-two and a half bushels 
orn, which he informs us is a present from you and 
iveraJ others of the South Parish in Eastham, to the 
oor of this Town, put out of employment and deprived 
if the means of subsistence, by the operation of the cruel 
bd oppressive Boston Port Bill. We receive it not only 
k a proof of the generosity and benevolence, which always 
ias, and we trust always will characterize this people, but 

4th P. VOL. TV. 20 

226 Letter from Orne and Gerry. 

a confirmation of that harmony of sentiment respecting | 
the rights of mankind and the special privileges that this 
Province have an undoubted claim to, which excites the 
admiration of all. We shall endeavor to apply this and all J! 
other donations agreeable to what we suppose to be the j 
benevolent intentions of the generous donors, viz., by reliev- J 
ing the distresses of such as are destitute of employ, and 
encourage their hearts firmly to resist every encroachment 
upon our rights and charter privileges, which we think it 
our indispensable duty to do, not only for our own happi- 
ness, but as natural guardians to posterity. 

Please to present our unfeigned esteem to your fellow | 
contributors, and be assured we are your and their friends 
and fellow countrymen. 

1ST \ PPT PTOTV \ B ^ order of the Com " 
n . jTLI rijJ^l Ul\ , j m jttee of Donations. 

To Mr. Thos. Paine. 

Mem. There was 8/ which Capt. Linnell paid besides the corn, and is part of ! 
the donation from Eastham. Feb. 8, paid 8/ to David Jeffries, by N. Appleton. 


Marblehead, Feb. 1, 1775. 

In answer to your favor of the 27th ult, we have con- 
tracted with Capt. Knot Martin, Jun., and his brother John, 
to carry up all the grain per Capt. Tompkins, excepting 
the corn, at 9s. old tenor per bushel. The corn was put 
on board for 468J bushels, and when it is delivered, the 
quantity which it measures shall be endorsed on your order, 
and the same inclosed to you. It gives us great satisfao j 
tion to see the continuance of the continental liberality to : 
our suffering brethren of Boston, and is our sincere desire 
that they soon be redeemed from oppression. 

We are, respectfully, Gentlemen, your most humble ser-j 

Orne and Gerry. 

To the Committee of Donations for Boston. 

Letter from Cecil County* 227 


Man/land, Cecil County, Feb. % 2d, 1775. 

To the Committee of Donations. 


There will be id a short time collected in this County 
between 3 and 400 £ for the poor of Boston. You will 
►lease to acquaint us whether you will order it in the 
bands of a merchant in Baltimore Town, Philadelphia, 
New York, or your City, and send an order to us for that 
purpose, properly authenticated. 

We are, Gentlemen, your very humble servants, 

J no. Veazey, Jun. 
Wm, Rumsey. 

Joseph (in, pin. 
Jno. D. Thompson. 
Jno. Veazey, the third. 
Stephen Hyland. 


Boston, March loth, 1775. 

To Mr. Jno. Veazey, Jr., and other Gentlemen, the Committee of Cor- 
respondence in Cecil County, Maryland. 


The Committee appointed by this Town to receive and 
Distribute Donations made for the relief and employment 
>f the sufferers by the Boston Port Bill, have received your 
[favor of the 2d of February, directed to the Committee of 
Correspondence of Boston, whereby you acquaint them 
(that a collection is making by the gentlemen of Cecil 
County, in Maryland, for those sufferers, and desire to be 
informed in what way it will be most agreeable to have it 
remitted to this place. As Mr. Sam'l Purviance, of Balti- 
more Town, has already obliged us by his kind offices of 
this kind, the Committee have asked the further favor of 
liim, (if it be most agreeable to you.) that this generous 
donation mav be remitted through his hands. 

I am, with sincere regard for our sympathizing brethren 

228 Letter from Portsmouth. 

in your County, in behalf of the Committee, Gentlemen, 
your obliged and affectionate friend and countryman, 

S. Adams. 


Portsmouth, Feb. 2d, 1775. 

We have now the pleasure to transmit to you, by Mr. 
Noble, the post, the two hundred pounds some time since 
voted by this Town for the poor of Boston. 

I am, Sir, in behalf of the Selectmen, your most humble I 

Samuel Cutts. 


Boston, Feb. 6, 1775. 

This day, by the hands of Mr. John Noble, the Com- 
mittee of Donations received the generous benefaction of 
two hundred pounds, lawful money, from our worthy and] 
sympathizing brethren of Portsmouth, in New Hampshire.' 
The grateful acknowledgments of the Committee are hereby' 
rendered to them. They may be assured the same will be> 
disposed of agreeable to the charitable intent of our bene-r 
factors. Our hands are strengthened and our hearts much 
encouraged by the liberalities of our friends, to persevere 
in the sharp conflict to which we are appointed. The 
cause in which we are exerting ourselves, is the cause of 
North America, and we trust the cause of truth and right- 
eousness, the cause of true constitutional liberty, though 
otherwise formed by the abettors of tyranny and slavery. .! 
"We therefore humbly hope that our gracious God will 
favor and maintain this righteous cause, and in his own | 
time and way give us occasion to rejoice in his salvation. | 
Our humble and thankful praises are due to him for the | 

Letter from Paxtm, 229 

remarkable and kind interpositions of his providence in 
our favor hitherto. He hath promised that none who wait 

for him shall be ashamed. The inclosed printed papers 

will show that the Committee are called to pass through 
had as well as good report 

In behalf of the Committee, I am, Sir, vourvery obliged, 
humble servant, 

David Jeffries. 

To Sam. Cutis, Esq., and others, Selectmen of Portsmouth, in New 

I . E T T E 11 F II M P A X T O N . 

PdAion, February (>, 17 7o. 

Although we have not sent any relief to the distressed 
inhabitants of Boston, we have not been unmindful of 
their ease, (but perhaps you would think otherwise, if you 
was to judge our dispositions by our name,) and have sent 
part of our subscription by Mr. Clemmons, in grain, corn, 
&c, and shall endeavor to send the remainder in grain or 
money as soon as we have an opportunity, which in the 
whole will be but a small pittance, but perhaps equal to 
our abilities ; and if matters are not settled in the spring, I 
hope we shall have hearts to make further contributions. 

Your humble servant, 

Willard Morse. 


Marblehead, 6th February, 1775. 
I Gentlemen, 

My son, Christopher Tompkins, the bearer hereof, brings 
ian order on you from Col. Cary, for fifty-six pounds, fifteen 
shillings and l)r/. T understand the order drawn on one for 

230 Letter from Exeter. 

corn, amounted to forty odd bushels more than I received 
in Virginia. He has with him a list of what I received, 
which I dare say has held out, though [it] was taken from 
me without measuring, &c. I delivered all the corn per 
your order, which was eight bushels short, which was dam- 
aged. My son has sixty firkins of butter, as good as I 
ever saw. Could you contrive the sale of it for him, I 
should esteem it a particular favor. Have you any com- 
mands, I would gladly obey them, and am, Gentlemen, 

Your humble servant, 

Eobert Tompkins. 


Brookfield^ February 6, 1775. 
To the Committee of Donations. 

The bearer, Mr. Ayers, will deliver you 30 bushels 
rye, 14 do. Indian corn, J bushel beans, and 18 cheeses, 
weight 224 lbs., and two dollars in cash, which I received 
of the inhabitants of the second precinct in Brookfield, for \ 
the suffering poor of Boston, and is the whole that is 
brought in. There is not a man in this place but wishes 
you success, and are ready to lend you their assistance to 
the last extremity. 

I am your very humble servant, 

Jedu Baldwin, Committee. 

letter from exeter. 

It gives us peculiar satisfaction that we are the happy 
instruments of conveying relief to the distressed. We 
send you by the bearer hereof, Mr. Carlton, one hundred 
pounds, which sum was unanimously and cheerfully voted 
by this Town for our suffering brethren in Boston. The 

Reply to Exeter. 281 

cause for "which you now suffer, we esteem the common 
cause of all America; your prudence and fortitude wr ad- 
mire. That you ma\ be assisted b\ all the Colonics in the 
present glorious struggle for Liberty, and endued with wis- 
dom and patience to persevere to the end, is the desire and 
hearty prayer of your sincere friends. 

I have the honor. Gentlemen, in behalf of the Selectmen 
of Exeter, to subscribe myself your most humble servant, 

Samuel Brooks. 

New Hampshire, Ureter, 6th February, 177o. 


Boston, February 8, 1775. 


Our worthy friend Mr. Carlton, has just now called in 
and left with me one hundred pounds lawful money, a gen- 
erous donation from the patriotic inhabitants of Exeter, for 
their suffering brethren in Boston. You will please to ten- 
der the thanks of the Committee of Donations to our kind 
benefactors, for this mark of their Christian sympathy and 
affection. Their approbation of the past conduct of this 
greatly oppressed and distressed metropolis, affords us great 
| satisfaction, but especially the tender and benevolent senti- 
iments expressed in your letter. Prudence and fortitude have 
doubtless been exhibited, but humility becomes us, and our 
thankful acknowledgments are due to God, from whom 
| alone every good gift and every perfect gift is derived, and 
'on Him alone we must constantly depend for all that wis- 
dom, patience and fortitude, we need in this day of sore 
trial. By his help and favor we shall persevere, and in the 
end see the happy accomplishment of all our desires. We 
■hope for the continuance of the prayers, countenance and 
assistance of our friends. We cannot doubt it, since they 
unitedly consider the cause as common. 

Yours and others, our friends' donations, will be applied 
agreeable to the intent of the charitable donors. Printed 
accounts of the conduct of the Committee are now inclosed, 

232 Letter from New Castle. 

and I trust will give satisfaction to all the friends of truth 
and righteousness. 

I am, Sir, your obliged friend and humble servant, 
To Samuel Brooks, Esq. 

T)wit\ Tft?t?t?tt?q I Per order of the Com- 
UAMD JEWRIES, mittee of Donations. 


New Castle, Feb. 6, 1775. 
To Mr. David Jeffries, 

I take the liberty to address this to you, as you have I 
subscribed a letter per order of the Committee of Dona- 1 
tions now before me, dated the 25th of August last, and I 
directed to the Committee of Correspondence of the Coun- 
ty of New Castle, and I am to inform you that Nicholas I 
Van Dyke, Esq., and myself, were appointed to receive the 
donations of the people of this County for the relief of j 
the poor of Boston, and that we have now in our hands 
upwards of nine hundred dollars, which we have endeav- 
ored to remit to you by way of bills to be drawn by mer- 1 
can tile persons in Philadelphia, who transact business with 
your Colony, and were safe hands ; but upon strict in- 
quiry, we can find no one amongst them willing to draw 
any bills for some time to come, lest they should distress 
their correspondents by draughts too early for the season 
of business. Upon this disappointment we had thoughts 
of purchasing English bills ; but on reflection doubted 
whether you might not be losers by the exchange ; there- 
fore I must request the advice and directions of your 
Committee as to the most speedy and acceptable mode of 
remittance. Perhaps some amongst your townsmen may 
with convenience give orders to their correspondents at 
Philadelphia to draw for the amount of our small sum, 
which it is hoped will not come to you out of season, 
though late. You may be assured that it is from a people 
who sincerely sympathize with you in your distresses, and 
are anxious for your relief. Please to present my compli- 

Repfy to New Castle. 283 

ments to Messrs. Cushing, Adams's and Paine, and I am, 
with esteem, 

Your most obedient, humble servant, 

George Read. 

It E P L Y T O N E W e A S T L E . 

Boston, Feb. 24, 1775. 
To Mr, Geo. Read, at Nciv Castle on Delaware, 


By your letter of the Oth instant, directed to Mr. 
David Jeffries, the Committee of this Town appointed to 
receive and distribute the donations made for the employ- 
ment and relief of the sufferers by the Boston Port Bill, 
are informed that a very generous collection has been made 
by the inhabitants of the County of New Castle on Dela- 
ware, and that there is in your hands upwards of nine 
hundred dollars for that charitable purpose. The care you 
have taken, with our worthy friend Nicholas Vandyke, 
Esq., in receiving these contributions, and your joint 
endeavors to have them remitted in the safest and most 
easy manner, is gratefully acknowledged by our Commit- 
tee ; and they have directed me to request that you would 
return their sincere thanks to the people of New Castle 
County, for their great liberality towards their fellow sub- 
jects in this place who are still suffering under the hand of 
oppression and tyranny. It will, I dare say, afford you 
abundant satisfaction to be informed that the inhabitants of 
this Town, w 7 ith the exception only of a contemptible few, 
appear to be animated with an inextinguishable love of 
liberty. Having the approbation of all the sister Colonies, 
and being thus supported by their generous benefactions, 
they endure the most severe trials, with a manly fortitude 
w r hich disappoints and perplexes our common enemies. 
While a great continent is thus anxious for them, and con- 
stantly administering to their relief, they can even smile 
with contempt on the feeble efforts of the British adminis- 
tration to force them to submit to tyranny, by depriving 
them of the usual means of subsistence. The people of 
4th s. — vol. iv. . 30 


234 Letter from Montreal. 

this Province, behold with indignation a lawless army 
posted in its capital, with a professed design to overturn 
their free constitution. They restrain their just resent-] 
ments, in hopes that the most happy effects will flow from 
the united applications of the Colonies for their relief. 

May Heaven grant that the councils of our sovereign 
may be guided by wisdom, that the liberties of America 
may be established, and harmony restored between the sub- 
jects in Britain and the Colonies. 

I am, your very obliged friend and humble servant, 

Sam'l Adams. 


Montreal, 9th February, 1775. 

Please to accept with this the small tribute of a few 
English inhabitants of this Town, who [are] duly sensible 
of the distressed situation of their countrymen generously 
struggling in the cause of American liberty ; and as it is 
out of our power to co-operate with you effectually, from 
our situation, so it is our duty herewith to assure you we 
sincerely sympathize with you in your oppression. The 
common ties of gratitude ought to have stimulated the 
Canadians of this Town to make some return for the as- 
sistance they received from you, when fire brought distress 
upon them ; for as to liberty, and the excellence of our 
constitution, they are entire strangers, and therefore have 
adopted a conduct professedly to» counteract every effort of 
ours to ward off slavery itself, which now is daily so nearly 
approaching to us, and unless we are redressed will involve 
us in the common loss of every thing an Englishman 
ought to hold most dear. All who reflect upon the present 
situation of affairs between Great Britain and the Colonies, 
must Took upon you, in a particular manner, as the advocates 
of American liberty in general, and, as such, are entitled to 
the most grateful acknowledgments of all her sons. All 

Reply to Montreal. -J;J/j 

we ran offer at present is our sincere prayers and hearty 
wishes for your success, and remain your sincere friends, 

James Price. 
Alex'r Hay. 

To the members of the Committee of Donations for the Town of 

Inclosed you have Mr. John Torrey's receipt for JC100. 4. lawful money. 


Boston, March 15, 1775. 
Messrs. James Price and Alexander Hay, at Montreal. 


So handsome a- donation as £'100. 4/, accompanied by 
such an animating letter from our brethren at Montreal, 
cannot fail to excite the warmest gratitude in the breast of 
every one who wishes prosperity and freedom to his coun- 
try. The Committee to whom your letter comes directed, 
beg leave (as well on their own account as in the name and 
behalf of every virtuous man in the Town, more especially 
of the many thousands who are actually feeling the mis- 
eries occasioned by the Boston Port Bill) to offer you their 
most unfeigned thanks for this convincing proof of your 
sympathy for the distresses of your fellow-countrymen, 
and for your firm, disinterested attachment to the rights 
of your country. It affords singular pleasure to every 
friend of virtue to find such enlarged and generous sen- 
timents as dictated your letter, discovering themselves 
in places where the utmost diligence and most wicked 
devices have been made use of to extinguish them. The 
religion lately established in Canada, is but too well cal- 
culated to banish every idea of freedom, and to familiar- 
ize the mind to slavery. But your letter is an agreeable 
instance how tenacious men are of their rights, when they 
clearly understand them. We wish most heartily that sen- 
timents like yours may be diffused throughout your widely 
extended Province, to the utter extinction of every imposi- 
tion, whether civil or religious. Your numbers are great, 
and it is of course important to us whether you are engaged 

236 Reply to Beverly. 

for or against us. The decision of the present controversy 
between Britain and the Colonies will give happiness or 
misery to America for years, perhaps for centuries. Unan- 
imity and firmness form the only anchor on which we 
depend. And we have the strongest assurances that can 
be given, that the whole continent see with the same eyes 
and are actuated by one soul. To war with brethren, must 
be shocking to every brave, every humane mind ; but if 
brethren and fellow subjects will suffer themselves to be 
instruments in the hands of tyrants to stab our constitution, 
every tender idea must be forgot, and they must be repelled 
with that heroic spirit which open enemies have expe- 

Our advocates are many, both in Europe and America, 
but the importance of our prosperity makes it a duty to 
solicit, with earnestness, for all the assistance and all the 
strength which the continent can give. 

The inhabitants of Montreal have done worthily. May 
Heaven reward them ; and while life lasts, the memory of 
their kindness will never be effaced from the bosoms of 
the Committee of Donations. 

Joseph Warren, Per order. 


Boston, 9 Feb. 1775. 
To Benj. Jones, Esq., at Beverly. 

The kind favors we receive from our worthy friends 
in this, and the other Colonies, invigorates our spirits, and 
demands our sincerest gratitude ; and in an especial manner 
the generous donations received by the hand of our good 
friend Mr. Joseph How, from our benevolent brethren in 
Beverly. We esteem it a great interposition of Providence, 
that the hearts of our brethren are so liberally disposed to 
relieve the necessity of our industrious poor, who are now 
suffering under the most cruel oppression ; and who, with- 
out your aid and assistance, must have fallen. But from 

Letter to Georgetown. 237 

the unanimity in the Province and continent, we flatter 
ourselves that the schemes of wicked and designing men 
will prove abortive, and their villainy fall with tenfold ven- 
geance on their own heads We have hitherto, thanks to 
the kind Author of nature, baffled their feeble attempts, by 
a firm and steady adherence to the cause of our country; 
md while 4 we have the approbation of good men, we shall 
lersevere. We an 4 exceedingly rejoiced that the plan of 
Union has made such a rapid progress through this wide 
md extensive continent, and that there is such a harmony ; 
jut at the same time, it is not at all surprising, when Ave 
?onsidcr the design of it, viz : to preserve our invaluable 
ights and privileges, consequently every thing worth con- 
ending for, and for which every friend to their country 
>eems determined to risk their all. 

We cannot help again and again expressing our sincerest 
pleasure on the united sentiments of our brethren in this 
Province, who have nobly and generously exerted them- 
elves in our behalf, which will not fail of making the 
leepest impressions on our minds, and in an especial man- 
ier hope we shall always merit a place you have given us 
jn your esteem ; and may our friendship be as lasting as 
ife, shall be the sincerest prayer of, Dear Sir, 

Your much obliged friend and humble servant, 

T-vr» A i- i^r>^- Tr J Per order the Commit- 
jrsU. AVMY, JL, tee of Donations. 


Boston, Feb. 9, 1775. 
'"o the First Parish in Georgetoion. 
i Gentlemen, 

Your kind donation of twenty-two pounds, 14/8, law- 
jil money, per the hands of Mr. McCobb, Ave duly received, 
;ho also informs us of your further generous intentions 
kwards the poor of this Town, (who are more immediate 
offerers by reason of the late cruel acts of Parliament,) 
!»r which you have the thanks of this Committee. We 

238 Letter from Westmoreland County. 

cannot but take notice of the visible hand of Providence 
not only in the happy union of this Province, but of the 
continent, also ; and that the hearts of our brethren sym- 
pathize with us under our distressed circumstances, and sc| 
cheerfully contribute towards our relief. We wish their | 
to be rewarded in this world, and in the world to comci 
with life eternal. May we all be united in our fervenl 
prayers to the great Governor of the universe, that we ma}' 
wisely improve this dispensation of Providence, and in due 
time have our privileges restored, and continued to thei 
latest posterity. 

I am, in behalf of the Committee, Gentlemen, your mosl! 
humble servant, 

Jona. Mason. 


Westmoreland Count)/, Virginia, \0th Feb. 1775. 

I have the pleasure of inclosing a bill of lading foi 
one thousand and ninety-two bushels of grain, furnishec 
by this County for the use of our distressed friends an 
fellow subjects, the poor of Boston. The universal opinior 
entertained here, of the real wisdom and firmness witl 
which your unjustly oppressed Town has defended th( 
common rights of British America, as well as its own, can 
not fail to continue it the assistance and support of this 
place, and we doubt not but that the same just sense of th( 
sufferings, wisdom and spirit of Boston, will secure it the 
united friendship and support of all North America. The 
bearer, Capt. Sam'l Leighton, is desired to bring with hin 
your receipt, or that of any Committee that may be ap 
pointed, for distribution of these supplies, that we may b( 
certain here of this contribution having reached its propel 

My most earnest wishes, gentlemen, are for the speed} 
restoration of your and the general rights of America 
which have been violated with so high and arbitrary '<■ 
hand. Should any important intelligence from Great Brit 

Reply to Westmoreland County. 239 

iin, concerning America, have reached you, I should be 
;lad to be favored with it by return of the bearer. 

I am, Gentlemen, with great respect, your most obedient 

John Augustine Washington. 

To the Hon. John Hancock, the Hon. Thorn's dishing, and Sam'l 
Adams, Esq., Boston. 


Boston, 21 March, 1775. 
Fo Jno. Augustine Washington, Esq. 

1 have before me your letter of the 10th of February, 
ire (ted to Mr. Hancock, Mr. Gushing* and myself, inclos- 
lg a bill of lading- for one thousand and ninety-two bushels 
f grain, being a generous donation sent by the inhabitants 
f Westmoreland County, in Virginia, to the sufferers 
i this Town by the Boston Port Bill. Soon after that bar- 
arous edict arrived, our inhabitants had notice of the kind 
mentions of our brethren of the other Colonies, towards 
hem, and they appointed a Committee to receive and dis- 
ribute such donations as should be made. I have their 
irection to request that you would be pleased to return 
heir grateful acknowledgments to our worthy friends in 
pur County, for this very liberal contribution, and to as- 
sure them that it will be disposed of agreeable to their 
enevolent design. 
Your candid opinion of the inhabitants of this Town, as 
aving some share in defending the common rights of Brit- 
h America, cannot but be very flattering to them, and it 
'ill excite in them a laudable ambition, by their future 
Dnduct, to merit the continuance of it. They are unjustly 
jpressed, but, by the smiles of Heaven and the united 
iendship and support of all North America, the designs 
• our enemies to oblige them to make base compliances, 
the injury of our common cause, have been hitherto 
ustrated. They bear repeated insults of the grossest 
;nd, not from want of the feelings of just resentment, or 
>ilit enough to make ample returns, but from principles 

240 Letter from La Ckiniey. 

of sound policy and reason. Put your enemy in the wrong, 
and keep him so, is a wise maxim in politics, as well as in 
war. They consider themselves as connected with a great 
continent, deeply interested in their patient sufferings. 
They had rather, therefore, forego the gratification of re- 
venging affronts and indignities, than prejudice that all 
important cause which they have so much at heart, by pre- 
cipitating a crisis. When they are pushed by clear neces- j 
sity for the defence of their liberties, to the trial of arms, 
I trust in God, they will convince their friends and their [ 
enemies, of their military skill and valor. Their constant j 
prayer to God is, to prevent such necessity ; but they are 
daily preparing for it. I rejoice with you, Sir, in mostj 
earnestly wishing for the speedy and full restoration of the | 
rights of America, which are violated with so high and! 
arbitrary a hand, and am, in behalf of the Committee, with] 
great respect, 

Your obliged and affectionate friend and countryman, 

Sam'l Adams. 

P. S. — Our last accounts from Great Britain, are of the| 
19th December. 


La Chiniey, Wth Feb. 1775. 
Mr. David Jeffries. 


I was last fall favored w T ith your letter per Capt. Bray, 
(in behalf of the Committee for the reception of Dona- 
tions for the Town of Boston,) acknowledging the receipt 
of a small quantity of wheat, shipped by Capt. Howes, for 
the distressed poor of your unhappy place, which letter 
have only time to acquaint you I shew to the different sub- 
scribers, and was very satisfactory to them all. The glori- 
ous stand the inhabitants of the Town of Boston have 
made in so good a cause, renders them the just objects oi 
admiration to their greatest enemies, and must be a subject 

Letter from Littleton. 241 

of honor and praise to the latest posterity. Our (single) 
press, in this Province, is under such restraints that it is 
impossible to expose any thing in the papers, to open the 
eyes of these poor deluded people. 

I sincerely wish it was in my power to give much greater 
proofs of my real attachment to the cause in which my 
oppressed fellow townsmen are engaged, than I have yet 
been able to, but, depend I shall miss no opportunity that 
may hereafter offer. 

I have the honor to be, with clue respect, Sir, your most 
obedient, humble servant, 

Jonas Clark Minot. 


Littleton, 13th February, 1775. 

By the bearer, I send as per amount inclosed, and 
desire you will send a receipt, (as all have some enemies.) 
I wish the donation had been larger ; but our principal men 
give nothing. You have many friends in this Town, but 
are not able to do much for you. I would have you put in 
the papers, received so much from Littleton, as a few of 
us would be glad to support the credit of the Town. 

I am, wishing you a speedy deliverance from all your 

Your most humble servant, 

Robert Harris. 
To the Committee for receiving Donations at Boston. 


Boston, Feb. I6tk, 1775. 
Mr. Robt. Harris. 


The Committee of Donations have directed me to 
acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 13th inst, as also 
the sum of four pounds, 3/0£, twenty-six and a quarter 
bushels of rye, one handkerchief, half pound of pinks flow- 
ers, and the carting the rye to this place, being the dona- 

4th s. — vol. iv. 31 

242 Letter from Hatfield. 

tion of a number of the inhabitants of Littleton, raised 
by subscription for the kind and benevolent purpose of 
relieving the distressed sufferers in this Town, occasioned 
by the shutting up the Port. We are greatly indebted to 
our many and generous friends for the assistance afforded 
to us in this day of our distress, and would particularly 
return our sincere and hearty thanks to the charitable and 
benevolent subscribers above mentioned, and shall not fail 
of publishing it agreeable to your desire. 

We are, with respects, your obliged friend and humble 
servant, J N0 . Soley, Per order. 


To Mr. Sam?! Adams, Chairman of the Committee for receiving and 
distributing Donations for the relief of the suffering poor in 
Boston, fyc. 

In the name and behalf of the friends of liberty in the 
Town of Hatfield, we herewith send you part of the col- 
lection which w T e have made for our suffering friends and 
countrymen in our once happy and nourishing metropolis. 
We send it as a tribute due to the constitution of our coun- 
try, and for an encouragement to you to persevere in your 
perilous duty. Were our numbers and abilities equal to 
our sincere wishes, you should long since have been re- 
lieved from the burdens and distresses brought upon you 
by the unparalleled cruelty and oppression of the Port Bill. 
We sensibly feel and resent the indignity put upon you 
by an arbitrary ministry and Parliament. We view the 
attack made upon you as a blow aimed at the vitals of this 
loyal Colony. You have become the butt of ministerial 
indignation, from your firm and determinate resistance of 
the encroachments of despotic power. We consider you, 
notwithstanding the calumnies of your and our enemies, 
as martyrs for the laws and liberties of your country ; 
first devoted, because first in the manly struggle. We 
should esteem it an honor to be thought your firm and un- 
shaken friends in this contest, like those which heretofore 
have been the establishment, defence and security of the 

Letter from 1 hit field. 243 

rights of every free state since the birth of time — a contest 
with tyrants — a contest in which, by the protection of Al- 
mighty God, we hope to be willing, when called, to hazard 
our all in this life for the maintenance of those privileges, 
civil and sacred, with which he hath intrusted us, and 
which are now invaded by the iron hand of oppression. We 
think that the firmness, the union, the constancy and per- 
severance of the body of the people in this town and 
neighborhood may be relied on. The attempts of court 
writers, and their abettors, to dishearten and divide, are 
seen and despised, and under God we hope to be of good 
courage in the defence of our religion, our wives, our chil- 
dren, our little ones, and the estates with which we are 
invested. Every new attack, every reinforcement of the 
army of our oppressors, inspires our hearts with additional 

We arc daily more and more convinced of the ambitious 
views of those wicked men who are attempting to parcel 
out our properties amongst themselves and their adherents ; 
and until we are convinced that the doctrine of implicit 
obedience and absolute subjection to the will of rulers, is a 
doctrine of God, we humbly resolve to acknowledge no 
master superior to our constitution. Our hearts, our hands, 
our purses are with you in this righteous cause. Brethren, 
be of good courage, persevere to do and to suffer for your 
country. Faint not under the threatenings and violence of 
bloody men. We trust that He who is mighty to save, 
whose ears arc open to the cries of the oppressed, will in 
due time arise and plead our cause, and carry headlong all 
the evil devices of our subtle and relentless enemies. 

Brethren, our hearts' desire is to live or die with you in 
the defence of what we hold so dear and sacred to all free 

We are, worthy Sir, your friend and fellow sufferers, 

David Wait, 
Eleazer Alles, 
James Potter, 
Dan'l W t hite, 
Seth Muzzey, 

Donation £12: 15: 3, cash. By the hands of Mr. Nath'l Searl, Hatfield, 
February 14th, 1775. 

Committee of the Town 

of Hatfield, for making 

(, Collections for the Poor 

r of the Towns of Boston 

md Charlestown, suffer- 

ng by the Port BUI. 

244 Letter from Frederick Toivn. 


Frederick Town, Frederick County, 
Maryland, 11th Feb. 1775. * 

To the Horfble Thos. Gushing, Esq. 


We, the Committee for the middle part of Frederick 
County, Maryland, have this day forwarded £200 currency, 
to Messrs. William Lux and Samuel Purviance, of Balti- 
more, who are directed to forward the same to you for the 
relief of the poor of your place, either in specie or bills, 
as may appear to them most advisable. A line from you 
acknowledging the receipt of this money, will oblige the 
Committee, as it will serve to convince the people from 
whom it was collected, that it has been applied to its 
proper use. 

Signed per order and in behalf of the Committee, 

John Hanson, President. 


Boston, March 15 th, 1775. 

To Mr. Jno. Hanson, in Frederick Town, Maryland. 


I am to acknowledge your letter of the 17th of February 
last, directed to Mr. Cushing, who is a member of the 
Committee appointed by this Town to receive and distribute 
the donations from our friends to the sufferers by the Act 
of Parliament, commonly called the Boston Port Bill, and 
to acquaint you that agreeable to your directions, Mr. Sam'l 
Purviance, Jr., has remitted, in a bill of exchange, the sum 
of two hundred pounds, your currency, being a contribution 
from the gentlemen of the Middle Division of Frederick 
County, in Maryland, for that charitable purpose. You 
will be pleased to return the hearty thanks of our Com- 
mittee to those gentlemen for this generous donation, and 
to assure them that it will be applied to its proper use. 

Letter to Shrewsbury. 245 

It will doubtless afford them satisfaction to be informed 

that their brethren in this place endure the Bufferings in- 
flicted upon them by that unrighteous and barbarous edict, 
with patience and fortitude, and that they will continue to 
bear oppression, and count it all joy so to do, rather than 
stain their own reputation by a base compliance with the 
demands of arbitrary power. 

With very great regard, I am, in behalf of the Commit- 
tee, your obliged and affectionate friend and countryman, 

S. Adams, Chairman. 

[Per post.] 

L E T T E R T O S H It E W S B U It Y . 

Boston, Feb. 18, 17 7o. 
Capt. Ezra Be a man. 


Permit us to return, through you, our unfeigned 
thanks to the worthy inhabitants in the North Parish, 
• Shrewsbury, for the very acceptable and generous donation 
of fifty-three bushels rye and corn, for the distressed inhab- 
itants of this poor, devoted Town, who are now groaning 
under the iron rod of oppression. The kind reliefs afforded 
us by our brethren in this and the other Colonies, the har- 
mony subsisting through this wide and extensive continent, 
actuate us to maintain a steady and firm conduct through 
every trial, (though ever so severe,) and a determination in 
us to risk even life itself to defend our just rights and 
privileges. The wicked designs of our enemies have hith- 
erto, through divine goodness, been baffled, and may they 
meet with the just indignation of a much injured people, 
both on this and the other side of the Atlantic, is our sin- 
cere prayer ; and we flatter ourselves the time is not far 
distant, that tenfold vengeance will fall on the vile perpe- 
trators of this more than horrid barbarity, in their vain 
attempts of depriving us the means of subsistence 1 . How- 
ever, we esteem it a kind interposition of Providence, that 
the hearts of our brethren are opened so liberally for our 

246 Reply to Northborongh. 

reliefs, which without their assistance we must have fallen 
a prey to a wicked and abandoned ministry. 

We now inclose you the proceedings of our Committee, 
as also a vindication of our much injured characters, which 
we hope will be acceptable. Please to present our best 
regards to the worthy inhabitants of Shrewsbury, and are, 
with much esteem, your friends and humble servants, 

Jno. Avery, |gS3j£* 


Boston, Feb. 20, 1775. 


Though however grievous the Port Bill and the many 
other oppressive Acts are to this poor devoted Town, yet 
the kindness and sympathy manifested by our brethren on 
this continent, and particularly by our respectable friends 
in Northborough, demands our sincerest gratitude, and will 
animate us to persevere even under more severe trials. 
The kind relief afforded us by our worthy brethren, gives I 
us a convincing proof that our conduct merits their appro- 
bation ; and while we have your sanction, we shall not 
do anything unworthy the cause we are engaged in, but I 
continue firm and unshaken, and if we should be obliged 
to make our last appeal, we make no doubt of having 
the support of the whole continent. The wicked schemes 
formed against us by an abandoned ministry, have met \ 
hitherto with little success. They vainly imagined that we | 
should be intimidated, when they sent us the cruel Port 
Bill, attended with a formidable fleet and army, but the 
contrary effect is evident. Our spirits have arose in pro- 
portion to the many insults we have received by that cruel 
hand of power, and we cannot help esteeming it a great | 
interposition of divine Providence, that one soul actuates 
this wide and extensive continent, and the greatest harmony 
prevails, and a determination to defend those rights which 
God and nature has given us, at the hazard of life. The 
plan of the present ministry needs no comment ; their 

Letter from Sutton. 247 

iniquitous designs are plain and evident ; that should they 
succeed, which God forbid, slavery would be the conse- 
quence, this good land would be divided into lordships, and 
instead of being masters, we should be servants to as an 
abandoned set of men as the earth ever produced. Our 
enemies leave no stone unturned to sow dissensions and 
create animosities among the different Towns in this Prov- 
ince ; therefore it is incumbent on us to guard against their 
base attempts, and firmly unite in one glorious struggle, 
relying on that Being who governs the universe with infi- 
nite wisdom and goodness, to relieve us in his own due 

We herewith inclose you the proceedings of our Com- 
mittee, as also a vindication of our much injured characters, 
which we hope will prove acceptable. Our good friend 
Mr. Gillam Bass, who presented us with your generous 
donation, has examined our books, and to him we refer you 
for particulars, and hope the information he will be pleased 
to give you will be sufficient to erase from your minds the 
impressions made by our worthless enemies. 

With our best regards presented to the w T orthy inhabi- 
tants of Xorthborough, we are, with great esteem, Gentle- 
men, your obliged friends and humble servant, 

T-vrv A vi?t)v Tv S P er order of the Com- 
JiNO. AVMY, «J1.,| mittee of Donations. 

To Messrs. Gillam Bass, Hen'y Gascheth, and Timo. Brigham, of 


Sutton, February 20th, 1775. 

To the Committee of Donations for the Town of Boston. 


These may inform you that the Town of Sutton has 
made a small collection for the distressed poor of the Towns 
of Boston and Charlestown, and desire you would write to 
us, when and where we shall convey it. From your friends 
and fellow-sufferers, 

Wtt t tc TT \ t t S In Denalf tne Committee of Dona- 
l-UL/lb 1A.AL.Lj, tion f or 8ai j Town of g utton . 

248 Letters from C. McEvers & Co. 


Boston, April 14, 1775. 
To Mr. Willis Hall, at Sutton. 


Your kind favor of 20th February last came to hand 
a few days ago, and the Committee has desired me to 
inform you that as the late news from England seems to 
forbode that the ministry are determined to enforce measures, 
they think it prudent that the collection our worthy friends 
in Sutton have made for our really distressed inhabitants, I 
might be suspended for about a fortnight, as perhaps we j 
may then form a better judgment whether our inveterate [ 
enemies intend making a farther attempt to subjugate us. 
The sympathy of our brethren in this Province, and the I 
other Colonies, animates us to stand firm, and to act with \ 
prudence and circumspection, and hope that the end will 
be crowned with success ; however, we submit our cause to 
that Being who governs the world with infinite wisdom and 

Please to present our best regards to our worthy bene- 
factors in Sutton, and are, Sir, with much esteem, your 
friend and humble servant, 

Jno. Avery, Jr. 

In behalf of the 


New York, 20th Feb. 1775. 

We have now to acknowledge the receipt of your ( i 
favor of the 7th inst., the purport of which we duly note, j ] 
and shall on our first leisure transmit you particulars of | 
the rice sent to our charge for the suffering poor at Boston. 
For the present, we judge that about a thousand pounds i 
may be in hand, for which sum we should be glad to j , 
answer your bills on us. But should any bills offer on 1 1 

Letters from C. Mothers fr Co. 249 

Boston, which probably may soon be coming from the 
southward, we shall embrace the same, as guineas or dol- 
lars arc not to he collected with us, and a loss will attend 
on remittance in other specie, and our exchange being at 
7'2i per cent, we suppose that a great loss would arise on 
sterling bills. We shall do ourselves the pleasure of writ- 
ing you again by next week's post, when we shall furnish 
you with particulars to lay before your Committee, and are 
respectfully, Gentlemen, your most obedient servants, for 
Philip Livingston and self, 

Charles McEvers & Com'y. 
To Messrs. Dan' I Waldo and Jno. Brown, at Boston. 
[Per post.] 

New York, March 9th, 1775. 
Messrs. DanH Waldo and Jno. Brown. 


Our last was of the 21st ult, agreeable to which we 
have now to inclose you two bills on account of the suffering 
poor at Boston. Our hopes are that we shall soon have 
opportunity of investing a further sum on the same account 
in good bills on your place, when you will hear further, 
with a state of account from, Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient servants, 

Cha's McEvers & Co. 

Jno. Stewart on Gen'l Gage, dated 18th Feb. 1775, No. 34. £737. 15. 10. 
James Bruce on N. Coffin, . . . £25. 0. 0. st'g. 
Advance, 33£, . . . . 8. 6. 8. 

33. 6. 8. 
Exchange do 11.2.2. 44. 8.10. 

£782. 4. 8. 

New York, March 16th, 1775. 
I Messrs. Waldo and Brown. 


Our last was of the 9th instant, covering bills for 
£782. 4. 8., for account of the poor at Boston. The pres- 
4th s. — vol. iv. 32 

250 Reply to C. McEvers & Co. 

ent serves to convey to you the further sum of £246 13. 2, 
for the same purpose, in bills as at foot, all which we hope 
will be duly honored, and are, Gentlemen, 

Your most obedient servants, 

Cha's McEvers & Com'y. 

P. B. Lemoult, dated 8th Jan., 1775, on Gen'l Gage, . . £.186. 10. 9. 

do. do. on Major William Sheriff, . . . 33. 5. 2. 

Jno. on do. Feb. 7th, . . 26. 17. 3. 

£246. 13. 2. 


Boston, March 25, 1775. 
To Philip Livingston, Esq. and Charles McEvers, Esq. and CowHy. 

Your several favors of the 20th February, 9th and 16th 
March, we duly received. The first advising the receipt of 
ours of 7th February, and acquainting us with the loss 
that would attend any remittance made in money or sterling 

The two latter inclosing the following bills : 

Jno. Stewart's bill on General Gage, .... £737. 15. 10. 
James Bruce's do. on Nat. Coffin, £25 sterling, equal to . 44. 8. 10. 
R. B. Lemoult's do. on General Gage, .... 186. 10. 9. 
Said Lemoult's do. on William Sheriff, Esq., £33. 5. 2. . 35. 5. 2. 
Jno. Caldvvel's do. on do 26. 17. 3. 

New York currency, £1,030. 17. 10. 
All which are accepted, and that for £186. 10/9, paid. 

We, in the name and behalf of the Committee, return 
you thanks for the care you have taken in remitting the 
above sum, without that loss which might have attended 
any other mode ; and when you are in cash, shall take it as 
a favor if you will make remittance in the same manner, if 
such bills are to be purchased ; if not, you will please to 
advise us, as perhaps we may have an opportunity of dis- 
posing of a sum here, and drawing on you for the amount. 

In behalf of the Committee, we are, your most obliged 
friends and fellow-countrymen, 

Dan'l Waldo, > Two of the 
Jno. Brown, \ Committee. 

Letter from Preston. 251 


Boston, Feb. 21, 1775. 

James Athcm, Esq. 

The generous and patriotic spirit which the worthy 
Inhabitants in Chilmark, Martha's Vineyard, have mani- 
fested in their kind relief afforded this poor, devoted Town, 
now struggling under the most cruel and arbitrary hand of 
power, merits our sincerest gratitude, as well as our high- 
est esteem ; and it is with pleasure we can inform you that 
the same nohle principle of public virtue which actuated 
you, has diffused itself not only through this Province, hut 
the whole continent. And we cannot help flattering our- 
selves that the liberal support granted by our worthy 
brethren to this distressed Town, will be the means (under 
Providence) of establishing those rights and privileges 
which we are determined never to give up, though at the 
risk of life. Be assured, Sir, we esteem it a kind interpo- 
sition of Providence, that the hearts of our brethren are 
opened so liberally for our relief, and only wish it might 
be in our power to make an adequate return, by a steady 
and manly resistance to the arbitrary and cruel measures 
adopted by administration. Please to accept of our grate- 
ful acknowledgments, and may heaven reward you. 

We herewith enclose you a copy of our proceedings, as 
also a vindication of our much injured characters, which 
we hope will be acceptable. 

We are, with great esteem and regard, your most humble 

John AvERY,Jr.J p c e r m -1t e t r eef 


Preston, 22d February, 1775. 

We have sent you by the bearer, Mr. Oliver Coit, the 
small sum of £18. 13. 0, lawful monev ; much short of 


252 Reply to Preston. 

what we expected, and of what is subscribed. Our people 
are like mankind in general ; when danger first appears, 
they are vastly more apprehensive than they be after it has 
continued some time, and they do not feel no immediate 
bad effect ; and the false reports that have been propa- 
gated respecting the misimprovement of the donations, have 
made some doubting sort of people delay ; but we keep 
subscriptions open, and conclude so to do, and to take any 
thing that will be useful for your poor, and shall remit 
them to you as opportunities will allow. 

"We would not be understood that our people are not 
firm in the grand cause, for we have lately had evidence to 
the contrary. We had a town meeting, to give our repre- 
sentatives instructions, and their instructions were to raise 
an army in this Colony, of five or six thousand men, imme- 
diately, and to be kept as an army of observation, and we 
had not one dissenting voice to the contrary. We shall 
always take it as a particular favor from you, to be informed 
when any new occurrences happen, either for good or evil, 
towards you as a people, for we do really look on ourselves 
on the same bottom with you. We have the curiosity to 
know what numbers of land forces there are now quartered 
in your Town. Pray inform us in your next. 

We are, Gentlemen, your very humble servants, 

T) /"i I In behalf and per order of the 

-Oi^lN • ^ Ui -L i \ Committee of Correspondence. 

To the Committee of Correspondence in the Town of Boston. 


Boston, Uh March, 1775. 
To Mr. Benfn Coit, at Preston. 


We received by the hands of our good friend, Mr. 
Oliver Coit, your kind favor, attending a generous donation 
of £18. 13/ for our suffering poor, which we gratefully 
acknowledge. The kind expressions of tenderness for this 
poor devoted Town animates us to continue firm under the 
most severe trials, and a determination in us to maintain 
and support the glorious cause we are embarked in ; and 

'Reply to Preston 


while we have the aid and assistance of our worthy brethren 
on the continent, our troubles are greatly alleviated. The 
observation you make on the tempers of mankind in gen- 
eral, is just, and their apprehensions increase in proportion 
as they are more immediately affected ; but it is with 
pleasure we have seen and experienced a union of senti- 
ment through tli is wide and extensive continent, and in an 
especial manner in our worthy brethren in Connecticut, 
whose exertions in the common cause have made the deep- 
est impressions on our minds. 

We do not wonder that some of our brethren have been 
imposed upon, when our inveterate enemies have left no 
stone unturned to vilify and abuse a Committee who give 
their whole time, without fee or reward, to serve their dis- 
tressed fellow citizens, which you will perceive by the 
inclosed. We ought to be very cautious and circumspect, 
and lest we should be imposed upon by wicked and design- 
ing men, whose feeble attempts to enslaven have hitherto, 
through kind Providence, proved abortive. 

We are well pleased to find that our brethren in Connecti- 

i cut are vigilant, and are exerting themselves for their protec- 
tion and defence, and we can with pleasure inform you that 

l the same spirit actuates this wdde and extensive continent, 
and a determination to risk life and every valuable enjoy- 
ment, rather than give up our just rights and privileges. 
The ministry thought to affrighten us by sending a cruel 
Port Bill, attended with a formidable fleet and army, and 
dragoon us into a compliance to their iniquitous acts; but 

' they are disappointed, and we flatter ourselves the proceed- 
ings of our worthy Continental Congress, will open the 
eyes of the nation. The number of regiments in Boston, 
are twelve, but from the best information we can get, they 
have not more than three thousand men ; for what with 
desertions and deaths, they are much reduced. 

Please to present our best regards to our worthy breth- 
ren in Preston, who have so liberally relieved this poor 
distressed Town ; and may Heaven reward you. 

We are, with much esteem, your obliged friend and 
humble servants, 

John Avery, Jim., I^T^IZ^ 

254 Letter from Plympton. 


Plymouth, 25 February, 1775. 
To the Committee of Dojiations. 

Inclosed you find a letter from the Deacon of the 
South Precinct in Plympton, the Pev'd Mr. Howland's 
parish, together with four pounds, three shillings, lawful 
money. By their desire I send it per Capt. Benjamin 
Wormwell, being the first opportunity. Wish safe to 
hand, and remain ready to do any service in my power. 
I am, Gentlemen, your most obedient, humble servant, 

Nath'l Goodwin. 

letter from plympton. 

Plympton, 22d Feb. 1775. 
To the Committee of Donations. 

I herewith send you four pounds, three shillings, law- 
ful money, being what we have collected for the suffering 
poor in the Town of Boston, for which we beg your ac- 
ceptance, q tu-tt-pt T rrr \ o S Deacon of the South 

O AM U 1YL J_i U LAb, | parish in Plympton. 


Boston, March 3, 1775. 
To Deacon Samuel Lucas, of the South Precinct in Plympton. 

The generous exertions of our brethren in the coun- 
try, in their maintaining the cause of freedom, and the 
kind assistance afforded to the inhabitants of this Town, 
now struggling under the most cruel oppression, impresses 
our minds with the sincerest gratitude, and animates us in 
our resolutions never to forfeit your good esteem by tamely 
submitting to that power w T hich all good men must think 
it their duty to oppose, by every legal and justifiable 
measure. The repeated insults we have received since 
the oppressive Port Bill has taken place, has only served 
to unite us, by every tie of social affection, and we have 

Letter front Philadelphia. 


the pleasure to inform you that one soul actuates this wide 
and extensive continent. The cause we are engaged in, is 
righteous and worth contending for; and were we to suiter 
still greater afflictions, and more severe than what an 
[in]famous administration could possibly impose on us, 
we should not give up our rights ; those rights which God 
and nature have given. We esteem it a great interposition 
of Divine Providence, that the hearts of our brethren are 
so liberally disposed for our relief; and Ave cannot help 
iattering ourselves, that with your kind assistance we shall 
be able 4 to baffle the weak and wicked designs of our 

Please to accept of our sincere acknowledgments for 
your generous donation of four pounds, nine shillings, 
which we shall apply to the needy and greatly distressed 
inhabitants. We herewith inclose you the method we 
have taken to employ the poor, as also a vindication of our 
much injured characters. 

With our best respects presented to the worthy inhabit- 
ants of the South Precinct in Plympton, we are, with 
much esteem, your obliged friends and humble servants, 

J vn A vt?dv Tun | Per order of the Com- 
JN O . A>LtU, O UI1. mittee of Donations. 


Philadelphia, 23d February ', 1775. 
To J Villi am Phillips, Esq. 

By order of the Committee of the City and Liberties 
of Philadelphia, we have shipped three tons of bar iron, 
three tons of rod iron, and three hundred barrels of flour, 
to your care, on board brig Union, Capt. Samuel Williams. 
These goods are part of the donations of this City, &c, to 
your Town, and are all that Capt. Williams could take. 
The goods are insured, and the brig is expected to sail by 
26th inst. 

We are, respectfully, your friends, 

Benja. Marshall. 
S \muel Masse y. 
Jon a. B. Smith. 

256 Letter from Bradford. 


Boston, 1 March, 1775. 

To the Selectmen of the Town of BrooMine. 


We have to acknowledge the receipt of £25. 7. 6 J, 
in cash, by the hands of our worthy friend Mr. John 
Heath, also wood, mutton, rice, corn, &c, it being the 
very generous donation of the Town of Brookline, to this 
devoted place, who are now suffering the severity of minis- 
terial vengeance, for nobly exerting themselves in the glo- 
rious cause of American liberty. We trust that by the 
blessing of Heaven, and the kind assistance of our sympa- 
thizing and benevolent brethren, in this and the other 
Colonies, we shall be enabled to stand firm, (as we have 
hitherto done,) to the disappointment and disgrace of the 
enemies of America and the liberties of mankind. Accept 
of our grateful thanks for this mark of your affection and 
sympathy towards us in our unhappy situation. 

I am, with due acknowledgments for the care you have 
taken, in the name of the Committee, Gentlemen, 

Your obliged friend and servant, 

Thomas Crafts, Jun. 

March 8. A copy of this was sent to Jeduthan Baldwin, and the Committee 
of Brookfield, acknowledging the receipt of 30 bushels rye, 14 bushels corn, 
£ bushel beans, 18 cheeses, by Moses Ayers and Jno. Wait. 


Bradford, 3 March, 1775. 
To the Committee of Donations. 


We the subscribers, being chosen by the Town of 
Bradford to make some collections for our suffering 
brethren of the Town of Boston, and considering it our 
interest as well as our duty to promote the public cause of 
freedom, against those that would enslave us, we have 

Letter from ( 3 'or ham . 257 

cheerfully accepted of tlic^ employment, and do herewith 

transmit the same by our trusty friend, Mr. Phineas Carl- 
ton, being the small sum of 4*19. 4/5, in cash, together 
with thirty-four pair shoes ; at the same time earnestly 
wishing that the spirit of benevolence that runs through 
the continent, may keep pace with the sufferings of our 
distressed brethren, until lie who hears the cries of the 
oppressed, shall be pleased to deliver an afflicted people. 

From your most humble servants, 

Abraham Parker. 
Thos. Morse. 
Obadiah Kimball. 


G or ham, March 6th, 1775. 

The bearer, Capt. Isaac Danks, waits on you with a 
small sloop load of wood, about thirty cord, one half of 
which he is to have for freight, the other half is for the 
needy poor of your oppressed Town. We intended to 
have sent you double this quantity, but being above a 
dozen miles from any harbor, and the road rendered im- 
passable with either sleds or carts, we are unluckily pre- 
vented. We lament the unhappy situation of our brethren 
in Boston, unjustly suffering the weight of ministerial 
vengeance ; and though our purses cannot afford them 
much relief, our persons are ready to support them, undis- 
mayed by any danger to which our enemies would expose 
us. We sincerely wish you the rewards of Heaven for 
your unprecedented patience in such a trial. May that 
almighty Being who governs all the earth, smile on your 
endeavors to preserve our country from impending ruin. 

We are, Gentlemen, your most obedient and very humble 

f^A-D-ir T\r/-.T-oTT iv I In behalf of the Committee 
V_'ARY IUCEiELLAN, j f the Town of Gorham. 

4th s. — vol. iv. 33 

258 Reply to Gorham and Others. 


Copy of a Letter sent to James Boise of Milton, Col. Lemuel Robin- 
son of Dorchester, and Mr. Cary McLellan of Gorham Town, 
acknoivledging receipt of wood. 


I am directed by the Committee appointed by this 
Town to receive and distribute the charitable donations of 
our worthy and patriotic brethren, to return their hearty 
thanks to the Town of for their oenerous donations 

of loads of wood. 

We have great cause of thankfulness to the great benefi- 
cent Being, for stirring up the hearts of our worthy brethren 
in this and the other governments, to contribute so liberally 
towards the necessity of the industrious inhabitants of this 
Town, reduced to the necessity (in support of the common 
cause of liberty) of living on the charity of others, many 
of whom, before the cruel Port Bill took place, had it in 
their power, and took pleasure in relieving the wants of 
their distressed brethren. 

This Town is in truly distressed circumstances, and the 
effects of the Port Bill more sensibly felt at this season of 
the year, for want of employment in many branches of 
business, than in the summer season ; and was it not for the 
seasonable supply we receive from our worthy friends, we 
should not be able to bear up under our burthen. But 
through the good hand of God upon us, we have been 
hitherto supported, and we trust he will support us till the 
enemies of America, seeing their attempts to enslave her 
fruitless, shall cease to persecute and leave her in the full 
enjoyment of her rights and privileges. 

I am, in behalf of the Committee, 

Your most humble servants, 

D. Waldo. 

P. S. — The Committee return you their grateful acknowl- 
edgments, for the care and trouble you have taken in the 
collection and management of this donation. 

Letters from Gloucester. 259 


Boston, 7 March, 1775. 

To Mr. George Partridge, at Duxbury, to be communicated to the 


The sympathy of our brethren in Duxbury, to the 
poor, distressed inhabitants of this Town, demands our sin- 
cere gratitude, and we now embrace this opportunity to 
acknowledge the receipt of twenty-one cords wood, which 
is a seasonable relief to our suffering poor. The kindness 
and generosity of our brethren in this and the other Colo- 
nies, revives our spirits and induces us to remain firm and 
steady ; and we are determined to suffer still greater dis- 
tress, rather than give up our rights and privileges. 

Inclosed you have a copy of our proceedings with re- 
spect to the employment of our poor, as also a vindication 
of our much injured characters, which we hope will prove 

Please to present our best regards to the worthy inhabi- 
tants of Duxbury for their liberality, and only wish it might 
be in our pow r er to make a return adequate to your good- 

We are, Gentlemen, with great esteem, your much 
obliged friend and humble servant, 

Jno. Avery, Jr., Per order. 


Gloucester, 8th March, 1775. 

Inclosed you have an account of three bags of cocoa, 
containing 257 wt. being the amount of ten pounds which 
I received in Dominica, the particulars of which, you now 
receive per Mr. Isaac Smith. The cocoa I have in my 
hands, and am ready to deliver it to your order. 
I am, Gentlemen, your humble servant, 

William Pearson. 
To the Committee of Correspondence in Boston, 

260 Reply to Gloucester. 

Gloucester, \0th March, 1775. 
To the Committee of Donations. 


The inhabitants of the Town of Gloucester, being 
deeply affected at the distresses your Town of Boston is 
cruelly laid under, have by subscription, raised the sum of 
£116. 18. 74., which we transmit to you by the hands of 
Isaac Smith, Esq., to be applied for the relief of the poor 
of said Town. 

We are, Gentlemen, your humble servants, 

John Low, 1 & 7 J 
T » selectmen 

Jacob Allen, I ~ 

James Porter, [ ril *■ J 
, -r, Gloucester. 


Boston, March 11th, 1775. 

Your kind favor of the 10th instant, by our good 
friend Isaac Smith, Esq., have received, attending the gen- 
erous sum of £117. 7. 1., for the relief of the truly dis- 
tressed inhabitants of this Town, which shall be applied 
agreeable to the benevolent intention of the donors ; and 
with hearts as deeply affected, we acknowledge the kind 
hand of Providence, who has so liberally disposed the 
hearts of our brethren in this and the other Colonies, to 
support our suffering poor, who, without that aid and 
assistance which they have generously afforded us, we 
should have, ere this, become a prey to ministerial ven- 
geance, and perhaps have been doomed to submit to an 
impious and as an abandoned set of men as the world ever 
produced. But we flatter ourselves, that the time is not 
far distant, that the patience, virtue, and fortitude of the 
sons of freedom in this western world, will arise superior 
to the vile and wicked schemes that have been adopted to 
subjugate us. 

The more than savage cruelty of our parent state 
toward this poor, devoted Town, cannot be paralleled in 

Letter from Falmouth. 261 

history. Our enemies are numerous, they leave no stone 
unturned to accomplish their accursed designs, but they 
have hitherto proved abortive. They vainly imagined that 
the formidable measures they had taken, by sending their 
fleet and army, that we should be awed into a compliance; 
but our spirits have been roused in proportion to the insults 
and abuse we have received, which have been many and 
aggravated ; but prudence has dictated to us to be steady 
and firm, to suffer still greater trials of patience, which 
mav the Parent of nature and of every good enable us to 
go through with. 

Please to present our best regards to the worthy inhabi- 
tants of the Town of Gloucester, and are, with great esteem, 

Your much obliged friends and humble servant, 

Jno. Avery, Jr. 

To Messrs. John. Low, and others, Selectmen of the Town of Gloucester. 


Falmouth, Second Parish, called New Casco, 

March 11, 1775. 

We herewith transmit to you, by Capt. Wormell and 

Capt. Lock, some wood, which we cheerfully give to our 
suffering brethren that are now standing in the gap between 
us and slavery. We are but few in number, and of small 
ability ; and as we earn our bread by the sweat of our 
brow, shall ever hold in utter detestation, both men and 
measures that would rob us of the fruit of our toils, and 
are ready with our labor, with our lives, and with our 
estates, to stand or fall in the common cause of liberty. 
And if we fall, we shall die like men and like Christians, 
and enjoy the glorious privileges of the sons of God. 

This from your humble servants, in behalf of the inhab- 
itants of said parish. 

Sam'l Cobb, ) 

Nath'l Carll, > Committee. 

James Morrill, ) 

To Samuel Adams, Esq., Chairman of the icortJiy Committee of the Poor 
in Boston. 

262 Reply to Falmouth. 


Boston, 23 March, 1775. 

To Capt. Sam'l Cobb, Nath'l Carll, and James Merrill, at Falmouth. 


Last evening your favor of 11th inst. directed to Mr. 
Saml Adams, Chairman of the Committee of Donations, 
came to hand. Your contributions towards the relief and I 
encouragement of the poor in this Town, suffering by 
means of the Boston Port Bill, are received, viz., sixteen 
and seven eights cords of [wood] per Capt. Worm ell, and 
fourteen more by Capt. Lock. Our grateful acknowledg- 
ments are first due to God, nextly to you, our worthy 
friends and countrymen, for so generous and seasonable 
supplies, under our distressing circumstances. But blessed 
be God, we faint not, nor shall we, while he is pleased to I 
favor, support and comfort us. 

Your letter, though short, is very refreshing. Though 
the lines are few, the matter is very comprehensive. What I 
could you have said more ? The Committee are greatly 
obliged and not a little strengthened. You will please to 
accept their sincere thanks for that cordial affection ex- 
pressed in your letter, and manifested in a way the most 
convincing. May the Lord bless you and reward you a 
thousand fold. 

Inclosed are printed accounts respecting the Committee's 
conduct in the distributions of the charities of our kind 
benefactions received. It seems they must pass through 
bad as well as good report. None of their enemies have yet 
accepted the challenge. The Committee make no pretensions 
to infallibility, but they profess to endeavor to act in some 
good measure conformable to the intent of the benevolent 
donors. We do not, we never did expect to please the 
enemies of America ; but we hope to please, and give 
satisfaction to our friends. This is what we aim at ; and 
while we experience the liberality of our countrymen, we 
can never doubt of their candor and good opinion. 

What further trials and distresses this oppressed Town, 
or America in general, may be called to go through, we 
cannot say ; it will be happy to be prepared for all events. 

Letter to Samuel Purviance. 263 

Some intelligence will doubtless come to hand, shortly, 
from which a better judgment may be formed, than can be 
at present. However, we are not, nor have we been, with- 
out some rays of light amidst all our darkness. We arc 
therefore to pray and hope and wait for the salvation of 

I am, Gentlemen, your sincere friend and fellow-country- 

DT VV iM, n , x \ Per order of the Com- 
. J 1.1' IKlLh, mittee of Donations. 


Boston, March \±th, 1775. 
To Mr. Samuel Purviance, Jr., Merchant in Baltimore. 


I am directed by the Committee appointed by this 
Town, to acquaint you that your bill of exchange, drawn 
on Jeremiah Lee, Esq., for two hundred pounds Maryland 
currency, being the amount of a generous collection made 
by the respectable people of the middle division of Frederick 
■: County, for the relief of the sufferers by the Boston Port 
Bill, is duly received. Be pleased, Sir, to accept of the 
Committee's sincere acknowledgments of your kindness in 
transacting this affair ; and if it be not too troublesome, 
permit me to ask the further favor of you, that a collec- 
tion which the Committee are advised is making by our 
friends in Cecil County, which will amount to three or four 
hundred pounds, may in like manner pass through your 

I am, Sir, with very great regard, in behalf of the Com- 
mittee, your obliged and affectionate friend and countryman, 

Sam'l Adams. 

[Per post.] 


Boston, March loth, 1775. 
To Deacon Edward Knowhs. 

Your kind and generous donation of 7. 16/., by the 
hand of our good friend Capt. Edward Knowles, for the 

264 Letter from Philadelphia. 

relief and support of our suffering poor, we have received ; 
and permit us to return you our hearty and sincere thanks 
for the same. We esteem it a great interposition of divine 
Providence, that the hearts of our brethren in this Province 
are so liberally disposed, and so generously inclined to suc- 
cor us in our struggle with an infamous and abandoned 
ministry. We have hitherto, by a manly resistance, baffled 
their iniquitous measures, and we cannot but natter our- 
selves that, in the end, our endeavors will be crowned with 
success ; however, we firmly rely on the goodness of that 
Being who governs the world with infinite wisdom and 
goodness, that in his own due time he will relieve us from 
all our difficulties. It is with pleasure we can inform you 
that one spirit actuates this wide and extensive continent, 1 
and whose benevolence and sympathy we have largely ex- 

Inclosed you have the proceedings of this Committee, 
which we hope will prove acceptable. Please to return 
our sincere acknowledgments, again and again, to our 
worthy and benevolent friends at Eastham ; and may God 
reward you, is our sincere prayer. 

We are, with great esteem, your obliged friends and ser- 

TlVH Avtvtcv Jv J In behalf of the Com- 
JJNU. XlVJ^Kl, Jl., mittee of Donations. 


Philadelphia, March 16, 1775. 
William Phillips, Esq. 


Messrs. Marshall, Masey and myself, were directed by 
the Committee of this City and Liberties, to ship further 
for your Town ; and having an opportunity per schooner 
William, Josiah Gorham, master, you have inclosed a bill 
of lading, and on the other side an invoice for 163 barrels 
flour, 10 barrels rye meal, and 2 casks bread, per said ves- 

Letter from Newport. 265 

sel, being part of the donations of this City, &c, for the 
distressed people of Boston. 

I am, Sir, respectfully, your very humble servant, 

Jon a. B. Smith. 

The vessel not stowing as many as was expected, the 
following fifteen numbers are left out, and will be shipped 
bv some other vessel with an addition. 

















Newport, Rhode Island, Mar. 17, 1775. 
Mr. Jonathan Mason. 


Your esteemed favor of December 5th, I duly re- 
ceived. I have here transmitted you by Mr. Mumford, the 
remainder of the subscription in our place, (for the relief 
of the poor inhabitants that are immediate sufferers by the 
Boston Port Bill,) amounting to £70 10. 2. lawful money. 
There are still some few gleanings yet remaining, which, 
when received, shall likewise take care to remit them. 

Also you have here remitted £5 15. 3. sterling, more, 
arising from the sale of goods imported into this Colony 
since the continental rules of the Congress took place. 

I cannot but condole with you for the loss of your trade, 
and impositions you labor under by an over-ruling hand of 
a base minister. But by the agreeable news received by 
this packet, gives us a glimmering of hopes their schemes 
will be confuted and America rendered in a state of free- 
dom once more, which is the earnest desire of all ranks of 
people that are not under the influence of the base, syco- 
phant tools of a minister. 

I remain, with much esteem, your assured friend, &c., 

T nT ,.. r. vvrD ( Receiver of Donations for 
JOH> JbANNER,] the Poor of Boston. 

4th s. — vol. iv. 34 

266 Letter from Milford. 


Milford, March 18th, 1775. 

We have shipped on board the sloop Friendship, 
Joseph Hull, master, for the use of the poor of Boston, as 
follows, viz., 21 bushels Indian corn, 10 do. messlin? 215 J 
do. rye, 15J do. wheat, 1 barrel beef, being part of the do- 
nation of the Town of Milford ; the remainder will [be] 
forwarded as soon as possible. The Captain has orders to 
deliver them to either of the Committee for receiving such 
donations for the uses above mentioned, at Boston, Salem, 
or Marblehead, as he does not yet know where he shall dis- 
charge his cargo. 

We are, Gentlemen, your very humble servants, 

John Arnold, } 

Noah Baldwin, > Committee. 

Nathan Fowles, ) 

To either of the Committee for receiving donations for the Boston 
poor, at Boston, Salem, or Marblehead. 


Windsor, March 20th, 1775. 
Mr. Jonathan Mason. 

We being appointed by this Town to receive donations 
for the poor of Boston, and as we understand you are one 
to receive them, have directed Capt. to deliver you 
what grain we have collected for that purpose, viz., 391 
bushels rye, 89J bushels corn and half barrel of pork. 

We are, your humble servants, 

James Hooker. 
Oliver Mather. 

Letter from East Windsor. '207 


East Windsor, March 22d, 1775. 

These are to inform you the donations of the inhab- 
itants of the Town of East Windsor, in grain, for the 
support of the poor of Boston, now suffering under the 
operation of the severe oppressive Port Bill. The quantity, 
and on whom, and upon what conditions the same is ship- 
ped, you will learn by a copy of the master's receipt, which 
is sent you inclosed. We rejoice at the patience and forti- 
tude of the Town, and Province, under the extreme suffer- 
ings of such cruel and oppressive acts, and hope and most 
ardently pray, that Heaven will support you till in his 
righteous providence he shall see fit to appear for your de- 
liverance and cloathe our enemies with shame, and in the 
mean time put it and keep it in the hearts of the inhab- 
itants of this Town, and all the Tow T ns of the continent, 
willingly and cheerfully to bear so small a part of the bur- 
thens unjustly brought upon you by those Acts, so threaten- 
ing to us all, as to support the poor of your Town in so 
just a cause and so glorious a struggle for liberty. You 
will accept what this Town has done, though far less than 
what some other Towns have, as a testimony of their sym- 
pathy with and concern for you, and an encouragement to 
expect further help, which the Committee of this Town will 
be ever ready industriously to promote. 
By order of the Committee, 

William Walcott. 
To the Overseers of the Poor in Boston. 


Falmouth, March 22d, 1775. 
To the Committee of Donations. 

Have sent you by Deacon Hansford Smith of Tisbury, 
from Deacon Joseph Davis, of said Falmouth, contributed 
by us, your friends and fellow countrymen, five pounds, 
fifteen shillings and eight pence, from yours, 

Joseph Davis. 

268 Letter from Providence. 


Providence, March 31, 1775. 

To the Committee for receiving Donations. 


I herewith send by Mr. Mumford, the post, the re- 
maining part of the donation of this Town towards the 
relief of the Town of Boston, it being in cash, and amounts 
to fifty-one pounds, which together with the sheep hereto- 
fore sent to you, including the cost of driving, which was 
five dollars, makes the sum voted by this town, which was 
one hundred and twenty-five pounds. 

I have remaining in my hands the flour and pork sent 
from the Jerseys, and cannot as yet dispose of the same 
for cash, unless at a very low price. I shall dispose of it 
as soon as possible, and transmit to you the cash. 

I remain, Gentlemen, yours to serve, 

James Angell. 


New Haven, March 31, 1775. 

We send you inclosed an account of the charity of 
your friends in the Town of New Haven, in Connecticut, 
to be distributed among our suffering brethren in Boston, 
as their necessities shall require. You will see by the 
account inclosed, that some of the grain is from other 
Towns. Mr. Townsend, the bearer, will acquaint you con- 
cerning the freight of the donations from other Towns, and 
all other particulars. 

Signed by order of the Committee for collecting donations 
for Boston. 

Henry Dagget, Clerk. 

To the Committee of Ways and Means in Boston. 

Letter to John Tanner. *J(i!) 

L B T T B R T JOB N T A N N E B . 

Boston, March 25th, 177o. 

Mr. John Taunt r. 


Your agreeable favor of the 17th inst. duly came to 
hand, with the repeated and generous donation from your 
place, of seventy pound, 10/2. lawful money, and five pound, 
15 3. sterling, arising from the sale of goods for the benefit 
of the poor of this Town, suffering by the cruel Port Bill, 
which donations we receive as a sure testimony of your 
sympathy for your suffering brethren in this place, and for 
the grand cause of American liberty ; for which you have 
the most sincere and grateful thanks of this Committee, in 
whose behalf, 

I am, Sir, your most humble servant, 

Jona. Mason. 


Boston, March 29th, 1775. 1 
' John Augustine Washington, Westmoreland, Virginia. 


The Committee of donations having employed a num- 
ber of our smiths (who were thrown out of business, in 

1 There is no acknowledgment in the MS. of the reception of any donations 
from England. The Treasurer of the " Constitutional Society " of London, under 
the date of March 7, 1775, published, among other letters, the following : 

To Richard Oliver, Esq. Sir : I saw in the newspapers that the constitu- 
tional society had given an hundred pounds to the distressed inhabitants of 
Boston. If the trifle I send herewith is thought worthy of acceptance by the 
society, I beg they would apply it to the same purpose ; if not, I desire it may 
be returned to the person who will bring the corner that is torn off from this 
letter. Most of the gentlemen in my neighborhood are desirous to assist them ; 
and if I know it will be acceptable, I will take care to forward their subscrip- 
tions to you. Any message given to the person who will bring the torn corner 
of this letter, will be faithfully delivered to, Sir, your humble servant, 

With twenty pounds. 

Another person, for a similar purpose, sent ten pounds ; another, fifteen pounds ; 
another, twenty pounds ; and another, ten pounds and four guineas, enclosed in a 
cover addressed "to the Bostonians."— Force's Archives, vol. ii. p. 56. [Ed. 

270 Letter from Monson. 

consequence of the late cruel Acts of Parliament) in making 
a parcel of axes and hoes, which were made by the best 
workmen and warranted, have by way of trial, consigned 
the same to our worthy friend the bearer, Mr. John Tileston, 
who is bound for your place. 

From the knowledge we have of your firm and hearty 
attachment to the grand cause of American liberty, and the 
experience we have had of the great benevolence of our 
worthy brethren, the noble Virginians, we are encouraged 
to take the liberty to request the favor of you, not only to 
assist our friend, Mr. Tileston, in the disposal of those axes 
and hoes, but also to inform us what prospect there is with 
you, of disposing of any quantity of hoes or axes, as we 
can have them made here by the best workmen, and agree- 
able to any pattern you may forward, and warranted to be 
good. Could a sale for those articles be obtained, it would 
be the means of giving relief to many of our worthy inhab- 
itants of that business, who are suffering greatly in conse- 
quence of the late unrighteous and oppressive Acts, as all 
our other tradesmen are. 

We have full evidence of your sincere and hearty sympa- 
thy with us under our present sufferings for the cause of 
liberty, and for which you have the most grateful thanks of 
the Committee, in whose behalf, 

I am, Sir, your most humble servant, 

Jona. Mason. 


Monson, April 5th, 1775. 

We the inhabitants of the small district of Monson, 
have sent you by the bearer, a small present, to be dis- 
tributed for the relief of the suffering poor of the Town of 
Boston, and as a testimonial of our firm adherence to the 
great cause which you have so strenuously asserted, and 
honorably maintained, in which every thing that is dear to 
us is embarked. We would not by any means be found want- 

Letter to Robert Towhsend. *2T 1 

pig ill affording our utmost assistance to those that arc in- 
volved in penury on account of public liberty, and in vindi- 
cation of our just rights. We here profess a ready cheer- 
fulness to shed our blood to oppose tyranny and oppression; 
much more, to part with our substance to relieve our op- 
pressed friends. We send this, only as our earnest of what 
we design to bestow, if your necessity call. We return you 
our warmest thanks for your watchful care and anxious so- 
licitude for your country's cause. Reward you Ave cannot — 
your reward awaits you in Heaven — be thou faithful to the 
death. &c. 

From, Gentlemen, your very humble servants, 

Benj. Max, ) 

Ab'l. Goodell, > Committee. 

Noah Sabin, ) 

X. B. — We have eighty stout fellows in this district, a 
great part of which are not only disciplined, but excellent 
marksmen. I dare be bold to say that at about thirty rod 
distance, they would pick up tories as fast as so many hawks 
would kick frogs from a frog-pond. 


Boston. 1th April, 177o. 
Capt. Robert Townsend. 


Your letter directed to Deacon Thomas Greenough, 
has been laid before the Committee, who have directed me 
to acquaint you that they are very sorry for the trouble you 
have with the officers in shifting your cargo ; but any extra 
expense that may attend that business, they will readily 
allow. This the Committee think will be satisfactory, and 
hope they shall soon have the pleasure [of] seeing you in 

I am, in behalf of the Committee, your very humble 

John Browx, Per order. 

272 Letter to Peter Curtenus. 


Boston, April 21, 1775. 


The Committee being engaged with the Selectmen and 
others in a conference upon our public affairs, I am direct- 
ed to transmit to you, a list of Capt. Mark Ferar's cargo 
from Virginia, taken from the bills of lading, viz., shipped 
by Anthony Walker & Co., one hundred twenty bushels 
corn ; do. the Committee of Princess Ann County, 800 
bushels Indian ; do. the Committee of Elizabeth City County, 
422 bushels corn, 120 bushels peas, and 6 firkins butter. 
The freight of all the above being paid in Virginia. 

Sir, I am directed to desire you will receive and store 
the same (upon the best terms you can) till further orders. 

1 am, in behalf, and by order of the Committee, Sir, your 
humble servant, 

Alex'r Hodgdon, Clerk. 

To Mr. Nathan Appleton, at Salem. 

P. S. — Inclosed is an order on Chris'r Higgins for sixty 
bushels rye, freight not paid. The Committee paid Capt. 
Smith six pence per bushel, and would beg the favor you 
will likewise store it, and settle the freight with Capt. 

Your humble servant, A. H. 


Boston, July 8, 1776. 

The Committee for receiving Donations for the poor of 
this Town, have received your favor of 27th ult. per Mr. 
Andrew Hurd, with the sum of £216. 0. 5. your currency, 
which is agreeable to said Hurd's receipt, though your 
letter mentions £217. 7. 1. as the net proceeds of 63 casks 
rice you received from Georgia. 1 The Committee are desir- 

1 On the 10th of August, 1774, at a general meeting of the inhabitants of 
Georgia, at Savannah, a committee was appointed "to receive subscriptions 

Letter to Peter Curtenus. 273 

ous of receiving an account sales of the rice, as also from 
whom the rice was sent from Georgia, that they may take 
proper notice of their benevolent, sympathizing brethren 

I am, Sir, your humble servant, 


Mr. Peter Curtenus, of New York. 


Boston, September 26, 1775. 
Mr. Hodgdon : 

Let Mr. John Hoson have £ bushel meal, J bushel 
rye, 7 lbs. flour, 14 lbs. bread, 4 lbs. pork, 8 lbs. beef, 4 
quarts peas, it being donation. 

John White. 


for the suffering poor of Boston." A letter dated St. John's Parish, Sept. 2, 1774, 
states that a subscription in that parish had been opened "for the relief of the 
unhappy sufferers at Boston," and that this single Parish had already subscribed 
to the amount of two hundred barrels of rice, which is to be forwarded by the 
Committee of Correspondence." 

A letter dated Savannah, December 9, 1774, to a person in Philadelphia, says : 
" There are large donations of rice for the sufferers in Boston, and had we the 
means of sending it to them, with very little trouble much more would be col- 
lected and sent. Few have subscribed less than ten tierces of rice. If no 
opportunity offers soon, directly to Boston, it will be sent to your Committee, to 
be disposed of for them." 

The Darien Committee, January 12, 1775, resolved, "That the unparalleled 
moderation, the decent but firm and manly conduct of the loyal and brave people 
of Boston and of Massachusetts Bay, to preserve their liberty, deserves not only 
the applause and thanks of all America, but also, the imitation of all mankind." 

An association entered into by forty-five of the Deputies assembled in Provin- 
cial Congress at Savannah, January 18, 1775, resolved, that the profits of all 
goods imported in violation of the non-importation agreement and sold by order 
of the Committee of the Provincial Congress, should be applied " towards reliev- 
ing such poor inhabitants of the town of Boston as are immediate sufferers by 
the Port Bill." 

The following letter, addressed to the Committee of Donations, is copied from 
Force's Archives, vol. ii. 871 : 

Savannah, June 1, 1775. 

Gentlemen: — Although the inhabitants of Georgia have unfortunately drawn 
on themselves the censure of her sister Colonies, by not adopting those measures 
which the wisdom of the General Congress have pointed out for the preservation 
of the liberties of America ; yet, we flatter ourselves you will believe there are 

4th s. — vol. iv. 35 

274 Letter to Samuel Hutton. 


Boston, Sept. 9th, 1776. 
Mr. Samuel Hutton. 

The Committee for receiving Donations for the poor 
of this Town, have directed me to acknowledge the receipt 
of your favor of 16th ult. relating to corn and rye in your 
hands, which they desire you will sell for the most you can 
get, as they do not choose to run the risk of your sending 
it by water. When you are in cash, I doubt not you will 
send it by some safe hand. The Committee are very much 
obliged for the trouble you have had in this matter, in 
whose behalf, 

I remain, Sir, your most humble servant, 

Peter Boyer, 
Of Stamford in Connecticut. 

many among us who sincerely espouse the great cause contended for by you ; 
and who ardently wish that the noble stand you have made in defence of these 
rights, to which, as men and British subjects, we are entitled, may be crowned 
with success. The distresses our brethren must unavoidably experience by en- 
forcement of the late acts of a cruel and vindictive ministry, deeply affect us. 
The unhappy division amongst us, has hitherto prevented our contributing to 
their support ; but have now the pleasure to transmit you, by the Juliana, Capt. 
Stringham, bound to New York, a small contribution of sixty-three barrels of 
rice, and one hundred and twenty-two pounds sterling, in specie, under the care 
of John Eaton La Conte, Esq., which we desire you will please appropriate 
towards the relief of those who have lately left the town of Boston. We hope 
soon to be enabled, by our friends who reside at a distance from Savannah, to i 
send you a further token of our regard for you, and those whom misfortune must 
increase with the oppressive measures now pursued by administration against 

I have the honor to be, on behalf of the contributors, Gentlemen, your most 
obedient servant, W. Jones. 

To the Gentlemen of the Committee for receiving Donations for the relief of the distressed 
inhabitants of Boston. 

The Boston Gazette of January 16, 1775, has the following paragraph : " From 
the Southern papers we learn, that agreeable to the recommendation of the Grand | 
Council of America, the several Colonies, as far as Georgia, were continuing 
their collections for the relief of the poor sufferers by the execrable Port-bill. 
What can better manifest the union of the Colonies, and their firm affection for 
and sympathy for each other, than these donations ; or place in a more striking 
point of light, the inhumanity of that parliament which has made such large and 
distant charities absolutely necessary to preserve thousands of the inhabitants 
from starving." [Ed. 

N O T E . 

The two papers of the Committee of Donations, vindicating their disposition 
of the contributions, which are so often referred to in the above correspondence, 
are here copied from the public journals. The first is taken from the Boston 
Gazette of September 2li, 1774. 

The Committtee (consisting of the following Members, namely, 

Mr. Samuel Adams, 
John Howe, Esq. 
Thomas Boylston, Esq. 
William Phillips, Esq. 
Doct. Joseph Warren, 
John Adams, Esq. 
Josiah Quincy, Jun. Esq. 
Hon. Thomas Cushing, Esq. 
Mr. Henderson Inches, 
Mr. William Molineaux, 
Mr. Nathaniel Appleton, 
Capt. Edward Procter, 
Capt. Fortesque Vernon, 

Mr. John White, 
Mr. Gibbbns Sharpe, 
Capt. William Mackey, 
Mr. Thomas Greenough, 
Capt. Samuel Partridge, 
Benjamin Austin, Esq. 
Mr. Jonathan Mason. 
Mr. John Brown, 
Mr. James Richardson, 
Mr. Thomas Crafts, Jun. 
Mr. Henry Hill, 
Mr. Joshua Henshaw, Jun. 
Mr. David Jeffries,) 

appointed by the town of Boston to receive Donations for the charitable purpose 
of relieving and employing the poor, suffering by means of the Act of Parliament, 
commonly called the Boston Port Bill, would gratefully acknowledge the receipt 
of many generous collections made in several of our sympathizing sister Col- 
onies, as well as charitable donations from many Towns in this Province, and 
private friends to this cruelly oppressed and patient people. 

The Committee consider themselves at all times answerable to their constitu- 
ents, and as peculiarly accountable to their munificent benefactors, who ought 
ever to have all reasonable satisfaction touching the disposition of their charities. 
The trust reposed in the Committee is important, and its discharge extremely 
1 arduous. And when the powers and dispositions of those who trouble us are 
properly considered, so far from receiving support and aid in the relief of this 
i distressed Town, it must be obvious that many unnecessary difficulties and embar- 
; rassments would be thrown in the way. Many are the public works (to which 
' large grants and subscriptions would cheerfully be made by persons who would 
• be peculiarly benefitted thereby) such as the building of a bridge over Charles 
river, and another over to Dorchester neck, the erecting of hospitals and other 
large and much wanted public edifices, which might be carried on to the imme- 
diate and great relief of the poor, if the Province was now blessed with a 
constitutional and patriotic Legislature existing within it. 

Miserable is the state of that community who have the forms, but not the 
powers, of good government : but much more miserable are they who have 

276 Colonial Correspondence. 

neither. Whoever, therefore, fully considers the difficulties of every sort 
with which the Committee have to engage, will view all their actions with an 
eye of charity and candor, and will be far from hastily giving credit to the 
malicious whispers and slanderous sarcasms of our public enemies. Surely 
better evidence than this ought to be given, before Americans should entertain 
jealousies, and doubt the integrity, of distant brethren. 

In order for the regular conduct of business, for the satisfaction of candid 
inquirers, as well as the silencing slanderous reports, the Committee very early 
opened a complete set of books, which have been kept in the most regular man- 
ner. In them are entered all the donations, as they are received, and from whom ; 
together with a fair record of all matters which come before the Committee and 
their proceedings thereupon. These books are open every day for the inspection 
of all persons. 

The Committee, having set several days, and by themselves and their sub- 
committees, had various consultations, notified the inhabitants, that they should 
attend every afternoon for ten days (Lord's day excepted) for all classes of people 
suffering by the Port- Bill, to lay their circumstances before the committee, that 
the distressed might (if possible) be employed in their several occupations. 
Accordingly, great numbers of various classes applied, especially mechanics and 
laborers : of the latter the circumstances of much the greater part called for imme- 
diate relief. 

In this exigency, several plans were proposed, but they all required time to be 
further considered and better digested, before they could be carried into prac- 
tice. The only proposal, therefore, which could be carried into execution, with 
the speed necessary to give bread and employ to the most indigent laborers, was 
the repair and pavement of some of our public streets. This, therefore, it was 
thought most eligible to adopt. Accordingly it was proposed to the selectmen 
of the Town, (who are surveyors of the streets,) that, if they would engage in 
repairing those parts of the Town which most wanted it, that the Committee 
of Donations, &c, would contribute towards the payment of the laborers out ot 
the donations made for employing the poor. The selectmen acceding to this 
eligible way of giving immediate employ and sustenance to necessitous laborers, 
numbers of our most indigent inhabitants were by this plan kept from the dan- 
gers of idleness, and enabled to earn bread for their present support. 

Immediate relief being thus afforded to the indigent, the next consideration of the 
Committee was for a method to employ the poor and pay them out of the donations 
in such a manner, as that returns might be made into the common stock, which 
might serve for their future employ and maintenance. The best plan of this sort, 
in the opinion of the Committee, was the erecting a brick yard on part of the 
Town's land, well adapted for such a purpose. Accordingly application was forth- 
with made, and leave obtained from the Town, for the laying out such a yard on 
the Neck ; and the making of bricks therein now employs upwards of an hun- 
dred poor every day. These bricks, when burnt, the Committee intend to sell at 
the best price they can obtain, and the money arising from the sale will be again 
improved in some way the most likely to keep the poor from the distresses of 
hunger and the temptations of idleness. 

The Committee have agreed to build a house for sale, as soon as materials can 
be collected, (which however is extremely difficult, considering the tenor and 
mode of putting in execution the Boston Port- Act,) and several vessels will be 
set up as soon as the common stock shall be sufficient for the work. 

In order to make the employment of the poor as universal as possible, the 
Committee have purchased wool, flax and cotton, to be distributed to spinners 
and knitters in the Town, and looms are erecting for weaving baizes, cotton and 

'ffhe Committee also distribute leather to the shoemakers and take their manu- 
facture ^ n P a y anQl w i tn them also pay day laborers. 

Th-e Committee are in expectation of nail rods and other raw materials, with 

Statement of the Committee. '277 

which they hope to employ the blacksmiths and some other tradesmen, in the 
severities of the winter. 

The Committee have given the above account of their doings, tor the satisfac- 
tion of the public, and flatter themselves it will meet with the approbation of the 
generous benefactors to tins grievously oppressed and Buffering people. The 
Committee attend every day upon the business of their appointment; almost the 
whole of their time is taken up in the discharge of their trust. They have no 
motive to encourage them in their labors, but the hopes of doing good in this 
day of their country's trial and calamity. They shall consider themselves as 
happy if they answer the end of their appointment. That they may attain this 
end, they ask the advice of the wise and good, and shall ever consider the counsel 
of friends to the common cause as deserving their thanks and most mature 

The Committee take this opportunity to inform the world and especially their 
munificent benefactors, that the House of Representatives, at their last session, 
having recommended to the Province to make collections for the poor of Boston 
and Charlestown, suffering by occasion of the before- mentioned Act, the Town 
of Boston early passed a vote, that seven per cent, of all donations transmitted 
to this town should be delivered to our brethren of Charlestown, who are 
mutually supposed injured in that proportion by the Boston Port-Act. 

The regular Overseers of the Poor of this Town still continue their usual care 
and supply of the town poor, while this Committee confine (as much as possible) 
their attention and relief to such as are reduced to severe sufferings by the 
measures of the present administration of Britain, and the grievous mode of 
carrying those measures into execution. 

Boston, January 13. 

The printers in this and the other American Colonies are requested to insert 
the following in their several News Papers. 


The Committee appointed by the Town of Boston, to receive and distribute 
donations for the charitable purpose of relieving and employing the sufferers by 
means of the Act of Parliament commonly called the Boston Port-Bill, from a 
due regard to their own characters, and that of the Town under whose appoint- 
ment they act, as well as for the sake of the said sufferers, who depend upon the 
continual beneficence of their friends for necessary relief; think themselves 
obliged, in this public manner, to contradict a slanderous report raised by evil 
minded persons, spread in divers parts of this Province, and perhaps more exten- 
sively through the continent. The report is, that " each Member of the Com- 
mittee is allowed six shillings, and, as some say, half a guinea, for every day's 
attendance ; besides a commission upon all the donations received, and other 
emoluments for their trouble." The Committee, therefore, thus openly declare, 
that the above mentioned report is in every part of it groundless and false ; and 
that they have hitherto attended and acted in their office, and still continue so to 
do, without any intention, hope, or desire, of receiving any other reward in this 
life, but the pleasure which results from a consciousness of having done good. — 
So satisfied are they of their own disiyitcrested motives and conduct in this regard, 
that they can safely appeal to the Omniscient Being for their sincerity in this 

And whereas the Committee have this evening been informed, by a letter from 
the country, of another report equally injurious, viz. that " the Committee have 

278 Colonial Correspondence. 

employed poor persons in working for themselves, and gentlemen of fortune 
with whom they are particularly connected in their private concerns, and paid 
them out of the donations received ; " the Committee do, with the same solem- 
nity, declare the said report to be as false as it is scandalous. 

They were early apprehensive that the enemies of Truth and Liberty, would 
spare no pains to misrepresent their conduct and asperse their characters ; and 
therefore, that they might always have it in their power to vindicate themselves, 
they have constantly kept regular books, containing records of the whole of their 
proceedings ; which books, as the Committee advertised the public some months 
ago, are open for the inspection of such as are inclined to look into and examine 

The Committee now challenge any person whatever, to make it appear, that 
there is a just foundation for such reports. Until this reasonable demand is com- 
plied with, they confide in the justice of the public, that no credit will be given 
to reports, so injurious to the Committee, and to this oppressed and insulted 

If the friends of truth will inform the Committee of any reports they may hear, 
tending to defame the Committee, and by that means to discourage further dona- 
tions for the benevolent purpose of relieving the sufferers above-mentioned, it 
will be acknowledged as a particular favor. 

Sign'd by Order of the Committee, 

Samuel Adams, Chairman. 

At a meeting of the Committee, January 20, 1775. 



Of The planting of the fllassacljnscts 


Anno 1628. With the LORDS Signal 
Presence the First Thirty 


Also a Caution from fcfo- engines APOSTLE, 
the GREAT 


How to Escape the Calamity, which might 

Befall them or their POSTERITY. 

And Confirmed by the EVANGELIST 


With Prognosticks from the FAMOUS 

Dr. O W E N. 

Concerning the Fate of these Churches, and Animadversions 
upon the Anger of God, in sending of Evil Angels 
amonsr us. 

Published by Old Planters, the Authors of the Old 
Mens Tears. 

Psalm 78. 2. 3. 4* I will utter dark sayings of Old. Which we have heard and known 
and our Fathers have told us, &c. 

Jer. 6. 16. Thus saith the Lord, stand ye in the ways and see, and ask for the old paths, 
where is the good way, $ icalk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls ; but they said, 
we will not icalk therein. 

Boston Printed and Sold by Benjamin £)cirri0, at the 
sign of the BIBLE over against the Blew-Anchor. 1694. 

This reprint of Scottow's Narrative is made from the copy in the Society's 
Library. This, however, has an imperfect title-page ; and the latter has been 
supplied from a copy owned by the American Antiquarian Society, at Wor- 
cester, which was kindly loaned for the purpose by S. F. Haven, Esq., the 
Librarian. A Memoir of Scottow, with an account of his writings, will be 
found in these Collections, 2d Series, Vol. iv. K. F., Jr. 

£o tl)c Ijonourablc 

Simon Broadstreet Esq. 

Late GOVERNOUR of the 


Honoured Sir ; 

THE Long Experience of your being the only Surviving 
Antiquary of us Nov-Angles, the Prime Secretary and 
Register of our civil and sacred Records, and the Bif routed Janus 
who saio the Closure of the Old, and the Overture of this New- 
Albion World. One who in your Juvenile strength ingaged your 
All, to Raise and Build up the Arduous 6f Hazzardous Struc- 
ture, of this then despised and despicable Fabrique ; so as its ob- 
servers said of it, what will these Feeble men Build, if a Fox go 
up, he shall even break down the stone-wall : of which themselves, 
and all its Spectators must now say, Lo, what hath God done ? 

That the Great GOD did then select and adapt Your Person, 
and Enrowle your Name among the Nursing Fathers of this his 
Out-cast Sion, whose Names are imbalmed to Eternity : that you 
have through nine hard Apprentiships, of above sixty years dur- 
ance, in the service of your Generation, and faithful discharge of 
that trust for so long a season, as hath Rendred you a MOOT- 
MAN, and dignified with the highest Honour, this people were 
capable to confer. 

Whither should this narrow Narrative go, to make its address 
for Patronage, and Avowry of its verity, but to Your Honours 
feet, there to Prostrate, and submit it self to the touch and test of 
the Lydian Stone thereof, its substance being extracted out of the 
4th s. — vol. iv. 36 

Records, and the rest founded upon the Publishers certaine knowl- 
edge and observation. 

As for the Censure of the whole or part, to be the Delyrious 
dotage of Bis Puerile and Superannuated Brains, let such please 
to satisfy themselves with their own Speculations. 

But for Your Venerable Self that, the Ancient of days, and 
the God of the Spirits of all flesh, would please to renew Your 
Age as the .Eagles, so as You may be Our New-England Nestor, 
that the decays of Your outward may be made up by recruits 
of fresh Anointing from Above upon Your Inner man, that Your 
Dayes may be prolonged, to remain in the Lyst of those who actu- 
ally are, Our Fathers, Our Fathers, the Chariots of our Israel, and 
the Horsemen thereof, and until you are become a full, ripe Sheaf 
jit to be safely laid up in your Lord fy Masters Garner. Is the 
Daily Prayer of, 

Your Honours Humble, 

and Obliged 

/. S. 



N A R R A T I V E 

Of the Planting of the 

Massachusets-Colony &c. 

f^ ^IIE Late Series of Divine Dispensations tending 
not only to the dissolving of the Cement, but to 
the subverting of the Basis of that Fabrick which 
-■_ the Wonderful Worker hath here so stupend- 
ously erected, nor to the Cropping off their Branches, but 
to the Rooting up of the tender Plant, which the Heavenly 
lather, here so graciously hath Planted ; hath put some of 
the Old Relict Planters, upon smiting on our thighs^ and 
serious considerations of what provoking evils Ave have 
committed, and what special sins, God now would bring to 
our Remembrance, whereby we have so highly displeased 
our Benign God, and Gracious Father, thus tremenduously 
to treat us : the Aspect of Providence so terribly varying, 
from what formerly it was wont to be, puts us into an 
amusing amazement. And being in this perplexed Laby- 
rinth, of Distracting thoughts of heart, there was darted 
into our Meditations, a Caution which above Eight Septe- 
naries of Years past, came from the first Seraphical Doctor 
of Boston Church. Mr. John Cotton, whose name in 
Churches is as Ointment powred forth, and if the word 
of his successor may pass for Current, he was the greatest 
Luminary in our New England Orbs, and a great Prophet, 
and the truth is, the most intelligent of those times took 
them both for no less ; he in his funeral Elegy upon his 
Death gave him both these titles, and Descanting upon 
Gods Magnifying him in his sickness, not only in the sight 
of this Israel^ but of the great part of the discerning world, 
by setting up a Cadestial Flambeau in the Starry Region, 
whither a Signal Minatory or Monitory, (it may be both) 

284 A Narrative of the Planting 

the next age will better know, it directly followed the Reer 
of the Pleiades, in the Rising Progress and setting of the 
Seven Stars, as if it had steer'd their Course, as the most 
strict observers took notice of: he himself on his death 
bed, being Informed of it, replyed, that it did portend to 
the state of these Churches : this Comet appeared not only 
in the time of his sickness, but until his interment, and 
then disappeared, thereby Performing the Honourable Re- 
spects of those Stately Obsequies, which are only due, and 
not done to any, but to Persons of greatest honour, as to 
the Princes, Notables, and Scavants of the times, had there 
but a shadow of the least Pretext to such a thing, befaln 
the Ignatian, Peter Cotton, the Famed Jesuite, in his life or 
death, it had been beyond dispute that his Preference in 
their Rubricke, or Saints Calender had been before Loyala 
their first Founder. 

This Worthy man of God's successor, Reverend Norton 
thus versified of him. 

This |3r0pl)et'0 dead now must in's Doctrine speak, 
This €omet saith, Else Must New-England break. 

How near New-England now is to its breaking, the all- 
knowing One only knows ; but the muteness of this Proph- 
ets Doctrine, is with all solemnity and sadness of soul to 
be Lamented. 

This Venerable Seer, whose method was to go through 
the Books of Scripture, he Entred upon, and had in his 
Ministerial Course in both Bostons been (lengthened out to 
little less then forty years) went through near the whole 
Bible, he was then upon Acts 7. concerning Stephens Dis- 
course before the Council, about the History of Israel, the 
Church in the Wilderness, taking up the Tabernacle of 
Molock, and the Star of their God Remphan ; Figures which 
they made to Worship : whereupon Gods Threatning 
immediately followed. And I will earn/ you away beyond 
Babilon. Shewing that this provocation was so great, as 
God then threatned them with the Babylonian Captivity, 
which befel their Posterity divers hundred years after ; he 
notified the time when 3 the place where, and the persons 

Of the Massachusetts Colony, &c. 285 

thrcatned were Gods Covenant People; whence he ob- 
served to this purpose. 

That Gods Covenant People, or their Children, might in 
their first beginnings be left to do such things, as might bring 
a future grievous Calamity upon them. 

Ilr shewed as this people 1 being Gods Israel, did thus in 
their March through the Wilderness into the Land of 
Canaan, not many years alter their Departure from Egypt, 
their House of Bondage ; so might any other Covenant Peo- 
ple, he left to do. 

In the Application of this Doctrine, he was assisted with 
that Presence of Spirit, and pressed it upon his Auditors 
with its Divine Authority, that as Goads and Xails, it En- 
tree! from that Master of the Assemhly, and was fastned 
from the one Shepheard. Slich was thfi attention, and its 
Efficacy upon the Hearers, (words from the heart entred 
into their hearts) so as upon llcpitition of the Sermon at 
home, they coming warmed with its heavenly heat, con- 
cluded their John was in the Spirit that Lords day. 

This Prophet is Dead, and our Fathers where are they ? 
Yet the words then spoken, left such a Convincing Impress 
upon our hearts and Souls, as is not obliterated to this day, 
and in this Hour of Distress, Trouble, and Consternation, 
is now revived, when as Heaven, Earth, and Hell seem to 
Conspire to Accomplish the Threatning then Denounced. 

The Great God being now upon searching our Jerusalem 
with Candles, should put each individual sensible Soul, 
with the Candle of the Lord, to make diligent and sincere 
Inquiry into the most inward and secret recesses in the 
Chambers of his Imagery, yea into the closest Tills, and 
Cachotes of a deceitful and desperately wicked heart ; and 
after all to Peg of him, whose Eyes are as a Flame of Fire, 
that he would Search, Try, and Know it, and that he would 
shew, and make us all to know every winding, and wicked 
way. and lead in the way Everlasting ; that he who is holy 
in all his Ways, and righteous in all his Works, the great 
Kevealer of Secrets, would take off the Veil, which hides 
j the Mystery of Iniquity in our Souls, that there may be a 
[blear discovery of the Troubler of our Israel, the Inward 
(Viceroy, the Judge, Jury, and Witness within us, their 

286 A Narrative of the Planting 

Verdict and Sentence passing against us : God who is 
greater than our Conscience will condem us much more. 

That we and our Fathers have Sinned, is out of doubt, 
but whether we or our Fathers are the meritorious and 
procuring causes of what we are now groaning under, is 
that which remains under question, we hope in the sequel 
of this Script, as to vindicate the Equity of Gods Waves 
towards our Fathers, and ourselves, so in our weak meas- 
ure to convince us of the Iniquity of our wayes against 
the Lord, that we shall see just cause to condemn our selves, 
as the procurers of all the deep displeasure we now bleed 

In order whereunto, it may be requisite to Recollect what 
our Fathers have told us, and what we have seen ; and 
shall present a maniple of the unaccountable Sheaves of 
Divinely Beneficent Bounties granted unto our Fathers, 
and their graceful Returns unto the Divine Majesty. It's 
great pitty before the present Generation pass off the Stage 
of Action, that there should not be a compleat History laid 
up in our Archivis. 

It was an Ordinance of old, to Commemorate the Polit- 
ical Birth and Growth of a People, it may not (we hope) 
be unbeseeming us, to give a small account of the Genesis 
of this superhumane and really Divine Creation, wrought 
by the admirable Architect, who manifest himself most 
Illustriously Great in the Minimes of Created Beings. 

This Colonies Foundation was not laid, by exhausting 
the Exchequers of Princes, Peers, or Lords of the Realm, 
nor by Lotteries, and such like Contrivances of Advance, 
as other English Plantations have been. 

It was incomparable Minute, to what its now attain'd 
unto, and the rather to be observed, because of the great 
opposition, from those of strength it first met with, its 
growth must be assigned to Heavens Influence, and Bles- 
sing : It evidently proceeded from Him who rais'd up the 
Righteous man from the East, and called him to his Foot ; 
the sudden mover and incliner of Hearts, both infused and 
guided the inclinations and motions of these worthy Patri- 
ots, with their Associates, who either attended, or followed 
them in great measure, parallel to that of the Father of the 

Of the Massachusetts Colony, £<\ ~< s> i 

Faithful, who upon a Divine ( all. left Kindred, Country 
and Fathers House, and went In* knew not whether, to 
Enjoy he knew not what, both proceeding from the same 
Inspiration, and Instinct, drawn by the Magnetick Influ- 
ence of the same Holy Spirit, and as it were by the im- 
pulse of a sacred Charm or Spell, as by its operation 
appeared, as if a Royal Herald, through our Nation from 
Harwich to Cornwell had made Proclamation, to Summon 
and .Muster up Volunteers, to appear in New England, for 
His Sacred Majesties Service, there to attend further 
Orders: Such was the Day of Christ's Power, as an incred- 
ible number of Willing People, forthwith Listed them- 
selves ; yea many of those whose Faces were unknown to 
each other ; the hearts of multitudes in this Design respond- 
ed, as Face to Face in Water; thus the Body of this People 
was animated as with one soul. 

That this Design was Super-humane, will be evidenced 

by the Primum Mobile, or grand Wheel thereof. Neither 

Spanish Gold or Silver, nor French or Dutch Trade of Peltry 

did Oil their Wheels ; it was the Propagation of Piety 

and Religion to Posterity ; and the secret Macedonean Call, 

GOME OVER AND HELP US, afterward Instamp'd in 

| the Seal of this Colony, the Setting up of Christ's King- 

; dom among the Heathens, in this Remote End of the 

| Earth, was the main spring of motion, and that which gave 

the Xame to New-England, and at such a time, when as 

Divine Herbert in his Temple Prophetically sang. 

Religion Stands on Tiptoe in our Land, 
Ready to pass to the American Strand. 

The agency of the great God appeared, who never lets any 
of his works, fall for want of materials or instruments, he 
raised up such as were fit to lead, and feed this People in 
this wilderness, such were our Famous Founders, we had 
our Mosc's, and Aaron's, our Zorobabels, and Joshua's, our 
Eerah's, and Nehemiahs, so many Xoble spirited persons, 
fitted and called of God, raised up to this great service, 
both to the Civil and Sacred Administration, to the Cure 
and Care of this flock in this wilderness. 

Men of narrow spirits, of mean Capacities, and fortunes, 

288 A Narrative of the Planting 

had not been capable to officiate in so great a worke, that 
such, and so many Gentlemen of Ancient and Worshipful 
Families, of Name and Number, of Character and Quality, 
should Combine and Unite in so desperate and dangerous 
a Design, attended with such insuperable Difficulties, and 
Hazards, in the plucking up of their Stakes, leaving so 
pleasant and profitable a place as their Native Soil, parting 
with their Patrimonies, Inheritances, plentiful Estates, and 
settlement of Houses well Furnished ; of Land well 
Stock'd, and with comfortable ways of Subsistence, which 
the first Planters Deserted ; and not a few did leave all 
their worldly hopes, to come into this Desert, & unknown 
Land, and smoaky Cottages, to the Society of Cursed Can- 
nibals, (as they have proved to be) and at best wild Indians ; 
what less then a Divine Ardour could inflame a People 
thus circumstanced to a work so contrary to Flesh and 

Infinite Wisdom and Prudence contrived and directed 
this Mysterious Work of Providence, Divine Courage and 
Resolution managed it, Superhumane Sedulity and Dil- 
igence attended it, and Angelical Swiftness and Dispatch 
finished it ; Its Wheels stirr'd not, but according to the 
HOLY SPIRITS motion in them ; yea there was the In- 
volution of a Wheel within a Wheel : God's Ways were a 
Great Depth, and high above the Eagle or Vulturous Eye ; 
and such its Immensity as mans Cockle-shell is infinitely 
unable to Emptie this Ocean. 

Let us Commemorate their Exodus or Departure from our 
Nation. These Prudent Under takers sent forth their For- 
lorn Hope in two ships, Laden with Passengers, and Ser- 
vants : two years before they mov'd with their main Body, 
and Pattent Government, which were fully Furnished with 
a Pastor and Teacher, worthy Higgison and Skelton, and 
all Materials, for Compleating of a Church of Christ, 
according to Divine Institution : Who safely Arriving ac- j 
cording to their predeterminate Design of Inlargement of j 
Christ-s Kingdom, and His Majesty of England's Domin- j 
ion : Firstly, they set up their Standards, Dethroning Sa- i 
tan, they cast him out of Heaven ; which beyond times 
memorial, he had in the Natives Consciences, and by Turf j 
and Twig they took possession of this his large Continent, j 

Of the Massachusetts Colony, &c. 289 

and set up the first Church in these parts, in a place they 
then culled Salem; at which Convention, the Testimony 

which the Lord of all the Earth here unto it, 
Major is wonderfully memorable, by a Saying Work 

^Jjv. upon a Gentleman of Quality, who afterwards 

was the Chieftain and Flower of New-England's 
Militia, and an Eminent Instrument both in Church and 
Commonwealth ; ho being the younger Brother of the 
House of an Honourable Extract, his Ambition exceeding 
what he could expect at home, Rambled hither : Before 
one Stone was laid in this Structure, or our Van-Currier's 
Arrival, he was no Debauchee, but of a Jocund Temper, 
and one of the Merry Mounts Society, who chose rather to 
Dance about a May pole, first Erected to the Honour of 
Strumpet Flora, than to hear a good Sermon ; who hearing 
of this Meeting, though above Twenty Miles distant from 
it, and desirous to see the Mode and Novel of a Churches 
Gathering ; with great studiousness, he applyed himself to 
be at it ; where beholding their orderly procedure, and 
their method of standing forth, to declare the Work of 
God upon their Souls, being pricked at the Heart, he 
sprung forth among them, desirous to be one of the Soci- 
ety, who though otherwise well acomplished, yet divinely 
illiterate, was then convine'd and judged before all ; the 
secrets of his heart being made manifest, fell down and 
Worshipped God, to their astonishment, saying, That God 
was in them of a Truth ; the Verity hereof, as long since it 
hath been affirmed by old Planters, so by his own Manu- 
script, found after his Death it's confirmed ; he about that 
time Lamenting his Christless Estate, which evidenceth 
that it ought to be said of that Sion, This man was Bom 

One winter after these good spies had viewed this Land, 
who sent letters of the prosperous good hand of Prov- 
idence upon them, the taste of the fruits of this Countrie, 
was sweeter, and more welcome to their Principalis in Eng- 
land, then the Grapes of Eschol w r ere to Israel of old. 

The Leaders of this People upon serious debate, drew 
up a Determination to settle the Corporation, and govern- 
ment, upon the Place: and accordingly made Choice of a 
Govcrnour and Deputy to abide there, which being effected, 
4th s.— vol. iv. 37 and 

290 A Narrative of the Planting 

and Divinely directed in such a Choice of the Governour, 
the Famous Pattern of Wisdom, Justice and Liberality, 
and of a Deputy Governour, who by his Experience at 
Home, and Travels Abroad, with his Natural and Acquired 
Abilities, was a Gentleman qualified above others, for the 
chief Rule and Government, wherein according to his just 
Deserts, he shared more than others ; the Fame whereof 
being come abroad in the Nation, to such whose hearts 
God had touched ; this being upon the wing, there wanted 
not number of Persons of all Occupations, skill'd in all 
Faculties, needful for the Planting of a Collony, who filled 
up a Fleet of Eleven Ships, of considerable Burthen, be- 
sides their attenders ; some of them about Four Hundred 
Tuns, the rest not much inferiour ; some carrying near 
Two Hundred Passengers, the rest proportionably ; the 
Wheels of Providence were lifted up very high, and also 
were radiantly magnificent. 

These Tarting Travellers Removal, carrying so great a 
Resemblance of Departure into another World, they were 
not stupid Stoicks, but abounded with that which Grace 
doth not destroy, but direct : What showers of melting 
Tears dropt into the Bosomes of each other, whose Souls as 
Jonathan and David clave one to another, yet alleviated 
with consideration ; though they were Absent in Body, yet 
Present in Spirit, and of their mutual access to the Throne 
of Grace, and of Meeting at the Assembly of the First-born, 
and Spirits of Just Men made Perfect. Some of their choice 
Friends, as the Reverend Mr. Cotton, and others, went 
along with them from Boston in Lincolnshire, to South- 
hampton, where they parted, and he Preacht his Farewel 

That so many Eminent Persons, some of Noble Extract, 
should upon Sea-Bridges, pass over the largest Ocean in 
the Universe, by the good hand of their God upon them, 
having sought of him a right way for themselves, Little 
Ones, and Substance ; yea above Three Thousand in one 
Year, and that above Three Hundred Ships since that time; 
all laden with Jewels of Invaluable Value, far above the 
Gold of Ophir, that each individual one should have a 
Caelestial Convoy, under the Flaming Swords of Flying 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, &c. 291 

Cherubims, turning every way, to keep them in their way, 
so as they all at their Port safely Arrived: Not one Foun- 
dered in the Sea, Split upon Rocks, were suckt in by Sands, 
Over-set by sudden Gusts, nor Taken and Plundered by 
Pirates or Robbers, except one called the Angel Gabriel, 
whose Tutular Guardian Ship failed (if any Aboard put 
trust therein J she was Laden with Passengers for Boston, 
but put in at Pemiquid, where the Ship and whole Cargo 
perished, but not one Soul of Seamen, or Passengers mis- 
carried ; they met with an Hurricane, before or since not 
known in this Country, liaised by the Power of him, who 
holds the Wind in his Hand, and Commissioneth the 
Prince of the Air, by Raising Stormy Winds to fulfil his 
Word; it*s said, the Tide rose Twenty Foot perpendicular, 
above its ordinary height. The same time, another great 
Ship, Laden with Passengers was wonderfully preserved, 
when as ready to be Split in pieces upon Rocks at the Isle 
of Shoals ; at the Prayer of the distressed Saints Aboard, 
God caused the Winds to Vere a Point or two about the 
Compass, so as she cleared them, & they were saved ; in 
the Mount the Lord was seen ; in this Ship was the Rever- 
end Mr. Mather, three or four of his Sons, and whole Fam- 
ily, with a multitude of other precious Souls, among whom 
was the Worthy Jonathan Mitchel, then being- a Lad. 

The like Salvation about the same time was vouchsafed 
to a great Ship Laden with Passengers, Bound for New- 
England, the Famous Norton, and Great Shepheard, with 
their Wives, were Aboard of her : They were forced back 
from the Channel, into North- Yarmouth Road, where, 
though the Wind was off the Shoar, the Storm was so vio- 
lent, as all their Anchors and Cables would not bring her 
up, and being in great danger of Foundering in the Sands, 
they were forced to cut both Main Mast, and Fore Mast by 
the Board, with Sails and Rigging ; this Paul and Silas, 
while able to stand, went from Gabbin to Cabbin to En- 
courage and Pray with the Distressed Passengers, and Sea- 
men, who by one Wave were washed Over-board, and the 
next Wave threw them Aboard again ; there was great 
Crying out then, What shall we do to be Saved? At the 
Prayers of these Men of God, this Ship and every Soul 
Aboard was given them ; the next Day they all Landed 


292 A Narrative of the Planting 

safe, and as soon as Ashoar, two Vipers designed not only 
to Leap upon the hands of them both; bnt to seiz their 
Persons ; bnt how strangely preserved is not unknown to 
some of us ; though the House was beset by them, when 
as they were at a pious Meeting, (then called a Conven- 
ticle.) Next year they Arrived all safe at Boston ; the 
Ship for that year was Disinabled. 

Ought we not now to cry out, considering the Circum- 
stances, Oh ! The Wheel, the Wheel, He who sits upon the 
Throne, appeared with the Rainbow about his Head, and 
the Spirit of the Living Creatures was in the Wheels, from 
their Original Motion. 

The Waves obeyed the Voice, and the Wind fulfilled the 
Pleasure of the Lord of the Universe, so as the first whole 
Fleet Arrived safe in a small time, without Loss of any but 
of one person. 

These Nobly Grateful Passengers, appointed and set 
apart a Day of Thanksgiving to the Almighty God, for the 
great Goodness and mighty Works they had seen in their 
Voyage, and with Noahs Dove, having found rest for the 
soles of their Feet, marched forth from their Floating Arks, 
and Celebrated the High Praises of him, who had thus 
graciously and wonderfully safe guarded them, and Landed 
them ; They Sang the Song of Moses, and of the Lamb, 
whom they in this Voyage had followed, and now paid 
their Vows to God to Serve him, and to Build him an Hab- 
itation, and according to the Examples of Noah and Abra- 
ham, who upon their safe Landing and Arrival, each built 
an Altar to Jehova, so they (being content with Huts and 
smoaky Cottages) first applyed themselves to Build the 
Lord an Habitation, before they set up their own Houses, 
and Joined in Church- Fellowship, setting up the King of 
Sions Throne, in his Order and Worship ; having six Emi- 
nent Ministers, who came along with them, and divers 
Hundreds of Choice Materials. Thus far an Abbreviate 
of this Colonies Foundation, and manner of its Laying. 

The good News from this far Country, and from these 
men of Desires, being carried into England, was as Cold 
Waters to a thirsty Soul ; the Stile of their Letters was so 
full of Divine Gravity, and of a Gracious Savour, so grate- 
ful to those of full Age, who by reason of Use, had their 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, frc. 293 

Senses exercised, to discern both good and evil, as it put 
thrm upon study, to increase their Number, stirring up 
each other to get among them to New-England. 

The Grace powred into the Hearts and laps of these 
first Planters, dropt down into Pens of private Christians, 
like sweet smelling Myrrh, so as they began their Letters 
with Apostolical Benediction, and concluded them with 
Salutations ; a Letter then from New-England, and for a 
considerable time after, was Venerated as a Sacred Script, 
or as the Writing of some Holy Prophet, 'twas carried 
many Miles, where divers came to hear it, because the 
Savour of ChrisPs Name was as good Ogntment powred forth, 
therefore the Virgins Lord Him; and a multitude of pious 
Souls through the whole Nation, were in their Spirits 
pressed to Joyn in this Work, so as their Mar 
Burtons Me- lignant Observers in their Words and Writ- 
Umcholly ings, Rendred them: Furijs Religionis Acti: 

Men acted by Religious Furies, and the Fes- 
tuss ; s of those Times, declared them to be persons Dis- 
tracted, saying of their much Religion, as he said of Pauls 
much Learning, that it had made them mad. 

In a short time after their Arrival, a Snake crept forth, 
which Lay Latent in the Tender Grass, one who pretended 
himself a Religious Reformado, and to withdraw from the 
Noise of Secular Affairs, came over in the first Fleet, he 
offered to Joyn in Church-Fellowship here, but was refused 
upon suspicion to be what indeed he proved to be, viz a 
Roman Catholick, and of such Note among 
Christopher them, as he had at Jerusalem Received the 
Gardner Orders of the Knighthood, (there called the 

Lloly Sepulchre) which Order he appeared to 
be of, by Tetters intercepted, sent by a man of Place in 
England, a profest Enemy to this Colony ; thus Satans 
Proto-F.missary against this People, was discovered in his 
prime Plot, and secret snare, who designed to smother this 
Embrio Colony, or to Strangle this Babe, not yet out of its 
Swadling Bands ; for which Deliverance, high Praises were 
Celebrated to the Name of Sions Saviour. 

Not long after, a desperate Myne was sprung by this 
Peoples Grand Adversary, according to Advice of a Politi- 
cian elsewhere, to Blow up Religion, by Religion, Encour- 

294 A Narrative of the Planting 

aging the Liberty this People had obtained to Leave their 
Nation, saying, Let them go, by their Parties and Factions, 
as their Brethren at Leyderi and Amsterdam had done, so 
they would destroy each other ; but the Lord most gra- 
ciously Countermined it, for the Design of Both the Mag- 
istrates and Ministers, with the Body of this People, was 
not with the Rigid Separatists to Cast off all Communion 
with the Church of England, but to act the part of the 
good old Nonconformists, who though they could not Close 
with the Hierarchy, nor with the Corruptions in Discipline 
and Worship, yet in her Faith and Doctrine, they own'd 
her to be their Mother ; and therefore having by Pattent- 
Charter from His Majesty, a Grant to Remove, they peace- 
ably Improved the same, and left their Native Land ; and 
at their Departure, they drew up, and Published a Mani- 
festo to the whole Nation, of the Grounds of this their 
Undertaking ; not knowing, whether ever they should see 
Land, styling those whom they parted from, in their Super- 



The Humble Request of His Majesties Loyal Subjects, The 


To the rest of their Brethren, in and of the Church of 
England : For the obtaining of their Prayers, and Removal 
of their Suspicions, and Misrepresentations of their Intentions, 

LONDON, Printed for John Belamy, 1630. 

Their subscription signed was 

Your Assured Friends and Brethren, 

3J0fltt ffiffllltfirOil Governour. 

l&icluirtr SaltoustoU* 
ifcwac Slofinson. 

SEflO* DtlTUtS Deputy Governour. 

Cecsrue f}fiiUi9& 

Cum multis aliis. 

From Yarmouth, Aboard the Arabella, 
April 1th. 1630. 

Of the Massachusetts Colony, &-<\ 295 

THESE Magnanimous Heroes, whose Memory is Blessed, 
whose Names not only during New-England, hath a 
Being, but shall be had in Everlasting Remembrance, they 
then declared. 

Though there might be some among them otherwise minded, 
j/et they were not of them, and desired Remembrance in their 
"Prayers, (as above) in this their Dangerous Design, 

Not long after this, Mr. Cottons Farewel Sermon (above 
mentioned) was Printed at London, and since lie-printed at 
TION, wherein he Exhorted them to Remember England, 
their Mother, and that they should not be like those Ingrate- 
fnl Birds, who when they had Swum over a Stream or 
{liver, forgot the Wing that had Hatcht them. 

The Serpent soon got into this Eden, and according to 
his Maxime acted, divide, and Overcome, lie sowtl the Seed 
of Discord, & Division among us, so as this Heterodoxy 
was Preached publickly, that there was no Communion to 
be held with the Church of England ; and that if any of 
our Church-members had transiently heard a Minister, 
which Conformed to the Church of England, without 
declaring Repentance for it, he was to be Excommuni- 
cated, and that no Communion was to be held, with any 
In regenerate Person, that they ought not to Pray, or Crave 
a Blessing at Meals, before Wife, or any Relation Uncon- 
verted, of which Conversion their Opinion was the Test; and 
not only so, but that the Oath of Allegiance to His Majesty 
was not to be taken, nor was it lawful to take any other 
kind of Oath, because no Power to be Settled by Oath, but 
Christs Kingly Power only, and that our Pattent ought to 
be sent back to our King ; nor ought we to have to do 
therewith: Thus was New-England Attackt by Satan; and 
this from an Eminent Preacher, noted for Piety in his Life 
and Conversation, as his strictest Observers Characterised 
him. This Child of Light walked in Darkness about Forty 
Years, not only by Rejecting the Church of England, and 
its Baptism, but his second Baptism also. 

Taking up the Seekers perswasion, looking for 
Mr. Roger new Apostles, yet did not his Root turn into 
Williams. Rottenness, the Root of the Matter abode in 
him, as by his Faithful Defence of the Funda- 

296 A Narrative of the Planting 

mentals of Christian Religion, in a pnblick Dispute ; and 
about the Year 1677, putting out a Book against the Qua- 
kers : Thus the Lord infinite in Wisdom, and Goodness, dis- j 
posed of Satans Malice, so as he was Out-shot in his own 1 1 
Bow, the Lord held the Magistracy and Ministry in Unity, ! 
according to the Integrity of their hearts, so as this small 
new Rigged Vessel was preserved against this violent I 
Storm, which the Prince of Darkness Raised upon her at ; 
first setting forth, with Design to have Overset and Foun- J 
dred her ; thus was Munificent Mercy magnified toward 
this People, when few in Number, and in their low Estate ; 
such was the conduct of our Moses and Aaron, that they 
kissed each other in the Mount of God. 

The Report of this admirable Divine Presence with this I 
People in their Civil and Sacred Administrations, Reach'd 
our Nation even to the astonishment of those who cast no 
good Eye upon us, but to the Encouragement of those | 
otherwise minded, so as that the Well-affected came over j 
as Clouds, and like Doves to their Windows ; such was j 
their Increase, that in seven years time, the Massachuset j 
Pattent could not contain them. This Vine spread forth 
her Branches on the other side of this Bay, to find a Reho- | 
both ; it's said that about this time, in Two Years there 
came over Seventy odd Ships, who one with another Trans- 
ported an Hundred Passengers, to the astonishment of the 
sober part of our Nation. At which time, and before, as 
the Harvest was great & white, so the Lord thereof thrust 
forth not only Labourers, but multiplied Aholiabs and 
Bezaliells, Robbing our Nation, to supply this people with 
such as were filled with the Spirit of Wisdom and Under- 
standing, in all Spiritual Skill, in the Structure and Fur- 
niture of this great Work, and about setting up the Taber- 
nacle of the Congregation, and the Ark of the Testimony, 
according to the Pattern in the Mount, Of whom a Qua- 
ternion, viz. Mr. Cotton, Eminent for Spiritual Clothing, 
and Mather for Cselestial Dying, Hooker for Soul Fishing, 
Stone for Building up in the Holy Faith : three of whom 
came in the same Ship, and one of them not long after, 
with the Reverend John Davenport, the famous Rogers of 
Rowley, besides the Worthy First Fruits of New-England ; 
the Proto-Pastors and Teachers, whom our Pen fails to 

Enumerate ; 

Of the Massachusetts Colony, frc. 291 

Enumerate; such was the Cloud of them who came over 
first and last ; seventy seven Ministers, and fourteen Young 
Btudents fit lor the Ministry. 

These voluntary Exiles for the Word of God, and Testi- 
mony of -Jesus, having been under Exercise of Spirit, and 
Burthened by mens setting up their Posts and Thresholds, 
h\ Gods Posts and Thresholds; and now Wanned by the 
Lively Sense of Gods preserving Goodness, and safe Land- 
hag of them, after a tedious passage some Encountred ; 
the- some had but six Weeks, others Twenty and odd 
Weeks durance, yet without Loss or Famishing of one 
person ; all this while shut up, but Safeguarded about four 
inches distance from Death: These Votaries being under 
the fervour of their late Obligations, they Anointed Jacobs 
Pillar, then they had opportunity, and accordingly Be- 
waibd, and were ashamed of their Misdoings, begg'd par- 
don and assistance from the God of the Spirits of all Flesh, 
and direction from on High, to set up the Throne, and 
Place of the Soles of Christs Feet ; after solemn Imploring 
the Discovery of the Form, and Fashion of Gods Flouse, 
the Comings in, and Goings out of the Church of God, 
which is the House of God, the Ground and Pillar of 
Truth ; they agreed upon the practice of that which is 
called the "Way of the Congregational Churches, which 
for Thirteen Years together, they AValkt in the practice 
of, before the Synod further confirmed the same, as is after- 
wards notified ; which Doctrine and Practice, was Pub- 
lished to the Europeen World, in the Book of the Keyes, 
and Vindication of the Way of the Congregational Churches 
in New-England, pen'd by the Reverend Teacher of Boston 
Church, and other worthy Scripts, by divers Worthy Min- 
isters of this Country, in Answer to the Reproach put upon 
Mr. Samuel them, by some Eminent Divines, elsewhere 

Rutherford. of another perswasion ; yet one of their 

In his Spiri- Chieftains for Piety and Learning, Declared 
tual Antichrist. ' m ]> rmt ^ ^ f u n Assent to the Book of the 
Keyes, in all its particularities, except in one punctilio 
about the power of Synods, which as he apprehended, 
the Book of the Keyes did too much streighten. 

The Lords presence with our Fathers in their Civil and 

Sacred Concerns, signally appeared, with our Honourable 

4th ?.— vol. rr, 38 Counselors, 

298 A Narrative of the Planting 


Counsellers, our Prudent, and Ancient, the Mighty Man, i 
and the Man of War, the Judge and the Prophet, our j 
Princes and our Rulers ; though none of them a General j 
Governour, yet as by some it hath been well observed, j 
some of them were generally Governours, especially the 
first Governour, who in Twenty Years was above ten times ; 
Governour, & the first Deputy Governour, but little less : ! 
such was the deep Humility of these Elevated Men, that 
upon Election Days, they provoked the Free-men, to make j 
use of their Liberty against their own intentions. 

Never so small a spot of Land, was so highly favoured I 
with such an Aggregate of Men, of such Abilities in Divine I 
and Humane Learning, as New-England then was ; so as 
upon the Emergency of the Reverend Mr. Wilson, first 
Pastor of Boston Church, Return into England, he with I 
consent of his Church, left the care of his Flock to 
Mr. Winthrop, and Mr. Dudly, they being then the much I 
Honoured Governour, and Deputy Governour of this Peo- 
pie, who both accepted, and perform'd this Charge : Know- j 
ing well, that the Princes of Juda in King Hezekiahs j 
Reign, were appointed to Teach the People in the Law of j 
God : And it's certainly Recorded, That above an Hundred j 
Years before that time, there were five Pastors in the Re- I 
formed Church at Orleans in France at one time, the major 
part of whom were Lords, and Barons of the Nation ; so ; 
high an Estemate was then put upon this Sacred Func- j 

Besides their Dexterity in Handling of the Civil, and |j 
the Lords Two-Edged Sword ; it's not to be forgotten, j 
(though above seven times seven years since) the skill they 1 
were accomplished with, & was shown in their being | 
Versed in the use of the Military Sword, at Fox-Hills, I 
Fort Action, where they as two Tactiques, set their Armies I 
in Battle Array, each appearing General in the Head of a 
Body, at Boston, where all the Cavalry and Infantry of the I 
Country appeared ; shewing such real Discipline in their 
Field Exercise, by rowling Trenches making their Ap- i \ 
proaches, and assayling the Fort, & by orderly sallies, de- 1 
fending the same together with a Naval Combate on both 
sides, such as in none of the Gallantry, & Bravery of all 
our General Traynings since did appear ; thus the Motions 

of I 

Of the Massachusetts Colony, frc. 299 

of the Wheels were very high and terrible to our Adver- 
saries, and so were the Rings and Wheels of Providence 

full of Eyes, to supply all our wants, so as when this Peo- 
ple, though never reduced to Famine, yet oft to short 
Commons ; so as when Bread failed, Fish and Herbs was 
very good Fare. 

Then not only Dutch Ships were sent in with Sheep, 
Kine, and Mares, to compleat our Farms and Husbandry; 
but rather then Christs little Flock, who had followed him 
into this Wilderness, (upon the hearing of his voice) should 
want, their good Shepherd Spirited the great Strafford, and 
Lord Deputy of Ireland, and Commissioned him to be their 
Purveyor, out of his Irish Stalls, and Stores to supply their 
Tables ; yea, such was Christs pastoral respects to them, 
least they should be neglected : The said Lord Strafford 
must Buy a Ship of Burthen, Lade her, and Transport it 
to them at his own Cost. 

There wanted not Observers of this Peoples Methods 
and Measures, who failed not to misrepresent the General 
Muster before mentioned, and all other their Actions, who 
rendred us, that as w 7 e had cast off the Yoke of Episco- 
pacy, so we designed to cast off our Allegiance and Loy- 
alty to His Majesties Crow T n and Dignity, which never 
entred into the Hearts of our Grave Sages ; they knew 
better then so, that under God it w T as their only shield and 
buckler, against all violent Intruders, and especially the 
French, w T ho at our Arrival here, were not Seiz'd of Accady, 
then called Nova-Scotia ; our Brethren of Scotland, w T ere 
then possessed of Port-Royal, and above tw T o years after, 
they having Built a Fort there, but the French purchasing 
it of the Scots, possessed it, and would then own no N. 
Engl, and justified their Kings Claims to all the Continent 
on this side Virginia. The French Governour at Port 
Royal Addrest his Letters to our Governour to Monsieur 
Monsieur /. W. Governour of the English at Boston in 
Accady ; and in his Subscription styled himself D. C. Gov- 
ernour of Accady ; thereby declaring unto us, That we im- 
proved his Masters Dominions. The Dutch on the other 
side claimed Connecticut, and had there set up a Fort, and 
Trading House in that River, so as w r e were surrounded 
with bad Neighbours. 


300 A Narrative of the Planting 

This Misprision so far prevailed, as a Formidable Ma- 
chine was formed against this Country, not to put a demurr 
or cessation to their proceedure, but to subvert and over- 
throw this Colonies Foundation, so miraculously Founded 
and Multiplied ; so as the Pattent was call'd in, and sent 
for to be delivered up ; a New Commission and Regulation 
drawn up confirmed, and sent over ; whereby this People 
after all Difficulties, and Dangers of Transplanting them- 
selves, and settlement here, were reduced to harder meas- 
ure, then if they had not left their Nation, altho' upon as 
great security as could humanely be given. 

Then all our worthy Patriots, in each pollity, Zorobbabel, 
and Jehoshua, and all the People of the Land, being deeply 
affected, afflicted, and sorely distressed, they first Addrest 
the Divine Throne, where this halting Jacob, upon his 
Wrastling with the Angel of the Covenant, found Grace 
with him, that his Name was then changed into Israel, and 
had power from him so that prevailing with God, he also 
prevailed with man. 

They Supplicated our gracious King, and the Lords 
Commissioners of the Forreign Plantations, prostrating 
themselves at His Majesties Foot-stool : Besought that they 
might be made the Objects of his Royal Clemency, that this 
poor Plantation which had found so much favour from God, 
more then others, might not find the less from man : The 
Kings heart being in the Hand of the Lord, was turned 
about as Rivers of Waters ; so as this Weapon Formed 
against this people prospered not, and by Divine Hand was 
broken ; as well as a great Ship new Built purposely to 
have brought over, the Artificers and Managers of this En- 
gine, whose Back was after a strange manner broken on 
the Stocks ; so as this Tool for about Forty Years was laid 
aside ; and then for our Iniquities, was new Forged, Fur- 
bished, and took effect ; in which time, incredible was the 
Increase of His Majesties Subjects in this his Dominion, 
being Sown with the Seed of Man and Beast, to the Hon- 
our of our God, King, and Nation, far exceeding the Num- 
ber which the Exchequer of any Potentate in Europe could 
have Effected : God then said, this shall not be ; for which 
an Altar was erected, Jehova Nissi, The Hand upon the 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, frc. M)\ 

Satan being Dispossessed of so great a part of his Do- 
minion, attempts its recovery, by stirring up the Pequods, 
who were the Terror of all the Salvages, in these Parts, 
who to the Glory of Israels God, and the Natives Amaze- 
ment, in a little above one years time were Destroyed; this 
Amaleck fell upon our Rere in our Feeble Estate, Moses 
Hands being held up by Aaron and llu>\ Joshua obtained 
a great Victory: Our Fathers Cryed unto God, who heard 
them, and they were saved ; this Pequod Amaleck s Name 
{according to Gods Oath,) hath been ever since blotted out 
from under our Heaven. Thus was the Lord his Peoples 

The Dragons old indefatigable Malice appeared, in a 
most subtile Stratagem contrived, by letting out of his 
Mouth a Flood to Drown the Woman and Male Child, 
tied into this Wilderness to be fed ; which made this little 
World groan to see it self surrounded with Familestical & 
Antinomian Heresies & Errors ; this chiefly befel Boston 
and its Vicinity, which Church Glorying in their Candle- 
stick, being furnished with two such Burning and Shining 
Lights, a Pastor and Teacher, who for Love and Light 
Out-shincd all others ; and in the Gifts of Knowledge and 
Utterance of divers of their Brethren ; the Serpents sub- 
tilty shewd it self in a Multitudinarism of Questions, 
started under pretence of seeking Light ; Error cloath'd it 
self under disguise of Truth by pretext of Magnifying 
Grace, it was turned into Wantonness, and all this under 
the Umbrage of their Teacher, who tho' he had Sown only 
good Seed in Gods Field, yet the Enemy came and sowed 
Tares ; as he upon a East-Day in Boston Church, before 
the Country, vindicated himself; that whilst men slept, 
this mischief was done, which was the Subject of that 
days Discourse, and he discriminated between them, openly 
declaring, what good Seed he had Sown, and its dissimili- 
tude from the Tares which the Enemy had Sown, proving 
by Jerom & Authentick Authors, That the Tares in Judea, 
were so like the Wheat, that until the Harvest, without 
great difficulty they could be distinguished ; thus Hells 
Cataracts were set open, and a multitude of Errors then 
were broached, to the hazard of the mine of the Churches, 
with manv Heresies destroying the Foundation ; but as of 


302 A Narrative of the Planting 

old, when Arrianism prevailed, the Earth helpt the Woman; 
so many took opportunity to greaten their outward Estates, 
whatever befel them upon any other account ; oh ! That 
men would praise the Lord for his Goodness, and for the 
Work of this Sions Saviour in delivering from this Master- 
plot of Hell, who designed the mine of these Churches 
and People ; but by Divine Benediction upon the measures 
taken by Magistrates in the Court, and the Elders and 
Churches in the /Synod, that was prevented which threatned 
the Destruction of all, but chiefly of Boston. 

The Churches and people of New-England had for a 
considerable time, Enjoyed Peace and Rest, Trade at 
Home, and Traffick Abroad, they greatned their Estate 
by Building small Vessels, and some considerable Ships, 
Transporting of Timber for the Indies and Islands, tho' 
not without Alarms from the Indians, and other Afflictive 
Providences, the Lord took us into his Fatherly Hand, by 
Droughts, Blasts upon English Grain ; yea, by Feavers, 
and Small-pox, and with one great Fire ; but in the interim, 
being without any Adversary or such evil Occurrent, they 
lookt at it as a Duty incumbent upon them, to draw up a 
Plat-Form of Discipline, and Church-Government, which 
might be laid as a Foundation for the Generations to 
come: And the rather, because the Way they practised, 
was questioned by some, whether it was agreeable to the 
Pule of Gods Word, whereupon a Bill was drawn up by 
the General Court, for Assembling of a Synod ; after debate, 
it was agreed unto, and accordingly a Synod of Elders and 
Brethren, according to the first President of a Synod or 
Council Recorded in the Sacred Leaves of the Acts and 
Monuments of the Apostles who Assembled at Jerusalem ; 
these did Convene, to whom we may assign, as hath been 
Observed by one of Note in the Churches of Christ : That 
as these had shewn more Love and Zeal to Communion with 
God in his Pure Worship, in their Hazardous Undertakings 
into these Parts, So God did more for them, in shelving them 
the Scriptural Way of Church Government, as a Divine 
Favour, and Boon vouchsafed unto them, then he did to any 
other, which Light hath not been hid in a Bushel, but 
resplended not only into our Nation, but into all the Reformed 
Churches. Concerning these men, it may without arro- 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, #'<'. 303 

o-ancy be affirmed, tho* they were of lower stature thru our 
first Reformers, who arc 1 of* immortal Name, yet having the 
Advantage of standing upon their Gigantine Shoulders, 
they had opportunity of seeing further, then those Giants 
did ; some of them made discovery of the Papal Anti- 
christ, and of his Tyranny over Kings, Princes and Pre- 
lates ; others threw down the Episcopal Usurpation over 
their Fellow Presbyters, and reduced them to their Primi- 
tive Parity, and the Church Discipline then Established, 
especially the Later at Geneva; considering the vast 
Number in their Church Bodies, consisting from Eight to 
Twelve Thousand Members in one Congregation, so as 
they had from two to five Pastors in one Church, & in 
divers, six Ruling Elders ; the publick Management of 
Discipline, upon Offenders in so vast an Auditory Sc 
Assembly would have tended to the Scandal of the Refor- 
mation, & have hindred the progress of Protestantism ; 
they prudently concluded, to commit it into the private 
hands of the Classes, viz. Pastors and Ruling Elders of 
each Church, if need required further consideration, to be 
Tryed by the Colloquoy of the Neighbour Churches, viz. 
their Pastors and Elders there to be Represented, & for a 
result of it to be determined by the Synod of the Province, 
which if not there accomplisht, to be finally concluded by 
the National Synod of all the Churches; could there have 
been a more prudential way of Church Government pitched 
upon, then that which they practised ; and doubtless God 
I accepted the sincere desires of his Servants hearts, to the 
! Conversion and Edification of many thousands in their 
i most Holy Faith ; but our Reformers circumstances were 
vastly different, our number fewer, & those eminently 
qualified for further Reformation ; they being a select 
' choice Company (8c without offence it may be said J of the 
' Cream and Flower of our Nation, not only for Morality, 
; but true Piety ; having been, both Ministers & People, 
under Sufferings for the Truth & Worship of God, both 
Confessors and Professors, and in Fervour of Spirit brought 
into this solitary place, where they had opportunity of the 
Visions of God, freed from Temptations, which populous 
; places might have exposed them unto, and from the Baits 
of Honours & Profits which other places might have pre- 
sented. They 

'304 A Narrative of the Planting 

They after near two years seeking of God, and serious 
searching out his Will, with Unanimity of heart, and mind 
agreed, in that which then was, and now is called the Plat- 
form of Church Discipline; as for their Confession of Faith, 
they wholly agreed with that put forth by the Assembly of 
Divines at Westminster. 

After full Answer was given to every Objection, which i 
every individual person could make, both in Churches and 
Towns ; both of them having had the consideration of it 
put unto them, the Plat-Form above-mentioned was accepted I 
of, and declared by the General Court, and all the Churches, 
as being for the substance of it, what they had hitherto j 
practised in all the Churches, as before is observed, and I 
being that which was agreeing to the Word of God, and 
the principles of the Congregational Way, first practised I 
in our Churches, & for a good time, since ; this Plat-form 
hath been Printed here, and in England, and published 
Abroad to the World, there being no difference between i 
us, and the other Reformed Churches, whether the Church 
of England, the French or Dutch Churches, but only in 
point of Church Government, as to points of Faith and 
Doctrine, we all agree in one ; this we thought needful to i 
inlarge upon, humbly fearing the Lords present Contro- 
versy with us, doth in great measure Center here, viz. our 
deviating and receeding from that which gave us the Name 
of New-England ; viz. the Plat-Form, and agreed practice 
of our Churches, according to the Word of God. 

The Ravening Wolves of Heresy, and the wild Boars of 
Tyranny, being chained up from Devouring the Lords poor 
Flock, and from Rooting up his Heritage. 

The unreconcileable Adversary, lets loose his Foxes with 
Fire brands at their Tails, to burn up this peoples stand- 
ing Corn, which not taking, he sent forth his Foxes, the 
little Foxes^ to spoil this Vine, in the time of its tender 
Grapes, but the Keeper of this Vineyard neither slumbering 
nor sleeping, took and destroyed them; he Watch'd, Warded, 
and every moment Watered it, and none did hurt it, much 
less threw down the Stone-Wall thereof; tho' many an 
hard push and shuff was made at it ; our Jerusalem was 
then a Burthensome Stone, & their Governours like a Torch 
of Fire in a Sheaf, many an Ebenezer, Stones of help did 

t[ Gorton Sf Complyces, fyc. our 

Of the Massachusetts Colony, $-c. 305 

our Fathers then set up, for which the Lords Sacro sanct 
Name was Celebrated. 

This preceeding Relation is but as a few Clusters of 
Ephraims Grapes, compared with the redundancy of Abie- 
$er, our Fathers Helpers Vintage; so many unimaginable 4 
and unutterable acts of Favour, and preventing Mercies, 
were in the Revolution of twenty five, or about thirty years 
space vouchsafed to our fathers, as would fill a large Vol- 
ume, yet not without mixture of Fatherly Corrections, to 
evince Paternal Respects unto them, as their own words 
writ into our Xation testify ; that they were by the Dew 
from above, and Cselestial Influences kept alive, and cher- 
ished ; as to the sequel, we shall leave it to such Sprightly 
and Accurate Wits to perforin, who shall espouse it ; 
knowing that tract of time will admit liberty of freer Dis- 
course about Matters, then this Age will bear ; the Relator 
being in hazard of having his Teeth dasht out, by Truth 
lifting up her heeles, if he come too near her, as hath been 
Experienced and Recorded by our Nations Great Histori- 

This was the time of our Fathers Love of their Espou- 
sals, and Kindness of their Youth ; they were then Holiness 
unto the Lord, and the First Fruits of his Increase. God 
Rode upon the Heavens for their help, they dwelt safely, 
tho' solitarily ; our Issachar Rejoyced in their Tents, and 
our Zebulon in his Going forth, but have we brought Sacri- 
fices unto the Holy Mountain ; though w r e have sucked of 
the abundance and treasures of the Sea, to the enriching of 
divers. This Tribe hath abundantly multiplied to the 
admiration of all Beholders. 

So as a noted Belgian one of the East India Company, 
who ahove twenty years since haveing heard of the fame 
of this place, purposely came over to take a view of it, 
and past through all the parts of it, and made a particular 
remark upon our sea trade, and the incredible number of 
small vessels he then saw, besides some Ships of consider- 
able Burthen belonging to us. 

Nor is to be forgotten the answer made to a Messenger 

of the Nations, an Attendant upon the French Court, sent 

hither by Lewis le- Grand, to demand the fulfilling of the 

Articles made at Breda, between the two Crowns, who here 

4th s. — vol. iv. 39 to 

306 A Narrative of the Planting 

to his astonishment saw, what he could not have believed ; 
to him it was told, That God had founded this Sion, and 
that the poor of his People did trust in him ; at his depart- 
ure with wonderment he said, Lo, what hath God done ! 
and if his Masters servants did know how the poor of this 
Country lived, he would not have one left. 

It might be then said, who so happy as new New-Eng- 
land, by the Lord their shield and Sword of their Excel- 
lency : as our Report hath passed through Hol- 
C. Allin land and France ; so that Spain is no stranger 
to it, appeareth by the Discourse, which the 
Governour of Cuba had with a Prisoner of Note of ours 
falling into his hands, concerning our being a People emi- 
nent for great Morality and Reformation, but mind you (said 
he) how your Children will prove, and what will become of 
them ; a Speech becoming a Gentleman well Versed in 
Sacred and Civil History. 

Thus far of the Light and white side of the Pillar, which 
attended us in this our Wilderness Pilgrimage ; the black 
and dark side remains : and we hope thus far we have 
cleared our Fathers, from being the procurers and peccant 
causes of these dismal days now befallen us ; they accord- 
ing to Divine Institution walked with God, they did Justice 
and Judgment, and then it was well with them. 

The Lord took delight in our Fathers, and they in him ; 
we have left the Lord, he hath forsaken us ; they Walkt 
with him, we contrary unto him ; he Subdued their Pequod I 
and Narraganset Enemies before them, gave their Country 
into our hands ; but now the Scene of Affairs is turned, 
we are made a Spoil to our Haters, to our Popish and 
Pagan Neighbours, a Derision, we are sold and scattered 
among the Heathen ; can we say, All this is befallen us, yet 
have we not forgotten thee, nor have we done falsely in thy 
Covenant ; this we fear is our mortal wound, viz. the for 
getting of our Fathers and of our God, we have dealt 
falsely in our own and their Covenant, who stipulated for 
us ; thfa is the quarrel which the Holy God is now aveng- 
ing : Hath Chittim or Canada chang'd their Gods ] Do we 
thus Requite the Lord ? Oh Foolish People and Unwise! 

O poor New-England, especially Boston, in the Day of 
it, poor to a proverb, of being the lost Town in our first 

Founding ; 

Of the Massachusetts Colon}/, frc. 807 

Founding; those of other Towns enquired, bow the Mean 
Dnes lived here, the Rich had their Farms Abroad to Sub- 
sist by, but us for the poor, bow could they subsist I The 
Answer was, their Ministry was so sweet unto them, and 
fche Bread of Life so savoury to their Souls, that they forgot 
their Bodily Food, so welcome was Christian Society to 
them, that he who bad but an Acre of Land for his House 
Lot, parted with one half of it to a desirable Neighbour; 
he that bad but ball' an Acre did tbe like: Thus were we 
increast, so as instead of a desolate place, where our Fa- 
tbers found no Town to dwell in, they Cried unto the Lord 
hungry and thirsty, who led them forth by a right way, 
that we are become a small City of Habitation. God gave 
some of them then a particular Faith upon Psalm 107. 4. 
to S. When as they were brought to small store of pro- 
vision, upon the first Market Day by the General Court 
appointed to be kept, they put to Sail half of it, to handsel 
it with. Thus was this contemptible place raised up, so 
that in less than sixty years, its reputed the Mart of the 
North- America. 

That little Church which after seven years growth, its 
Number (in their Mud-wall Meeting House with wooden 
Chalices) was so small, as a Child might have told the 
whole Assembly ; it hath been so Amplified and Dignified, 
by the Adorable presence of him, ivhose Countenance as the 
Bun shining in his full strength, with Radiant Beams 
through the Chrystal Glass of the Triumvirate Ministry of 
the first three Successive Johns, Wilson, Cotton & Norton, 
each so full of the Spirit of Love, Light, and Learning, as 
scarcely paralleled in many Generations ; this Church is 
now grown up to be a Trinity Colledge of Churches, besides 
three other Congregations, every Lords-Day distinctly call- 
ing upon the Name of the Lord, being each of them of 
different perswasions : Oh that the Redeemed of the Lord, 
whom he hath Sav'd from the Hand of the Enemy, and 
gathered from the Lands, might give thanks to the Lord, 
for his Goodness and Mero/ Endureth for ever. 

Our Ancestors were men of God, made partakers of the 
Divine Nature, Christ was Form'd, and visibly Legible in 
them, they Served God in Houses of the first Edition, with- 
out large Chambers, or Windows, Cieled with Cedar, or 


308 A Narrative of the Planting 

painted with Vermilion ; a company of plain, pious, hum- 
ble and open hearted Christians, call'd Puritans ; when 
News was brought hither, that the Church at Bermudas 
was Banish'd thence, into a desolate Island, and full of 
Straits, forthwith they sent a Vessel of good Burthen to 
them, fully Laden with provisions of all sorts, each striv- 
ing who should be forwardest in so good a work ; which 
supply came unto them, when as all the Meal in their Bar- 
rels, and Oil in their Cruise was spent ; and it was brought 
to them upon a Lords-day, when as their Faithful Pastor 
had finished his Exhortation, from Psalm 23. To Trust upon 
Jehova their Shepherd ', who would not suffer his Flock to 
want ; thus the Lord set his Seal to their Faith and 

The Gravity of their Habit, and Calendar Reformation, 
by Satans Pollicy, hath since been imitated by the Quakers, 
that our Fathers might be Lysted among those Phanaticks, 
and Enthusiasts; but they own'd no Spirit within them, 
but to be tryed by the Word without them, and no Word 
without them, but accorded with the Spirit within them ; 
no word of promise to them without a work of Grace upon 
them, neither without the Holy Spirits dwelling in them, 
and testifying to them. They minded the Ornament of the 
meek and quiet Spirit, they were not acquainted w T ith the 
toyes and fancies of this age, they were Glorious within, 
their clothing was of wrought gold, they were brought in 
unto the King, in rayment of needle work, wrought with 
tender pricks of conscience ; the least vain fashion, wanton, 
or wicked thought toucht them to the quick, sensibly feel- 
ing others adversity, as being in the same body, instance 
in our Pequod and Narragansett Wars, we were not the 
next concerned, it was Conecticut and Plimouth ; at first no 
union of the Collonies, why should we concern our selves 
with them, why did they ramble so far a field, they might 
have contented themselves, without such 
Mr. Oldham large accommodation. The first English 
Blood-shed, was of an Indian trader, and 
one who had been highly fined for abusing this authority, 
but it was English Blood, and they made Inquisition after 

So they did, when a couple of English traders were at 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, fa. 309 

Richmond Island, shun by the Indians 1631. and the next 
jrear an English Pirate seized a vessel, who robbed & 
made spoil at Pemiquod Fort, and along the Coast; the 
Worthy Governour and Council then used means for their 

suppression, and accordingly it succeeded: Nation and 
Neighbourhood was Obligation to their engaging in the 
quarrel, they had simpathy in each joys and sorrows, our 
senseless stupidity, and our Pride devours our Charity, Oh 
the Excess of it both of Bpdy and mind, of Hearts, and 
Parts, of Vestures, and Gestures, in all Professors, it is the 
Noli me tangere of the Age ; its fear'd, that most of our 
Prophets mouths arc judicially shut against it, and that 
God now saith of us, as formerly of Ephraim, He is joined 
to his Idols let him alone. 

Dread we, least our Palscy Distempers should Kelax the 
Nerves of our Body Pollitick, or our Convulsive Cramps 
should break them, and mostly that the Pectant Humours 
in our Bodies may not abound to the raising up Noxious 
and Mortal Fumes and Vapours, in our Head. 

If the Athenian Mercury may be credited, the excesses of 

our Nation in their Head-Tire, hath been testified against, 

: by Unnatural Excrcssenccs of Bruit Creatures, but, (as its 

said) ours by an Humane Monstrossity, as if the Holy GOD 

were more Jealous against us, then against others. 

The Lord seeth the Land-Defiling and Desolating sins 
amongst us : what Witchcrafts, and what other abomina- 
tions are in the midst of us, we have just cause both to lay 
ourselves down in the Dust, and with indignation to bear 
all witness justly due against them, and all our Pagan 
walking in Lasciviousness, Lusts of the Flesh, Lusts of the 
eyes, and Pride of Life, our excess of Wine, Revellings, & 
abominable wickedness, by which Gods Name is Blas- 
phemed among us ; for which as the Lord vomited out 
these Natives, to make room for us, so he now hath vom- 
ited us out, to make room for them ; in this War he hath 
Ruined and Destroyed a whole Shire, and in a manner 
Depopulated a whole Province ; in which Desolation, two 
1 Churches gathred according to Gospel Order are extin- 
guished : One of them about fifty years standing, which 
was one of the first attacks upon us, having there been 
made the greatest Slaughter, Captivity, and Plunder ; the 


310 A Narrative of the Planting 

Town remaineth, but the Churches Candlestick was re- 
moved: the other Church not of much lesser standing, 
where its said, not above Four Males left of their Society, the 
rest Dead, Slaughtered, or Captivated ; but the Burthen of 
that Lamentation is, that their Faithful Pastor, Eminent for 
Humility, Piety, and care of his Flock ; he not being willing 
to leave them, was Barbarously Murthered in the midst of 
them, his Tender and Godly Wife Captivated, there Dyed. 
Oh Lord will not all this awaken us to Church Reforma- 
tion, so as to set thine Altar upon its Basis, a Sentence to be 
engraven upon every Church door, when we are not only 
under Fear of the inhabitants of this Land, but under the 
Deep Smarting and Killing Displeasure of a Righteous, 
Holy and Angry God, by these wicked Cannibals, who are 
Gods Sword, and have been so for many years together, 
and when the end will be none of our Prophets have told 
us : we mention not the other circumstances relating to that 
Province & Shire ; it's said there have been Killed & 
captivated, a 1000, besides about 140 Slain the other day : 
but leave it to such whose Lot it will be to draw it up, our 
Pequod and Narraganset Wars lasted about three years, 
whose Narrative is faithfully Published by two persons of 
Worth, to the Honour of God, King, and Country: It's 
thought no English Pen will hardly Undertake this. 

That the Great God is Departing from us, his Awful 
Removes demonstrate, should he quite leave us, we need 
none to Judge between us, but our selves to Justine him, 
and Condemn us ; we are the Luxuriant Branches of the 
Noble Vine here planted, but Degenerated into that of 
Sodom and Gomorrah, whom after all Cuituring to bring us 
unto our Pristine Fruitfulness, by Impoverishing us, by 
pruning off our Superfluous Branches, by Losses at Sea, by 
Defeating our great Canada Design by Gods own Imme- 
diate Hand, Starving and Freezing to Death the Flower of 
our Hopeful Youth ; the Lord from Heaven, and the Stars 
in their Courses, Fighting against us ; yea, Cruel Canni- 
bals, Scalping and Fleaing of our Bodies, burning us as 
Sacrifices to Hahamoch ; but all this tends only to the kill- 
ing of our Bodies ; but when as the Lyon of the Tribe of 
Judah is Rowz'd up, and Roareth upon us, who can but 
fear] it exceeds bruitish stupidity, if we do not Trem- 

Of the Massachusetts Colony, $r. 311 

blc, more especially, when as the Devourer out of the 
Bottomless Pit is let Loose upon us, the Compendium 
of all Calamity, and the quintessence of Wrath, Anger, 
and Indignation is come upon us to the utmost, as if 
now we were to be made an Execration to God, his 
Holy Angels and good men, at the dreadful Claps of 
this tremendous Thunder, whose Flesh is not shattered 
in pieces \ How should the ghastly sight of the Tophet 
and Invisible "World within us, and of the innate Inmate 
that dwells within us, and hurries us into perdition, makes 
self and sin more abominably vile, and loathsome then Hell 
or Devill Who can hide from the Wrath of the Lamb I 
Whose Grace upon the Knee, in the Ministry of his Holy 
Word, so oft hath besought us and ours to be Reconciled 
unto him, but we would not, Ave have with our contempt 
provoked him, to deliver us up into the hand of him, who 
hath the Power of Death. 

Let ; s consider the Instruments Implied in this suparlative 
Plague, the Devil is come down against us, the Inhabitants 
of this Earth, having great Wrath, he is the Do-evil, he is 
the Recorded Liar, Tempter, Accuser, and Murderer of 
Souls and Bodies, and what not I They are Spirits no 
more discerned by us, and as unseen as our Souls, yet so 
near, piercing and contiguous as the Air, Heat, or Cold, 
and it's only want of Divine Permission, if not Commis- 
sion, that every one of us hath not had the experience of 
all this ; they are Fallen Angels, Apostate from their Heav- 
| enly First State ; should not this bring to Remembrance, 
i both our Personal Fall in our First Fathers, and our Rcla- 
; tive Apostacy from our Church-State '? First Love, and 
1 First Works ! Our Fathers were Clothed with the Sun, 
I the Apostolical Discipline and Doctrine were their Crown, 
; the Moon was under their Feet, but we are turned topsy 
turvy, Heads and Heels have changed places, a little from 
i Heaven, was greater encouragement then a great deal from 
Earth, as then was the reply of a young Preacher, to one 
[ who questioned him, how he could be contented with such 
• poor Fare and mean Maintenance, in a small Village ; we 
.fear that Christ Jesus Indigitates at our Churches Apos- 
I tacy, and at our Falling from our First Love. 

And doubtless God calls us, now being Alarmed by these 


312 A Narrative of the Planting 

Spirits, to try our particular Estates, what Spirit we are of"? 
Whether of new and Heaven-born State ; and also our 
Worship, whether it be Spiritual, such as he who is a 
Spirit, the Father of Spirits seeketh ; he found our Fathers 
such of his own Making, or they would not have run the 
risk of Transplanting themselves, or brought us their Chil- 
dren hither : Again, are we true Worshippers % Principled 
in the Truth of what Ave believe, and practice from the 
Word of Truth, can we give a better account of our Church 
Covenant and Fellowship, then a Bygot Papist can of 
Mass, or his Auricular Confession, their Fathers did so, 
and so did ours ; it was the Custome of the place they 
lived in, and so is ours ; let us mind whether by these 
Hellish Emissaries, God doth not loudly call upon us to 
consider of these things. 

Let ; s ponder upon the Subjects or Persons upon whom 
this Great Wrath is fallen, they are chiefly the Members of 
our Churches, or their Hearers and Dependants, none of 
the Episcopal, Antipedobaptists, or Quakers perswasion, 
have been complained of, to be Accusers, or Accused, 
Afflicters, or Afflicted, the Devil setting up his Chappel so 
near to Christ's Church, cleclareth his Malice, and especi- 
ally against us, it hath been well noted by a Minister of 
Note, that the Devil now contents not himself to imitate 
Jewish or Popish Modes, but he will take up the Reformed 
and Congregational Way ; a single Parson will not serve 
his turn, but he will have Pastor and Teacher, if he can't 
find a Deacon, he will not want two Widows or Deacon- 
esses, his old Diabolism will not do now, to Baptise and 
give Names to the Witch and her Imps, but he brings up 
a new Demonianism, every Witch shall have her (so call'd) 
Spectre, to attend upon her, and to be her Envoye, to Tor- 
ment such as they never knew or saw ; where as it hath 
bin an old saying : Ignoti nulla Cupido : No Love to a per- 
son unknown, and consequently as little hatred. Sauls Evil 
Spirit acting his Eyes to Malignity against David, sympa- 
thised with his hand to murder him, but now between sight 
and touch, a vast antipathy. 

But that which we in our short Reading never read or 
heard of the like before, which may make our flesh to 
tremble, the joynts of our Knees to be loosed, and our very 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, fcc. 313 

Arteries and Heart-strings to break in sunder, at the very 
sound of it ; that these Cursed Fiends (who in the day of 
our Lords Humiliation, when as he devested Ins Glory, and 

took upon him the Form of a Servant, a Poor Carpenter 
(to make 4 new, and mend old Houses) did then beseech him 
to give them leave to enter into a parcel of Swine, and that 
lie would not Torment them before their time ; That this 
Glorious and Glorified Lord, Who by Death slew him who 
Wad the Power of Death, that is the Devil, and upon and in 
his Resurrection, made Triumph over all Derils, having Led 
ihem Captive, spoiling Principalities and Powers, made shew 
of them openly, after God hath highly Exalted him, even to 
sit (ft his Right hand, and given him a Name above every 
Name, That in the Name of Jesus, every Knee in Heaven, 
"Earth, and Held should bow ; that in open defiance of all 
this, now they should insult over Storm, and basely affront 
the Lord of Heaven, Earth, and Hell ; the Scriptures tell 
us, That the Devils Believe and Tremble ; and this w T e do 
and must believe : but that a Damned Crew of Devils or 
Witches at the Devils Table, with Hed Bread and Wine, in 
derision of our Lords Body and Blood, should sport and 
feast themselves (as some of the Confessing Witches have 
said, and unsaid) with that which is their Torment and 
Torture, we must cry out and say, Credat Judeus Apella, 
Let an Uncircumeised Jew believe it, being no Article of any 
L^nfacinated Christians Creed : Tell not this in Gath, pub- 
lish it not in Askelon, lest Philistiahs Daughters Triumph 
and Rejoyce. 

It ; s Historied of our Pagan Progenitors, that Gregory 
the Great, the last of the good, and first of bad Popes, see- 
ing strange Lads of a comely Countenance produced pub- 
licity to be Sold, he inquired of what Xation they were of, 
being told they were Angli, English, looking upon their 
fair faces, he said they were Angeli, Angels, and pittying 
them that they were Vassals of Satan, he took Order for 
the Conversion of our Xation to the Christian Faith ; but 
as for us Nov Angli, Xew English, by our smutty deformity, 
and Hells blackness, we have rendred our selves Diaboli 
Veterani, Old Devils: New England will be called, new 
Witch-land, Emanuels Land will be Titled the Land of 
Abaddon ; Salem Village and Andover, will be called the 
.l TII s.— vol. iv. 40 Sweedish 

314 A Narrative of the Planting 

Sweedish Mohra and Bokul ; the Country whose Native and 
Natural Smell, was, as of a Field, which the Lord hath 
Blessed, a Promenado abroad after Rain, would have Re- 
vived a mans Spirits, as some have experienced it ; yea the 
whole Continent which long after our first coming hither, 
was so full not only of Internals, but of External Flavour, 
and sweet Odour ; so as when Ships were divers Leagues 
distant, and had not made Land, so fragrant and odorifer- 
ous was the Land to the Marriners, that they knew they 
were not far from the Shoar ; such was the plenty of sweet 
Fearn, Lawrel, and other fragrant Simples, this Land then 
abounded with ; especially near the Sea side ; such was the 
scent of our Aromatick, and Balsome bearing pines, 
spruces, and Larch Trees with our Tall Cedars, exceeding 
all in Europe : But our sweet scent is gone, w r e smell rank 
of Helle-bore, Henbane, and poysonful Hemlock, as if we 
were laid out to be the American Anticyra. 

We were then honoured with You only have I known of 
all the Families of the Earth, but what follows 'I therefore 
will I punish you. Priviledge doth not exempt from pun- 
ishment, and now we are under the smart of it ; we have 
been laid in the green bed of Ordinances, yea in Christ's 
Bosome, under a Conjugal Covenant, and we must expect 
to be punished for the breach of it ; the Lord who was jeal- 
ous for our Fathers, he is jealous against us ; the wilful 
neglect of Divine Institutions, brings under the same breach 
of the Second Commandment, as the Superstitious setting 
up of Flumane Inventions, we may set up Cross or Surplice 
as lawfully as neglect any Gospel Ordinance : the grand 
Promise of Christ being ahvay with his Churches, unto the 
End of Ages, is conditional, and cannot be separated from 
that which preceedeth, nor be claimed without that which is 
annexed to it, viz. our Obedience to that Gospel Command, 
which Christ reserved to take leave of his Apostles, and all 
Believers ; which last words are or ought to be affecting 
and soaking to parting Relations : Teaching them to observe 
all things whatsoever I have Commanded you to do, and LO 
I AM WITH YOU; Here is acljoyned Christs Note of 
Lo, or Behold, calling for our greatest attention and con- 
sideration, as well as being the remark of. the highest truth 
and affirmation ; and both confirmed by the Amen and last 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, frc. 315 

words of him Wlto is the Faithful and true Witness, whose 
Xante is . [men. 

Can it be rationally supposed I that had we not receeded 
from having Pastors, Teachers, and Ruling Elders, and 
Churches doing their duty as formerly, with Family-Gov- 
ernment kept up, that the Roaring Lion could have gained 
so much ground upon us (he being resisted would have 
fled) and not multiplied so many Impieties in our Towns; 
or such a Number of real or reputed Witches amongst us, 
as it's said in or about two Towns, above two hundred Ac- 
cused, one hundred Imprisoned, thirty Condemned, and 
twenty Executed ; yea. some Accused among our Rulers 
in Commonwealth and Churches, as if they were become 
places for Zim, Jm, and Ohim, with the Satyrs to Dance in, 
Oh whither shall we go to cover our shame I Shall not 
the stings of those Stygian Scorpio//* awaken us out of our 
Lsethal Lethergyl Are both Wise and Foolish Virgins 
asleep \ what need is there of Prayer ? that our Eyes may 
be opened, and our hearts awakened, and to crie out, 
Awake, awake Deborah, awake, awake, is it not high time, 
as for every particular person, so for our Churches to 
search, and try our ways, and return to our First Husband, 
ami the good Old Way we have walked in. 

The place where Satan made his first assault, and great 
Battery is to be minded : there he made his grand Attack 
where he first was Dethroned, and that is Salem ; his pres- 
ent Rage is against it: its Original Xame was called, Naum- 
kek, the Bosome of Consolation being its signification, as 
the Learned have observed. It ; s now threatned to be made 
a place and bosome of Desolation, and Turning Christ out 
of his Throne; that where Christs Banner had been dis- 
played, there the Devil with sound of Trumpet, sets up his 
Ensigns, where Spiritual Songs, and Sacred Anthoms of, 
Glory to God in the Highest, and Peace on Earth, and good 
will towards men ; with Ainsworth, Elevated Tunes were 
wont to be warbled forth ; that there the horrid Scriekings 
and Screamings of Obsessed, Possessed, and Bewitched 
Persons should be sounded with such hideous veilings, to 
the amazement of the Hearers, as if Hell and his Furies 
had been let loose. 

That the Xoise of M aides and Hammers, beating down 


316 A Narrative of the Planting 

the Carved Works in the Synagogues of the Land, should 
be heard where men had been Famous, whose Axes had 
been lifted up for hewing and squaring Souls for Christs 
Spiritual Building. 

That where the Devil like Lightning had fallen down 
from Heaven, before the Thundering Ministry of Christs 
Boanerges, there the Black Man or Devil should be pointed 
at, as visibly sitting or standing on the Beams or Seats. 

Though Balac and Balam Changed Stations, and Sacri- 
fices, they could not Curse, but must bless this People ; 
how goodly ivere the Tents and Tabernacles of our Israel, 
when our Tribes according to Scriptural Order, were 
pitch'd about our Tabernacle, and the Ark of God in the 
midst of us, when our Churches and Consociations were 
according to Divine Directory, and Primitive Practice ; We 
looked forth then as the Morning, fair as the Sun, clear as 
the Moon, and terrible as an Army with Banners, no Inch an t- 
ment or Divination against us, until prevailing Iniquity 
and Transgression against Christs Institutions were found 
among us ; our Strength then was as the strength of the 
Unicorn, the shout of our King was among us, sitting upon 
his Throne of Majesty, w r ith the Rainbow about his head, 
surrounded with the four living Creatures, and Twenty 
Four Elders, prostrating, and throwing their Crowns before 
his Throne ; a Lively Emblem and Character of the first 
Apostolical Churches Organized and Compleated according 
to Christs Appointment, with the Couragious Lion-like 
Ruling Elder, the Laborious Ox-like Pastor, the humanely 
Compassionate Deacon, and the Eagle Eyed Teacher. Our 
Sins exceeding Immoralities, are dipp'd in the Crimson 
Tincture of Rebellion ; no marvel if our punishment be so 
great, yet abundantly less then our Iniquities do deserve. 

The dread of Divine Anger and Wrath, with the Guilt 
of Conscience, which the Scripture of Truth declares and 
dictates unto us, as unknown in its pow T er, and that accord- 
ing to Gods Fear, such is his wrath ; this the wisdom of 
our Antients (when Paynimes) Represented by Alecto, and 
her two Sister-Furies sent out of Tartar as ^ with their Plat- 
ted Chevelures, and Contorted Locks of Hissing Serpents 
and Stinging Adders, Hanging below their Necks, whose 
Tails, Tongues, and Teeth were full of Deadly Poyson, 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, v\r. 31*3 

enough to Fright ;i Sensible Man out of his Wits, and our 
Gallants out of their Head-Gear: [t's said to be certainly 
true, that no Rattle-Snake ever was seen beyond Merrimak 
River, the Boundary of our First Patent; nor that there 
hath been a Convicted Witch on the other side of Piscata- 
quay River; but if some 4 Creatures, may be Credited, how- 
do we on this Side abound ; how do the Ignatian Loyalists 
with their Perverted Proselytes, Triumph over our Poor 
Captives, saving, II V ore the true Christians, yon the false, 
ire no Lye, Swear, but Pray and Praise God; as indeed, 
at the Late Surprise of York, before they fell to sharing 
of their Plunder, they met and Snug. Te Deum Laudamus, 
their Praises to God; and at their Vespers, or Nocturnal 
Risings to Smoak it, they Sing even Songs and Mattens, in 
the Morning in their own Language, with Harmonious 
Melody, as our Captives Testify ; how doth this Reflect 
upon the Thousands of Non-Praying, and Non-Praising 
Family s of the English ; they tell us, Their Priests are 
good Men, our Ministers are Devils, a/ul hung for Witches; 
What will some of our own Nation reproach us with '? 
what is become of the New-Heaven, and the New-Earth, of 
your Xon parralleld Reformation you boasted of? what- 
ever Piety your Fathers pretended in the Pia Mater of 
their Brains, to be sure it is Ardled into impious matter of 

! Devilism, in their Childrens crack'd Crowns ; and therefore 
you are sent into a Region, where there is Hellebore enough, 

i for all the Mazed Fanaticks in Europe ; thus is the Name 

1 of GOD, His Tabernacle, and those which dwell in Heaven, 
Blasphemed for our sakes ; we not giving him the Glory 

; and Honour due unto his Name ; others do say, and they 

• do very ill in their so speaking, what is become of your 
resolved Revolution, which God is now Plagueing you fori 
and the Complication of Lies, made to encourage and fur- 
ther it; which of your Designs hare prospered since? Had 

. you waited Gods time, you should have had it with a Bless- 
ing, but bv your Lves obtaining it, vou have deeply paid 
for it. 

Finally, that which may call for our Higgaion Selah, 
and deep Humiliation, is the consideration of the time, 

| when as Hells Hurricano seas'd us, when after weary wait- 
ing, in our languishing, and bleeding condition above a 


318 A Narrative of the Planting 

Time, Times, and half a Time; at length we were brought 
to Gods Foot, our wounds not being healed, tho our Peti- 
tions were not granted, yet our prayers were heard, as 
appeareth by their Majesties grant of a Province Charter, 
there declared, and here with great acclamation Pro- 
claimed ; this we look'd at as a happy Omen of Halcyon 
dayes now come to this distressed, & wounded people, in 
this Junctor of time, or about the laying the Foundation 
of this structure, that the great Palmony, the wonderful 
numberer of times, who weighs the least minute of humane 
accidents, in the exact ballance of an eternal decree, even 
to the pacing of Ahabs Horses in his Chariot, that they 
must not go faster or slower, then to reach the very spot, 
where the Dogs had lick'd up Naboths Blood, there to lick 
up Ahabs ; that then this Euroclydon should be raised, to 
the Total Puine of the whole Fabrick ; that when accord- 
ing to Gods gracious Promise unto Israel of old, the Royal 
Concession unto us was, That our Nobles should be of our 
selves, and that our Governour should proceed from the midst 
of us, and that God would make him to draw nigh unto him, 
and that he did approach unto him : That then Hells rage 
did seize us, to the breaking us in pieces, if Satans Strata- 
gem had taken effect, according to the wasting Progress 
made, that when as we hoped, God should have been ours, 
and our Childrens God as aforetime, and our Congregations 
established for ever ; that then we should render ourselves, 
or be rendred by others, as the Sons of the Sorceress, and 
Children of the Adulteress: what high songs of praise do 
we owe unto Sions God, for the discovering of Apollions 
Wiles, Depths and Deceits ; and for Spiriting one of the 
Tribe of Zebulon, rais'd up from among us, by finding out 
the Treasures hid in the Sands, which hath highly tended 
to the raising of him to Honour, and the enrichment of 
himself, and Nation ; who being Divinely destinated, & 
humanely Commissionated to be the Pilot and Steers-man 
of this poor Bemisted, and Befogg'd Vessel, in the Mare 
Mortuum, and Mortiferous Sea of Witchcraft, and Fascina- 
tion ; by Heavens Conduct according to the integrity of his 
heart, not trusting the Helm in any other Hand, he being 
by God and their Majesties bestrusted therewith, he so 
happily shaped, and steadily steered her Course, as she 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, &c. 319 

escaped Shipwrack, either upon the Stygian Scilla, or the 
Achorontal Charibdis, and mm is safely Moared in the 
Pacijique Sea, and under the Cape of Bone Esperance; he 
being also by the same Hand appointed, to be this Peoples 
Chieftain ; by the Prudence of his hands, and strengthned 
bv the Aries of the mighty God of Jacob, managed the 
sharp Two Edged Sword, to him committed, incomparably 
excelling that of the Great Alexander, to the Cutting in 
Bunder of the Circean knot of Inchantment, abundantly 
more difficult to be dissolved, then the Famous Gordian 
one of Old: he being also led by divine inspiration, of 
Our Blessed Gods-Spell and the most sure Word of Proph- 
esy, infinitely surpassing the Famous Thred and Cine of 
Ariadne, hath extricated us out of the Winding and Crook- 
ed Labyrinth of Hells Meander. 

Let all he improved to the high Honour of him, who 
had he not been on our Side, Now may New England say, 
Had he nut been on our side, when not only men, but Devils 
rose up against us, we had been swallowed up quick, the 
proud Hares had gone over our souls ; Blessed be the Name 
of the Lord, who gave us not up to be a prey unto their 
Teeth, let our help be in the Name of the Lord, tcho hath 
made Heaven, Earth, and Hell. 

Oh that now this token for good, may be improved to 
the quickening of us, to breaking off the Covenant made 
with Death, that it may be disanulled, and our Agreement 
witli Hell, that it may not stand ; and to make sure our 
Interest in the firm, sure, precious and tried Foundation, 
and Corner Stone, which with a Behold of Attention and 
Admiration, God hath Laid in Sion : Let this preventing 
Mercy Encourage poor Starv'd Prodigals, to return to their 
Fathers House, acknowledging our selves unworthy to be 
his Sons ; no, not his Msenial Servants. Own we our 
selves to be Lukewarm Laodiceans, wambling upon the 
Stomach of our Blessed Lord, and no place fitter to case 
himself of us, then by spuing us into Hell, as was said of 
Capo ma um ; we are as ignorant, as arrogant, we are Rich, 
want for nothing, but know not our Poverty, Blindness, or 
Nakedness ; we trust and boast our selves in lying words, 
of the Temple of the Lord, and that we are Christ's Non- 
such Garden, for him to "Walk and Recreate himself in: 


320 A Narrative of the Planting 

But alas ! we are neither hot nor cold, a parcel of Mungrel 
Interpendants ; we are not of the Episcopal Form, we 
allow no Superiority in our Churches, nor Officers ; where 
there is but one Officer, there cannot be Preference nor 
Disparity ; and how many of our Churches have more ] 
"We are not Presbyterians, for their declared Discipline, 
and their practice is accordingly ; they have one Pastor, 
and two Puling Elders, in their least Congregations ; and 
as their Flock increaseth, so they multiply their Officers ; 
but we on the contrary ; when a Churches Foundation 
hath been laid, they had not the Number of Forty Mem- 
bers in their Body ; they solemnly then engaged, with 
hands lifted up to Heaven, not to be without two Teaching, 
and two Puling Elders, and for a while they publickly 
practised, chusing two Puling Elders, Ordained a Pastor 
and Puling Elder, and sent the other to bring over a 
Teacher, which was done ; but when they are now multi- 
plied vastly above the Number, more then at first, they 
content themselves with one Teaching, and never a Puling 
Officer ; when as there are, as it's said, above two thousand 
Souls under Church Watch, & none Officially to Pule 
and Watch over them ; is not this Taking Gods Name in 
vain ; and as for the Congregational Way, we Nominally 
profess it ; but if we Pead the Plat-form of our Church 
Discipline, or the way of the Congregational Churches of 
New-England, w r e may see how much we are varyed from 
it, and gone back from the way, our Fathers and our 
selves have been instructed in, and have received upon the 
Divine Authority of the Holy Word, and formerly walked 

Let's not halt between two Opinions, if our Fathers 
W 7 ays were Scriptural, let us practically Justify them, if 
they be not, let us be Humbled and Peform ; we pray that 
the Lord would lead and keep us in his Truth, and restore 
us to Walk in Christ, as we have received him ; though 
our Pust is so inveterately Cankered, as no scowring will 
fetch it out ; let's Beg that the Peflners Fire, which the 
Lord is purging the Sons of Levi with, may effectually 
melt us down, that we may be fitted as Vessels of Honour, 
Sanctified and Prepared unto every good Work, and made fit 
for our Masters Use: Let this stimulate us to hearken 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, §-c 32] 

unto what the Spirit saith unto the Churches, not advancing 
mens Polliticks, before Gods [nstitutes, nor humane Pru- 
dentials, before Christ's Credentials; take we heed of dis- 
gust against Scripture Purity, and plainness ; and sec that 
the true Faith and Discipline received from our Godly and 
Holy Fathers, may be handed down to us, and to our Chil- 
dren, bringing forth practical Holiness, whereby as they 
Justified their Profession, so we ma}' in our laves and 
Conversations make evident, the Holiness and Faithful- 
ness of our and their Heavenly Father; that Religion and 
the true Ways of God in his Worship and Discipline, 
may not evaporate into Form, without the Power of God- 
liness, nor be Buried in our Predecessors Graves, but 
that it may in the midst of years Revive, to that which 
was New Englands Glory: In our first times no complaint 
of Churches being incompleat of Officers, nor for want of 
Maintenance for them, nor for want of Materials to choose 
Officers fit to Rule ; some have observed this Failure hath 
been upon, private Brethrens Obstructions, a discourage- 
ment of discourse among themselves, unless it were such, 
as they had from the Press or Pulpit ; Doth it not reflect 
upon the Churches King and Law-giver ? who both re- 
ceived and gave gifts to men, that the Lord God might 
dwell among them, yea, among the Rebellious : Shall our 
Churches lie under the Curse of Barren Wombs and Dry 
Breasts I Is Bethel Barren, and Athens Fruitful % Shall 
Cambridge the School of our Young Prophets be pregnant, 
and an Alma Mater, a Bountiful Mother with her Breasts, 
exuberating with Radiant Beams, and Sacred Streams, to the 
making glad the City of our God; in sending forth such as 
are Accomplished with exquisite and requisite Talents, 
to fit them to the Ministerial Work of Christ's Holy Tem- 
ple. And shall our Churches, which should be Sion Col- 
ledges \ and the Mothers of old and young Disciples now 
be sterile \ Neither capable to bring forth, Nurse, or 
Educate any, which may be fit for Rule in them ; shall 
they be capable of no other Name, but of the Layty or 
this People, which was imposed upon them, by such as 
Arrogated to themselves the Title of the Clergy, or of being 
Gods Lot. 

Our King is blameless, but how much our Churches are 
4th s.— vol. it. 41 blame-worthy, 

322 A Narrative of the Planting 

blame-worthy, the Lord give us to consider ; for Brethren 
of low degree, to say they know not the way of the Lord, 
they are of mean Estates, and low Capacities, their Counsel 
will not meet with acceptance, as some others might do ; 
go to the Brethren of high degree, they know the way of 
the Judgments of the Lord, but they cast off the Yoke of 
the Lord ; their occasions will not bear or admit of so 
mean an Employ as to be a Ruling Elder. 

It's Recorded to the high Honour of the French Re- 
formed Churches, that not many years since, at a National 
Synod held at Charenton, very nigh unto Paris, the Me- 
tropolis of that Nation ; in the sight of all the French 
Nobility, and Gallantry, there appeared twelve or sixteen 
Barons, Lords, and Esquires, who esteemed not themselves 
debased, to appear as Members of that Synodical Society, 
and indeed were all of them Ruling Elders of their Re- 
spective Congregations, and truly the Glory of Christ in 
his Churches : This is asserted in the Synodicon Gallia; 

May we not fear that we render our selves highly Crim- 
inal against the Prerogative of this King of Kings, and 
Lord of Lords ; who besides what is recorded in the Scrip- 
ture of Truth, that when he took leave of his Apostles at 
his Ascension, What he then gave in Charge to them ; he 
afterward doubled the same by the great and last Apostle 
of the Gentile Churches ; instructing Timothy in Christ's 
Name, how he should behave himself in the Church, 
and House of God ; he doth upon the highest adjuration 
which can be mentioned, Enjoyn him, as he will answer it 
before God, before Jesus Christ, and the Elect Angels, that 
he should observe those things ; namely, the Canons he had 
before appointed about Church Order and Officers ; that he 
should mind those things, without preferring one before 
another, doing nothing by partiallity ; there must be no par- 
tial dealing, no preferment of one Commandment of Christ 
before another, Deacons must not be kept in place, with 
rejection of the Elders that Ruled well, nor others debarr'd 
of their double Honour, especially those who laboured in 
the Word and Doctrine ; and the Holy All-wise God know- 
ing that the Churches would Apostatize, and that Anti- 
christ whose Mystery of Iniquity then wrought, would in 


Of the Massachusetts Colony ^ frc. 323 

special manner run encounter to Scripture Purity, and pol- 
lute the Sanctuary Streams of Church Ordinances and Offi- 
cers., especially Ruling Elders, because of their pragmati- 
calness with the Teaching Elders, about Church Rule, he 
jumbled and made 4 one Officer of Teaching and Ruling 
Elders, prudentially to avoid Seism, and called them both 
Presbyters or Priests ; mean while he courted and carressed 
the Deacons whom he distinguished ; some he called Sub- 
Deacons, to attend the Vestry, to help on the Surplices and 
holy Garments of the Priests or Presbyters ; others he 
advanced to hear Auricular Confessions, and say Mass; 
but prudently considering that the Care and Trust of the 
Church Stock and Treasury was committed unto them ; 
especially when it was augmented with that called Constan- 
tines (nft. concerning which, History tells us of a voice 
heard in the Heavens: Ilodie venenum effunditur, &c. This 
day pay son is pow red info the Churches: That Man of Sin 
foreseeing how useful Deacons might be to his Clergy, he 
advanced the Gravest of them to be Arch Deacons, and to 
be of the number of Cardinals, so called, because they are 
the Cardines Hooks or Hinclges that the Scarlet Whores 
Chair or Seat hangs on : This cursed Conclave are the only 
Elected and Electors of the Pope ; their work on High 
Festivals is to Vest their Pontifex Maximus in bis Pontiji- 
calibus of Purple and Scarlet, decked with Jewels and 
Gold, vastly exceeding all Imperial State ; and the Splen- 
dor of Jaddus the High-priest appearing to Alexander, to 
confirm him in his Conquest of the World. Whilst at the 
High Altar he is Offering up the Blasphemous Sacrifice, 
these Arch-Deacons attend upon him, as other Deacons at 
the Lords Supper. Let the Candid Reader pass by this 
digression, designed to shew what a fine Thred this Mys- 
tery of Iniquity at first spun ; but now the Son of Perdition 
Sits as God in the Temple of God, whom Christ will destroy 
icith the Brightness of his Coming, frc. Christ renews and 
doubleth the same Charge in the same Epistle, as it were 
Adjuring and Conjuring Timothy, and in him all the 
Churches, In the sight of God, as they look to answer it, at 
that Great Day, and before Jesus Christ, who made a good 
Confession before Pontius Pilate, that they keep his Com- 
mandment without spot, and unrebukable, until the Appearing 


324 A Narrative of the Planting 

of Jesus Christ : How should all these Obtestations and 
Injunctions make all New-England Church-Members and 
Officers dreadfully to quake and tremble, under the consid- 
eration of what Guilt we lay under, by breach of this Com- 

Moreover the King of Saints, and Lord of Heaven and 
Earth, having Magnified and Exalted this People above any 
in the lower world, with Charter Priviledge to im-body 
themselves into Spiritual Corporations founded upon 
Divine Institutions, and directed by Scriptural ."Regula- 
tions ; by which Charter of Eight, they are Impowred to 
Assemble and Incorporate themselves, to Chuse and Ap- 
point their own Officers, acting the whole in his Sacred 
Majesties Name, and Solely by his Authority, that agreeing 
together, he hath pass'cl under the great Seal of Heaven, 
and given his Royal Parole Oath, and Amen, to bind or 
loose in heaven, whatsoever they shall bind or loose on 
earth ; the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven are given to 
this Church, Confessing and Professing Christ to be the 
Son of the living God : the gates of hell shall not prevail 
against it : yea, he whose Name is I AM, is in the Midst of 
two or three, assembled in his Name & Authority ; but 
if they by their factions, or fractions, cannot agree, or thro 
their sullen wilfulness, do Nonuser, Dejnser, Refuser any of 
these Sacred Statutes, which they by Scripture Charter are 
oblidg'd to act by, they forfeit their Franchise, & may 
expect a Divine Quo-warranto, to be sued out by their King 
DUTY THE LORD REQUIRES. By not observing all 
things he hath Commanded, they forfeit the challenge of his 
promised Presence with them, if they refuse any Officer, 
which he hath instated in the Churches, they expose them- 
selves to the Forfeiture of the said Charter. 

And he who knoweth not, what a Deluge of Supersti- 
tions was by this door of neglect, let into the first Churches, 
he is not so vers'd in divine and humane Church History, 
as the time of the fulfilling Prophesy we are cast into, calls 
for : our crying out, The Temple of the Lord, will not free 
us from being Dischurched, more then Jerusalem was ; she 
was sent to Shilo. N, England needs not to Travel into 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, frc. ; >'i<"> 

Asia to learn it; every poor French Refugee, who hath set 
his Foot in N. England, Preacheth it unto us. whose 
Churches have yielded more Faithful Martyrs, then all the 
other Reformed Churches in Europe; their care of Supply- 
ing the Poor Churches, out of the Large Treasury, and by 
the Liberality of the Richer, was Exemplary; and the Pro- 
viding Maintenance to the Widows, and Orphans of their 
Deceased Pastors, was Presidential; it was the special 
"Work of their National Synods, and doth condemn us; 
Christ that knows their Charity, Service, Faith, and Pa- 
tience after their Re-reformation, will make this Thyatiras 
last works to be more than her first. Oh that we might apply 
our Hearts to these things, that they may sink into our 
Souls ! Kings out of their Natural Clemency, may abate 
from the Severity of Law, but if contempt be added, it 
aggravates the Offence ; Our case is such as only Sovcraign 
Grace can Cure; God hath oft wrought for his Names 
Sake, Let us Plead it with him, Lord we are called by thy 
Name, Leave us not, Let us not be abhor rd for thy Names 
Sake ; Let not the Throne of Thy Glory, be further Dis- 
graced, before Popish and Pagan Adversaries I 

Its said that none but Parliaments Laxness to maintain 
their just and legal Proprieties can nndo the Body Poli- 
tick of a Nation ; so none can undo our Spiritual Corpora- 
tions, but their Members; giving up their due just Church 
Power and Privileclgc, into the hands of some Diotrephes, 
as befel the Primitive Churches. 

As we began with a caution from our great Cotton, so 
we shall draw to a conclusion with the Animadversion of 
the great Congregational Champion, Dr. Owen, who in the 
Vindication of these Churches from Seism, charg'd upon 
them by Dr : Stilling sfleet ; the said Reverend Man, who 
there, and in his other Elaborate Works upon that subject, 
doth but Paraphrase and Comment upon the Book of Mr. 
Cottons Keys, as he himself hath published to the World ; 
in answer to Mr. Cawdry, That upon search of the Scrip- 
tures, and weight of Argument thence deduced, finding 
the Work of the Keyes exactly answering the Wards of the 
Lock of Christs Kingdom ; he was proselited from the 
Classical, unto the Congregational Wav of Churches. Let 
it with all submissiveness be considered, whether its Rumi- 

o2() A Narrative of the Planting 

nation may not be our concern, who Writing of the State of 
these Churches saith : That when a People through an 
apprehension of their own ignorance, weakness, and unmeet- 
ness (-well if it he not Laziness and Idleness) to discern and 
judge matters of Religion for themselves ; and their own 
duty be kept and debar' d from it, or when through their 
own sloth, negligence and vitiousness, shall be really uncapa- 
be to manage their own interest in Church Affairs, as fit 
only to be governed, if not as Bruit Creatures, yet as mute 
persons ; these things shall be imply ed by the ambition of the 
Clergy, ingrossing all things in the Church, to themselves, as 
they did in former Ages: That if the old Popedom do not 
Return, a new one will be Erected as bad as the other : God 
forbid this prognostick should be the Fate of our Churches ; 
yet when we read the Apostle Pauls advice to Colosse, Say 
to Archippus, Take heed to thy Ministry, which thou hast 
Received of the Lord ; when we consider the neglect of it, 
we know not what to say. 

The said Learned Man, in a Book Published since his 
Death, concerning the Rule and Order of Congregational 
Churches, which he asserts to be the only Apostolical 
Churches, both according to the Rules of Scripture, and 
according to the Example of Primitive Humane Antiqui- 
ties, to whom next unto the Sacred Scriptures, we owe 
greatest Veneration and Credence, which he in the said 
Book citeth, in that discourse, treating of the Puling El- 
ders Office and Duty, he saith, I admire that any man 
should have so much confidence in his own Abilities, so as to 
suppose himself Meet, and Able, for the Discharge of both 
sorts of Elders in the least Church of Christ ; In the same 
Treatise, he further affirms, Its evident, that neither the 
Purity, Order, nor the Beauty, or Glory of the Churches of 
Christ, nor his Majesty, or Authority in the Government of 
them, can be long preserved without the multiplication of 
Elders in them, according to the proportion to the Number 
of their respective Members ; for want whereof, the Churches 
of old, and late, have Degenerated into Anarchy, or Con- 
fusion, or else given themselves up, unto the dominion of some 
prelatical Teachers to rule at pleasure, which was the poison 
and bane of the other Primitive Churches ; and they will do 
the same for the future, in the neglect of this Order. 

Of the Massachusetts Colony, frc. 32K 

(iod avert these sad Omens, that they should befal our 
Churches; and yet when we read how the Mystery of In- 
iquity wrought apparently in some who loved the prehemi- 
nence, even in the Apostles time, we are at a loss, and 
humbly leave it with him, whose Face is not to be seen, but 
his hack parts only, while he is passing before us in his 
Glory, and taking away his hand. 

J lath not New-England experienced this great truth, 
What is become of the Majesty, Authority, and Glory of 
Christs Appearing in our Churches, unto which Christs 
Defence is promised when we were compleated according 
to Rule, as at the first : Let's take Christs Counsel, to Re- 
member from whence we are Fallen, fy Repent ; Remember 
our Kulers which have declared unto us the Word of God, 
whose Faith follow, considering what hath been the end 
of their Conversation ; Jesus Christ the same yesterday, to 
<l<ii/ and for ever. Let's not be carried about with divers 
doctrines, and call to mind what Memento our Reverend 
Norton hath left to chew upon. 

In his Treatise call'd, The Heart of New-England, rent 
at the Blasphemies of the Times, whose words are : It con- 
terneth New-England always to remember, that originally 
they are a PLANTATION Religious, not a PLANTATION 
of Trade ; the Profession of the Purity of Doctrine, Wor- 
ship a ad Discipline, is written upon their Forehead ; a spot 
of this vast Jeshimon converted into Corn-fields, Orchards, 
Streets Inhabited, and a place of Merchandise cannot 
denominate New-England, all these notwithstanding if she 
fall away from her Profession, call her Ichabod, The Glory 

I is Departed ; in such a case, what was said of Samnium, 
sometimes a Famous City in Italy, viz. That thev could 
not find SAMNIUM in SAMNIUM, will be verified in 
these Churches ; viz. That NEW-ENGLAND is not to be 
found in NEW-ENGLAND, nor BOSTON in BOSTON. 

1 God forbid, that after New-England hath now shined 
Twenty Years and more, like a Light upon an Hill, it 
should at last go out in the snuff of Morel ian ism ; thus far 
the words of Bostons great and second Seraphical Teacher, 
who Forty Years since, declared these Fears about us ; as 
will further appear in the last page of this Scribled Nar- 
rative, in his Funeral Elegy upon Mr. Cottons Death. 


328 A Narrative of the Planting 

When our Stocks and Farms were not so multiplied, nor | 
our Trade and Merchandise so increased, nor the Number 
of our Members, nor Mortuaries, so great as now. As 
Holy Herbert in his Pious Poems foretold of us. 

As Gold and Grace never yet did agree, 
Religion alway siding with Poverty. 
That as the Church shall thither Westward flie, 
So Sin shall Trace and Dog her instantly. 

Yet we could maintain our Officers. No question was 
then about the Ministers Tables, how they should be sup- 
plied ; the Silver and Gold in Darius, his Exchequer was 
the Lords, and he brought it out to advance Temple-work ; 
if the Church Stock needed Enlargement, a word then 
from the Deacons was sufficient to bring forth more then 
enough, yea to Moses calling for a restraint ; such inlarg- 
edness of heart then appeared, as some old Planters may 
Pern ember. 

It was an awful Speech of a Worthy Minister of the 
Gospel lately utter'd upon a Fast-Day in a neighbour Con- 
gregation ; that he feared the Churches did not under- 
stand the cause of Gods present Controversy ; that it was 
Reformation God looked for, who us ; d this Motive to pro- 
voke to Duty ; that if the present Generation did not 
attend and do their Duty, the next should not, and would I 
not be capable of it ; and indeed how can it be expected, 
That they should Reform that which they know not to be 
an evil, nor to fall upon practice of an unknown Precept; 
Pastors and Teachers are accounted as Supernumeraries ; 
no Pule but for one Officer in a Church ; and as for 
Puling Elders, they have been taken up by Tradition ; 
that there is but one word in the whole Bible for them ; 
yet the Faith once given to the Saints, is earnestly (yet ! 
Regularly) to be contended for by them ; but they will 
find them more than twice mentioned, in Rom. 12. among j 
Church Officers, viz. The Teacher is to attend on Teaching, \ 
the Pastor or Exhorter, on Exhortation ; the Giver, to do it 
with simplicity ; He that Ruleth, with diligence : can there I 
be a fuller description of the Ruling Elders Office and I 
Work, then here is declared, & also in the Plat-form of 
Church Discipline. It's therefore no Humane Invention, 


Of the Massachusetts Colony, &c. 329 

nor Apochriphal Practice 4 of our Predecessors: It's Re- 
tnembred by some of the Old Planters Children, that there 
were such men, when they were young, that were called 
Ruling Elders ; but what men they were, or what was their 
work, they professed they could not tell: What a shame is 
it to our Churches, that through Disuse, Misuse, and Non- 
use of them, such a question should be put to any of above 
Fifty Years of, now living among us ; all which is 
affirmed for a certain known Truth. 

The same Reverend man of God, being imployed the 
last Narraganset Wars, by our Worthy Elders, to make 
Report and Return to tbe General Court, of the provoking- 
evils then found among us, did represent to them, the 
Churches incompleatness of Officers, to be one of the great 
evils, Provocations, & grounds of Displeasure unto God, 
then among us, some replied unto him, That the country 
and Churches were poor, and could not maintain them ; he 
made them a Ready, Grave, and Divine Answer, True, (said 
he) were they mens Officers ; there were argument in what 
they said, but being GODS Officers, there was no ground 
for fear of it ; he having Promised and said, Prove and try 
me ; if we could but trust him, he would open the Heavens, 
and pour down his Blessings : it's Robbing of God we are 
now r call'd to an account for, we fear that Covetuousness, 
Pride, and Ambition, hinders the Discovery of our Achan, 
The Lord pour down upon this House of David, and the 
Inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of Grace, and Suppli- 
cation, and that he would open the Fountain for Sin and 
Unclean ness ; that Holiness unto the Lord may be writ upon 
our hearts, houses, and employments, whether Sacred or civil, 
and upon our Posteritys. 

As we have cause to weep over and bewail our former 
tears, begging that they may be washed in the Blood of the 
Lamb, so that these our faint Sighs and Sobs may be Cor- 
dial, and accepted in the Blood of the everlasting Cov- 
enant, that what we say, may be realized in our' Souls. 
The good Lord direct our Llearts into the knowledge of 
his love ; waiting for the Pouring forth of his Spirit upon 
ourselves, and the rising generation, that we may discern, 
and by the Divine Aids thereof, be enabled, to do the re- 
4 TH s.— vol. iv. 42 spective 

330 A Narrative of the Planting, frc. 

spective work of our Generation, according to the will of 
GOD, before these things be hid from our Eyes. 

That we may have the tasts of that Mercy and Grace, 
springing from the Love of the Father, who knows the 
thoughts of his own heart, and manifests them to poor 
Penitents, that they passing through the heart of him, who 
layeth in the Fathers Bosome, may descend into our hearts, 
by the Holy Spirit dwelling in us, which Blessed Circula- 
tion Eeverting by the Operation of the same Spirit which 
maketh requests for us, who know not to pray as we ought, 
and passing thro 4 the heart, and hands of our great Me- 
diator, may arrive, & ascend into the heart of the Father, 
who is the Origine and Fountain of all Blessedness, (the 
Father himself loving us.) 

That this Spirit may make intercession for us, with 
Groans which can't be uttered, he that searches the hearts, 
knowing what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh 
intercession for the Saints according to the Will of God ; 
Oh that we might experience these things, that this Heav- 
enly Dove sent into our hearts, may make us groan, and 
mourn, like those in the Clefts of the Rocks, that as the 
whole Creation growns, and travails in pain, with Necks 
stretched out, waiting to be delivered from their Bondage 
and Corruption, into the Liberty of the Sons of God ; that 
we receiving the first fruits thereof, may with Eyes and 
Hands lifted up, wait for the Adoption, even the Pedemp- 
tion of our Souls and Bodies ; which Great Grace, the 
GOD OF ALL GRACE, Grant to us, and our Poor 
Children, with all his ISRAEL ; For the Sake of Our Dear 
LORD JFSUS, to whom with the FATHER, and 
HOL Y SPIRIT, Be the Kingdom, Power, and Glory, 
For Ever, AMEN. 



Upon the Death of the truly Reverend 


Late Teacher of a Church of Christ at Boston in New- 
England : Who Died the Twenty Third, was Buried 
the Twenty Ninth of 

December. 1652. 

4 ND after Winthrop, Hooker, S hep hear ds Herse, 
/~\ Doth Cottons Death call for a Mourning Verse. 
Thy Will be done, yet Lord who dealeth thus, 
Make this great Death expedient for us. 
Luther pull'd down the Pope, Calvin the Prelate slew, 
Of Calvi?i i s Lapse, chief Cure to Cottons due. 
Cotton whose Learning, Temper, Godliness, 
The Germane Phoenix lively did express. 
Melancthon's all, may Luther's word but pass 
Mela?ictho?i l s all, in our Great Cotton was. 
Then him in Flesh scarce dwelt a better one, 
So great's our Loss when such a Spirit's gone. 
Whilst he was here, Life was more Life to me, 
Now he is not, Death hence less Death to me. 

Sl)at Comets great mens bcatlj bo oft forego, 

®I)is present Comet ootl) too saMri sljotu, 

9Ct)ts JJropljct's bcatr, net must tn's Doctrine speak, 

£l)is Comet saitl), else must JCeiu-Cnglanb break. 

tOtjat e're it be, tlje fjccro'ns anert it far, 

&l)at iileteors sljoulb succeed our greatest Star. 

In Bosto?is Orb Winthrop and Cotton were, 
These Lights Extinct, Dark is our Haemisphere. 
In Boston once how much shin'd of our Glory, 
We now Lament, Posterity will Story. 
Let Boston live, who had and saw their Worth, 
And did them honour, both in Life and Death. 
To him New-England trust in this Distress, 
Who will not leave his Exiles Comfortless. 

John Norton, 


Reader, Be pleased in page 18 for Christopher Gardner 
Read Sir Christopher Gardner. 






Much interest has been felt, of late years, to know when, 
and under what circumstances, slavery ceased to exist in 

I recollect, among other evidences of this, being applied 
to by Mr. Webster, a few years before his death, for such 
facts as I happened to possess on the subject, in order to 
aid him in the investigation he was making in regard to 
the extinction of slavery here, which he said he had not 
been able satisfactorily to determine. 

The generally received notion is, that slavery was extin- 
guished by the adoption of the Constitution of Massachu- 
setts, which declared all men free and equal. And it is 
undoubtedly true, that soon after it was adopted, it was 
definitely and definitively declared that the relation of mas- 
ter and slave did not exist within the Commonwealth. 

But could we arrive at the true history of the state of 
public sentiment — a power often quite as strong as the 
law, and always, in some measure, an exponent of the law 
itself — we should, I think, find that the Constitution, with 
its Bill of Rights, was literally a declaration of what the 
people regarded as already their rights, rather than an 
exposition of any newly adopted abstract principles, or 
dogmas, to be wrought out into a practical system by any 
course of future legislation under a new regime. 

There is no question that slavery and slaves existed here 
in some form, and to some extent, from the time Maverick 

334 The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 

was found dwelling on Noddle's Island in 1630. Men and 
women were bought and sold in market, inventoried as 
property, and held to have the settlements of their masters 
in the character of slaves. 

But after all, the laws on this subject, as well as the 
practice of the government, were inconsistent and anoma- 
lous, indicating clearly, that whether Colony or Province, 
so far as it felt free to follow its own inclinations, uncon- 
trolled by the action of the mother country, Massachusetts 
was hostile to slavery as an institution. 

Thus we find, among other evidence of the prevalence 
of this sentiment, one of the articles of the " Body of Lib- 
erties " which are preserved in the 8th Volume, 3d Series 
Historical Collections, declares " there shall never be any 
bond slaverie, villenage or captivitie, unless it be lawful 
captives, taken in just wars, and such strangers as willingly 
sell themselves, or are sold to us." And another guaranties 
to all men, whether " inhabitant or foreigner, free or not 
free," liberty to " come to any public court, council or 
town meeting, and either by speech or writing, to move 
any lawful, or seasonable, or material question, or present 
any necessary motion, complaint, petition, bill or informa- 
tion," &c, clearly recognizing them alike as having the 
rights of suitors in courts, and the qualified rights of citi- 
zens, so far at least as to be heard as petitioners. And 
this, it will be remembered, was as early as 1641. 

But I pass over the various laws and acts of the Colo- 
nists upon this subject, to notice the case of James vs. 
Lechmere, which was decided in 1769, and which involved 
the right of a master to hold slaves here, as we are told in 
Dr. Belknap's letter to Judge Tucker, 4 Hist. Coll. 1st 
Series, 202.* 

This, it will be recollected, was nearly two years before 
the famous decision of Lord Mansfield, in Somersett's 
case ; and if Dr. Belknap's account of the matter be cor- 

* The term at which judgment in this action was rendered, was held in Suf- 
folk, October 31, 1769. The action was commenced in the Inferior Court of 
Common Pleas, May 2, 1769, and the plaintiff declared in trespass for assault 
and battery, and imprisoning and holding the plaintiff in servitude from April 11, 
1758, to the date of the writ. Judgment in the lower Court was rendered for the 
defendant. The plaintiff appealed, and in the Superior Court the defendant was 
defaulted, and judgment was rendered for an agreed sum with costs. 

The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 385 

rert, the decision rested substantially upon some of the 
same grounds as that on which Lord Mansfield based his 
opinion. -On the part of the blacks," says Dr. Belknap, 
11 it was pleaded that the Royal Charter expressly declared 
all persons born or residing in the Province to be as free as 
the King's subjects in Great Britain; that by the laws of 
England, no man can be deprived of his liberty, but by the 
judgment of his peers ; that the laws of the Province re- 
specting an evil existing, and attempting to mitigate or 
regulate it, did not authorize it," &c. 

That these positions were not lightly or unadvisedly 
taken, we may be assured from the fact that they were 
urged by such a man as Jonathan Sewall, at that time the 
Attorney General of the Province, and a profound and able 
law yer. 

The decision of the Court was in favor of the liberty of 
the negro. 

And if this were the place for speculation, I should feel 
myself warranted in assuming that our Courts always 
regarded, and as early as 1769, solemnly adjudged the 
attempt to hold any person not captured and brought and 
sold here, but bom here, as a slave, not justified by law, 
although he mieht be the child of a slave. This would 
not be inconsistent with the extract I have given from the 
" Body of Liberties," and is in accordance with what Dr. 
Belknap says was the ground taken in some cases — " that 
though the slavery of the parents be admitted, yet no dis- 
ability of that kind could descend to children." 

This conjecture is, moreover, strengthened by the argu- 
ments by which it was attempted to sustain slavery as an 
institution after the adoption of the Constitution, viz. ; that 
the declaration in the Bill of Rights as to freedom or 
equality referred to the children of slaves, and did not 
emancipate such as could be proved to have been actually 
sold and purchased, as such, before its adoption. 

I have thought these explanations a necessary and proper 
' introduction to a brief history which I propose to offer, of 
i the case, or rather cases, for there were three in number, 
involving the same point, in which by the verdict of a jury, 
with the approbation of the highest Court, it was declared 
authoritatively that slavery no longer existed in Massa- 

336 The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 

The cases to which I allude were Quork Walker vs. 
Nathaniel Jettison, Nathaniel Jenison vs. John Caldwell 
and Seth Caldwell, and the Commonwealth vs. Nathaniel 
Jenison. The civil actions were commenced in the Inferior 
Court of Common Pleas for the County of Worcester, at 
the June term, 1781. 

The first of these was trespass for an alleged assault and 
beating of plaintiff by the defendant with the handle of a 
whip, on the 30th of the previous April. 

The answer of the defendant alleged that one Caldwell 
being possessed of said Quork, " as of her own proper 
negro slave," married and became the wife of defendant, 
whereby he became possessed of said Quork " as of his 
own proper negro slave " — and " prayed judgment of the 
Court if said Quork to his said writ ought to be an- 

The plaintiffs replication was, that he was a freeman, 
and not the proper negro slave of defendant, and this w T as 
the issue raised by the pleadings of the parties, to be tried 
by the jury. 

In the second of the above actions, Jenison sued the 
Caldwells in an action of the case, for enticing away the 
same Quork, a negro man and servant of the plaintiff, from 
his service, and rescuing him out of the plaintiff's hands, 
and preventing his reclaiming and reducing his said servant 
to his business and services, they knowing said negro to be 
the plaintiff's servant. He laid his damages at £1,000. 
The case was tried at the Inferior Court upon the general 
issue, and a verdict rendered for the plaintiff for £25. 
From this judgment the defendants appealed to the Supe- 
rior Court, and a trial had there, in September, 1781, when 
a verdict was rendered for the defendants. 

The indictment above-mentioned was for beating said 
Quork, and resulted in the conviction of the defendant. 

The Court before which the first of the above cases was 
tried, was held by Moses Gill, Chief Justice, and Samuel 
Baker and Joseph Dorr, Assistant Justices. 

The counsel for the plaintiff — the negro — were Caleb 
Strong and Levi Lincoln ; for the defendant, Judge Sprague 
and William Stearns ; and abler advocates could not then, 
or since, have been easily found to sustain the cause of the 

The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 387 

Neither of the judges were educated as lawyers. The 
Chief Justice belonged to Princeton, and was afterwards 
known as Governor Gill, having become the acting Gov- 
ernor upon the death of Governor Sumner in 17W). He 
was bred, and for many years engaged in the business of 
a merchant. Baker was a farmer in Berlin, and Dorr a 
farmer at that time in Ward, now Auburn, though a short 
time before that residing in Mendon. They were there- 
fore probably, like the jury, the exponents of public sen- 
timent in the direction they gave to the trial, rather than 
the organs of any profound legal or constitutional views 
in regard to the rights of the parties. 

The verdict of the jury was, in substance, that said Quork 
" is a freeman, and not the proper negro slave of the defend- 
ant,' 1 and they assessed damages against the defendant in 
£60 ; and judgment was rendered accordingly. 

From this judgment the plaintiff appealed, as the defend- 
ants did in the other case, as has been already stated. But 
after the decision of the latter case in the defendant's favor, 
the plaintiff failed to prosecute his appeal in this ; so that, 
in all the cases, the final judgment of the court was adverse 
to the claims of the master, and in favor of the negro, 
declaring and regarding him as a free man. 

I have before me the brief used by Mr. Lincoln, on the 
trial of Jcnison vs. Caldwell, before a jury in the Superior 
Court, the substance of which I propose to transcribe, the 
same having been kindly furnished me by his son, for many 
years Governor of the Commonwealth. 

Mr. Lincoln was one of the ablest lawyers in the State. 
His business was very extensive, and he was engaged as 
leading counsel in some of the most important causes in 
several of the counties in Massachusetts, as well as in 
Maine. He was not only a profound and learned lawyer, 
but an eloquent and popular advocate. He was, at this 
time, in the thirty-second year of his age. In 1800, he 
was elected to Congress, and the following year received 
the appointment of Attorney-General of the United States 
from President Jefferson, between whom and himself there 
was a great personal intimacy and regard. In 1808, he 
discharged, for more than half a year, the duties of 
Governor, upon the death of Governor Sullivan, and in 
4th s. — vol. iv. 43 

338 The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 

1811 was appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court of 
the United States, which office he was obliged to decline 
by the loss of vision, which became almost total towards 
the close of his life. 

Gov. Strong was four years the senior of Mr. Lincoln in 
age, but neither acted as what is known as " senior counsel," 
since a full closing argument was addressed to the jury by 
each of the counsel, one speaking in behalf of one of the 
defendants, and the other for the other. 

Gov. Strong is too well known, in the history of Massa- 
chusetts, to render it necessary to say a word of him per- 
sonally. He was the leading advocate in the western and 
middle parts of the State, at the bar, and a zealous cham- 
pion in the cause of the oppressed. 

Though the names of the counsel who were opposed to 
them may be less generally known or remembered, they 
were men of high rank and reputation. 

Mr. Stearns was of Worcester, and about the same pro- 
fessional age as Mr. Lincoln, and in every way a respecta- 
ble lawyer ; but he died early, before attaining a distin- 
guished eminence in his profession. 

Judge Sprague belonged to Lancaster. He had been a 
member of the bar before the Revolution, and was a few 
years older than either Mr. Lincoln or Mr. Strong, and was 
then in the vigor of his manhood and power. He was, 
however, rather a wise and learned lawyer, than an eloquent 
advocate. His business extended into several counties, in 
which he divided the field with Lincoln and the Strongs, 
Simeon and Caleb, in influence and business. He was one 
of the few who were appointed barristers after the Revolu- 
tion, and in 1798 was made Chief Justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas for the County of Worcester. 

Such were the counsel in those memorable causes. 

The Superior Court, before which the latter case was 
tried, consisted of Hon. N. P. Sargent, David Sewall and 
James Sullivan. 

The Chief Justice, William Cushing, was not present at 
the term when the cause was heard. 

Judge Sargent was of Haverhill, a sound lawyer and 
upright judge, and succeeded Chief Justice Cushing upon 
his appointment to the United States Court. At the time 

The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 339 

of this trial lie was fifty years of age, and had thru held 
a place upon the bench, six years. 

Judge Sewall belonged to York. He was then forty-six 
years of age, had been a Leading lawyer in that part of the 
State in which he resided, was appointed to this Court in 
1777. and subsequently was appointed Judge of the Dis- 
trict Court of the United States for the District of Maine. 
He was a classmate and personal friend of John Adams, 
and had a high reputation lor integrity and uprightness. 

The strong man of the Court, however, was James Sul- 
livan. A self-made man. he had risen to the first rank in 
his profession, and been actively engaged in the events of 
the Revolution, and took a prominent part in the formation 
of the Constitution. Xo further evidence of his eloquence 
or power as an advocate and a statesman need be given, 
than the rank he held among such names as Dana, Lowell, 
Parsons, Core and Dexter. 

He was appointed to the bench of the Superior Court in 
177G, then thirty-two years of age, and held the office till 
178'2, when he resigned and returned to the bar. 

In 1790 he was appointed Attorney-General, and in 1807 
was chosen Governor. He died in the office, and was suc- 
ceeded, as has already been stated, for the balance of his 
term, by Lieutenant Governor Lincoln. 

It will be perceived that those who took part in the 
decision of this question, were among the leading minds of 
the Commonwealth. They had been witnesses, and taken a 
more or less prominent part in the events and discussions 
of the Revolution, and were especially well qualified to 
understand and appreciate the motives, grounds and lead- 
ing principles of the Constitution. 

The whole subject had agitated the public mind for sev- 
eral years, and one Constitution, prepared in 1777-8 and 
submitted to the people, had been rejected by a vote of 
more than five to one — one reason for which is said to have 
been, that it contained no Bill of Rights. 

The general sentiment on the subject of slavery was 
expressed, the same year, by an Act of the Legislature, for- 
bidding the sale of a number of slaves, taken on board an 
English prize ship, and brought into Salem, and ordering 
them to be set at liberty. 

340 The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 

Such, in brief, were the circumstances under which this 
great question of human freedom was to be decided, to 
serve as a precedent, for all coming time, to Massachusetts. 
And such were the men who took part in its decision. 

It was not, as already stated, determined so much by any 
positive language or enactment in the Constitution, as by 
that all pervading sense of the community, that the time 
had come when that slavery, against which they had been 
so long struggling, was incompatible with their character 
as a free and independent State, and ought to be sup- 

The strongest expression in the Constitution, perhaps, is 
the opening declaration of the Bill of Rights, that " all men 
are born free and equal," &c. Nor can too much credit be 
ascribed to the Hon. John Lowell in procuring the inser- 
tion of this clause, since it took from the Legislature the 
power of ever legalizing slavery without a radical amend- 
ment, by the people, of the organic law of the Common- 
wealth. But it will be perceived that the advocate for the 
slave, in this case, rested his claim upon the incompatibility 
of slavery with our condition as a people, quite as much as 
upon any new right declared or sustained by the Constitu- 
tion. Indeed, there is nothing in the Constitution which 
expressly abrogates, or even recognizes slavery as an exist- 
ing political institution. 

The counsel for the master rested his rights, among other 
things, upon the following points : — 

In the first place, that the negro was a servant by his 
own consent, and therefore the defendant was liable for 
enticing him away. 

But to this it was answered, that if such were the case, 
there must be some evidence of that consent, either express 
or implied, and the terms of it must be understood. 

Besides, some term of time must be agreed upon ; for if 
he consented to be the plaintiffs servant, and no time were 
agreed upon, it would be only during his own will, which 
he may put an end to whenever he pleases. 

But that, in fact, there was no evidence of consent in the 

In the next place the plaintiff insisted he was his servant 

The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. :>ll 

by virtue of a bill of sale by which he became the property 
of Caldwell, from whom he passed to the plaintiff as hus- 
band of his owner, and such a bill of sale was produced 
on the trial. 

And the general right of holding property in slaves was 
sustained upon several grounds. 

1st. It is declared in Exodus, of a man's servant, that 
" he is his money." 

But, said the defendant's counsel, " It is indeed said in 
Exodus that a man's servant is his money, and from this 
the counsel on the other side argues in favor of slavery." 

" But are you to try cases by the old Jewish law ?" 

This was an indulgence to that nation, and they could 
only make slaves of the heathen around them. But even 
by their severe laws, which required an eye for an eye, and 
a tooth for a tooth, men were not allowed to make a slave 
of a brother. They might not make a slave of him, though 
they might hire him. 

In the present case, Quork was their brother ; they all 
had a common origin, were descended from a common 
parent, were clothed with the same kind of iiesh, breathed 
the same breath of life, and had a common Saviour. 

It was contended that the custom and usage of the coun- 
try considered slavery as right. 

But, it was replied, the objection to this is, that customs 
and usages which are against reason and right, are void. 

So far as this question depends upon the laws of the 
State, any laws against the laws of nature are void. And 
that laws upholding slavery are against the laws of nature, 
he cited I Blackstone, 91, 131, 423. 

"But is he a slave by the laws of the country?" If 
there are laws of the State which derogate from the rights 
recognized by the common law, they are to be strictly con- 
strued. And such a law is contrary to the Constitution, as 
well as to the laws of nature. " The air of America is too 
pure for a slave to breathe in." 

The counsel on the other side insist that slavery is a 
respectable affair in this country. But the question to be 
decided, was not whether it w r as respectable or not. 

Has the defendant enticed away the plaintiff's servant, as 
is claimed in his writ I 

342 The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 

When a fellow-subject is restrained of his liberty, it is 
an attack upon every other subject, and every one has a 
right to aid him in regaining his liberty. 

What, in this respect, are to be the consequences of your 
verdict 1 Will it not be tidings of great joy to this com- 
munity 1 It is virtually opening the prison doors, and let- 
ting the oppressed go free ! 

Could they expect to triumph in their struggle with 
Great Britain and become free themselves, until they let 
those go free who were under them % Were they not act- 
ing like Pharaoh and the Egyptians, if they refused to set 
these free 1 

But the plaintiff insists that it is not true, as stated in 
the Constitution, that all men are born free ; for children 
are born and placed under the power and control of their 

This may be. But they are not born as slaves ; they 
are under the power of their parents, to be nursed and 
nurtured and educated for their good. 

And the black child is born as much a free child in this 
sense, as if it were white. 

Then, again, it is contended that the Constitution only 
determines that those that have been born since its adoption 
are equal and free. And they admit that since that time, 
every body is born free. And they say that by a different 
construction, people will lose their property. 

This is begging the question. Is he property % If so, 
why not treat him as you do an article of stock — an ox or 
a horse ! 

It is again said that it is for the jury to inquire whether 
the custom of slavery is a good or a bad custom. 

But if tried by that test, is it not a bad custom % 

What are its consequences \ How does slavery origi- 
nate % Kidnapping and man-stealing in the negro's coun- 
try, while its consequences here are, that the infant may be 
wrested from its mother's breast and sold or given away 
like a pig or a puppy, never more to be seen by the 

Is not this contrary to nature \ Does not Heaven say so 
in the strongest manner \ Is not one's own child as dear 
to the black subject as to the white one % Can a mother 

The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 343 

forget her sucking child I Do not even the beasts and the 
birds nurture and bring up their offspring, while acting 

from their instincts ( 

But under such a law as this, the master has a right to 

separate the husband and wife. Is this consistent with the 
law of nature \ Is it consistent with the law of' nature to 
separate what God has joined together, and declared that 
no man should put asunder I 

The opposite counsel, however, urge that by the laws of 
England a person may, for a crime, be sent into other parts 
of the world, away from parents, sisters and brothers, never 
more to return. 

In the present case a subject of this free Commonwealth 
may be taken, without crime, from his friends, his father 
and mother, and sisters and brothers, and shipped off with 
spavined horses, as an article of merchandize, to the West 

They say that in the early history of the country, slaves 
were needed to cultivate the earth. But instead of that, 
now, the employing of them does an actual injury to the 
poorer classes of people, by being in the way of their find- 
ing employment. 

Is he a slave by the custom of the country ? A custom 
must be general, to be binding as such. This is not a gen- 
eral custom. It has ever been against the principles of 
some to make slaves, and some have freed them. 

It must, moreover, be undisputed, in order to be binding. 
But this has always been disputed — in the General Court, 
in the Courts of Justice, and elsewhere. 

It must, besides, not be against reason. 

In making out that negroes are the property of their 
masters, the counsel for the plaintiff speak of lineage, and 
contend that the children of slaves must be slaves in the 
same way that, because our first parents fell, we all fell 
with them. 

But are not all mankind born in the same way % Are 
not their bodies clothed with the same kind of flesh'? 
Was not the same breath of life breathed into all I We 
are under the same gospel dispensation, have one common 
Saviour, inhabit the same globe, die in the same manner, 
and though the white man may have his body wrapped in 

344 The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 

fine linen, and his attire may be a little more decorated, 
there all distinction of man's making, ends. We all sleep 
on the same level in the dust. We shall all be raised by 
the sound of one common trump, calling unto all that are 
in their graves, without distinction, to arise, — shall be 
arraigned at one common bar, shall have one common 
judge, and be tried by one common jury, and condemned 
or acquitted by one common law — by the Gospel — the 
perfect law of liberty. 

This cause will then be tried again, and your verdict will 
there be tried. Therefore, gentlemen of the jury, let me 
conjure you to give such a verdict now, as will stand this 
test, and be approved by your own minds in the last 
moments of your existence, and by your Judge at the last 

It will then be tried by the laws of reason and revela- 

Is it not a law of nature, that all men are equal and 
free % 

Is not the law of nature the law of God 1 

Is not the law of God then against slavery \ 

If there is no law of man establishing it, there is no 
difficulty. If there is, then the great difficulty is to deter- 
mine which law you ought to obey, and if you shall have 
the same ideas as I have of present and future things, you 
will obey the former. 

The worst that can happen to you for disobeying the 
former, is the destruction of the body ; for the last, that of 
your souls. 

Though this sketch must, from the nature of the case, 
be little more than a meagre outline of the respective 
grounds taken by the counsel in this case, enough is seen 
to justify the remark that the case turned and was decided 
upon the strong, prevailing sentiment that pervaded the 
community, rather than the positive provisions of the Con- 

These, indeed, were sufficient to sustain the court and 
jury in the conclusions to which they came ; yet I appre- 
hend it was accomplished more by relieving the courts 
from the overshadowing influence of the crown, by a final 

The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 345 

act of independent legislation, like the adoption of an or- 
ganic law as a State, than by any now form of declaring 
personal rights or the popular will. 

In 17(>7 and in 1774, laws against the slave trade and 
slavery had been passed by the Legislature, which were 
defeated by the Governors acting under instructions from 
home, — both Governors Hutchinson and Gage refusing, 
for that reason, to sign such bills. 

This is what the counsel for the slave in the case of 
Quork alluded to, when they insisted that slavery had 
always been opposed here "in the General Court, the 
courts of justice, and elsewhere. 1 ' 

And this is further 'illustrated by the fact, that while the 
New Hampshire courts, construing a similar provision in 
the Constitution of that State, arc said to have adopted the 
views contended for by the counsel for the master in the 
case in our courts, viz., that it only emancipated such as 
were born alter its adoption, our courts made no such dis- 
tinction, but held the declaration as of universal applica- 

Nor could this have been done hastily or unadvisedly. 
Both of the counsel for the slave, though neither of those 
for the master, and one of the Judges of the Inferior Court 
and all the Judges of the Superior Court who sat in the 
case, as well as the Chief Justice, had themselves been 
members of the Convention which formed the Constitution, 
and must have understood the intention of its framers upon 
a subject that had so often and so recently been agitating 
the public mind. And their decision assumes a more than 
ordinarily authoritative character, inasmuch as it utters not 
only a judgment founded upon the language of that instru- 
ment, but speaks the sentiment which dictated that lan- 
guage itself. 

And I may perhaps be pardoned in alluding to one other 
point, in this discussion, of the binding obligation of the 
laws of slavery ; and that is, this early and most marked 
resort to the ** higher law," as it has been called in modern 
phrase. Xo more direct appeal to such a law could well 
be made, than that in which eminent counsel indulged, in 
this language I have quoted, in connection with the para- 
mount obligation of the Constitution, in the formation of 
4th s. — vol. iv. 44 

346 The Extinction of Slavery in Massachusetts. 

which he had taken a part, and in the presence of judges 
who had shared with him in that office. 

In conclusion I have only to add, that I have been 
induced to present these original memoranda of this cause, 
in connection with the circumstances under which it arose 
and was decided, that the true relation which our fathers 
held to slavery in Massachusetts, might be understood, and 
not from any wish to utter a word upon a subject which 
could add to the excitement which it has already awakened. 

It is simply the detail of an historic fact, which it is 
due to the historic fame of Massachusetts, should be fully 
known and understood. If it does no more, it shows that 
descendants of Africans had the rights of free citizens in 
Massachusetts, years before the Constitution of the United 
States had been framed, or even conceived of ; and history 
would confirm the position, that many of this very class 
voted as citizens, upon the election of the members of the 
Convention which adopted it, and in that may have been 
the means of securing its adoption. 

f it o m 17 6 7 t o 17 7 5 . 

The following letters of Thomas Gushing are printed from the originals in 
the archives of the Society. " He was sent representative from his native town 
for a number of years, and, A. D. 17(i'5, when the Governor negatived Mr. Otis, 
who had been chosen Speaker, he was elected in his place ; and he continued to 
fill the chair, till he was chosen one of the members of the Congress which met 
at Philadelphia, 1774."— Eliot's Biographical Dictionary. R. F., Jr. 


Boston, Jan. 17, 1767. 

I now inclose you four depositions relative to the 
interruption our fishery has met with on the coast of Lab- 
rador, in addition to those sent before, which will be a fur- 
ther confirmation of the conduct of Commodore Palliser, 
with respect to our American vessels. 

I am, in behalf of the House of Representatives, your 
most humble servant, 

Thomas Cushing, Speaker. 
To Denny s De Berdt, Esq. 

Boston, May 9th, 1767. 

Your letters of the 10th January and 1-lth February 
last, directed to the Speaker, have been duly received, 
and will be communicated to the House as soon as the 
Court meets. I am glad to find the representation of the 

348 Letters of Thomas Gushing. 

difficulties our trade labors under was drawn in such a 
manner as to be agreeable, and hope through the interest 
of Lord Shelburne, you will be able to obtain the necessary 
relief. We have had a variety of accounts relative to troops 
being sent to America ; some to be stationed at New York 
and some at Boston. Anonymous letters have been sent 
from your side the water to gentlemen of character here, 
threatening this very hard, in order, I take it, to create an 
uneasiness among the people. I have, therefore, in order 
to quiet their minds, taken the liberty to publish an extract 
of your letter, and hope it will have a good tendency. A 
strict union and harmony betwixt Great Britain and her 
Colonies, is what is much desired by the people here, and 
ought by all means to be promoted and maintained. Rea- 
son, religion, duty and interest dictate this. It can never 
be violated without mutual destruction. It is with concern 
observed by the discerning here, that some, on both sides 
of the water, are and have been endeavoring, on the one 
hand, to represent the Colonies as setting up for indepen- 
dency, as turbulent, factious and disloyal ; and on the other 
hand, are insinuating to the people here, as if those at 
[the] helm on your side the water were disposed to treat 
the Colonies with severity, and to deprive them of their 
most invaluable rights and privileges ; in short, it seems 
[the] design of some people, to set us at variance, and 
engage us [ ] hostilities with one another. May the 

Supreme Huler of the Universe defeat the designs of these 
enemies to Great Britain and the Colonies ; may he give 
wisdom and steadiness to the present Administration, and 
dispose the people here to such a dutiful behavior and con- 
duct, as will prove the falsehood of all such idle sugges- 
tions, and convince the Ministry of their affection to their 
mother country, and of their loyalty to the King. 

It would be a fatal thing for us to get into a state of 
disaffection. Nothing would have so direct a tendency to 
bring us into such a state, as sending troops here, to enforce 
acts of Parliament ; nothing would so soon throw the peo- 
ple into a flame. No one measure I could think of, would 
so effectually drive them into resolutions, which in the end 
would prove detrimental to Great Britain. I mean, living 
as much as possible within ourselves, and using as few as 

Letters of Thomas Cushing. 349 

possible of your manufactures. It would discover such a 
want of confidence in the duty and loyalty of the people, 

as would occasion great disgust. 

As to imposing duties, so long as they are confined to the 
regulation of trade, and so conducted as to he of equal 
advantage to all parts of the empire, no great exception 
could be taken to it ; but when duties are laid with a view 
of raising a revenue out of the Colonies, and this revenue 
also to be applied to establish a civil list in America, and 
by this means (as the report goes! the Governor, the Lieu- 
tenant Governor, Secretary, Judges, &c. &c, are to have 
their salaries iixed from home and paid out of the monies 
that shall he from time to time collected, by virtue of Act 
of Parliament already passed, or to be passed ; — this is 
looked upon to be unconstitutional, and it is apprehended 
cannot be done without vacating our charter, and in effect 
overthrowing- our present constitution. If [anjy scheme of 
this nature should be on foot, I should be glad you would 
advise of it and let me know particularly what the scheme 
is, and how extensive : at the same time I doubt not, from 
the regard you have discovered for our interest, that you 
would use your influence to prevent any such measures 
being pursued. 

The House, at their session, made you a grant of two 
hundred pounds sterling for your services, and the Council 
concurred with the House ; but His Excellency took some 
exceptions to the wording of it, and did not give his con- 
sent to it. I hope the House will reassume the consider- 
ation of this matter at their next sessions, and so conduct 
it as will be agreeable both to His Excellency and your- 

You will please to consider I write now only as a private 
friend, and not in my public character, and therefore have 
expressed myself with more freedom and with less reserve, 
than, perhaps, I should otherways have done. When you 
favor me with a reply to this letter, please, therefore, to 
avoid directing to me as Speaker, and write to me only in 
my private character. 

I am, with esteem, your most humble servant, 

Thomas Gushing. 

350 Letters of Thomas Cashing. 


Boston, January 30^, 1768. 

Inclosed you have a petition to His Majesty, from the 
House of Representatives of the Province of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay, which they desire you would get presented 
as soon as may be, and in such way and manner as you 
may judge best. You will please also to advise as soon as 
possible what reception it meets with. You have also en- 
closed three letters ; one directed to the Right Honorable 
the Earl of Shelburne, one to the Right Honorable Lord 
Camden, and the other to the Right Honorable the Mar- 
quis of Rockingham ; which the House also desire you 
would deliver to those noblemen. 

In the name and by order of the House of Represent- 
atives, I am your most humble servant, 

Thomas Gushing, Speaker. 
Dennys De Berdt, Esq. 


Boston, April 18, 1768. 

I acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 21 
December last. You mention in the postscript, your hav- 
ing wrote to [the] House by the same conveyance, but the 
letter never came to hand. I am persuaded it would be 
quite agreeable to the House to hear from you frequently ; 
be sure as often as any thing occurs on your side the water 
that affects the interest of America. The traders here in 
the English way, begin to feel the effects of the measures 
entered into last fall, by the people here, to promote fru- 
gality and economy. As the consumption of British goods 
lessens, their sale diminishes, and I guess it will not be 
long before the merchants on your side the water will have 
reason to complain. The merchants in this and the neigh- 
boring Towns of Salem and Marblehead, have very gen- 

Letters qf Thomas Cushing. 351 

erally, I may say almost universally, agreed not to import 
any goods from England for twelve months from this time, 
provided the merchants in the other Governments come 

into the same 1 resolution ; and I am informed that your 
good friend, Mr. Richard Cary, lias just received a letter 
from a friend of his at New York, informing him that the 
gentlemen in trade there, had come into the like agree- 
ment, to stop the importation until the duties are taken 
off; and by the last accounts from Philadelphia, it was 
highly probable that the merchants in that city would do 
the like. I believe the gentlemen in trade are one and all 
convinced that it will be to no good purpose for them to 
import English goods as usual, under the present distressed 
and embarrassed state of the trade. They despair of ever 
selling them, and consequently of oyer being able to pay 
for them. I wish those who have the management and 
conduct of the affairs of the nation, may see its true inter- 
est before it is too late. 

As the House ordered all their letters to be printed as 
an appendix to their journal, I have inclosed yon a set of 
them, presuming it will be agreeable. The Governor 
has signed the grant of six hundred pounds the House 
made you the last session, and the treasurer informed me 
this day that he had the promise of a bill in about three 
weeks, and as soon as he obtained it should remit it to 

I write you now only as a friend, and in my private 
character ; and I doubt not, if you can make any improve- 
ment of the intelligence I have now given you, for the ben- 
efit of America, that you will cheerfully do it. 

I remain, with respect, your most humble servant, 

Thomas Gushing. 
To Denny s De Berdt, Esq. 


Boston, June 6th, 1768. 

This will be handed you by Dr. Jeffries, a gentleman 
worthy your notice. I therefore recommend him to your 

352 Letters of Thomas Gushing. 

patronage. He goes for England with a view of making 
some further proficiency in the business he is engaged in. 
Any favors you may do him while in England, I shall 
esteem as if done for myself. 

I hope the new Parliament, when they meet, will be 
favorably disposed towards America, and that they will 
repeal the late revenue acts, which will restore that happy 
union, which till of late has subsisted between the mother 
country and these Colonies. Our money will soon be 
drained from us, by means of these acts, and the mer- 
chants on your side the water will soon be so sensibly 
affected by it as to become our greatest and warmest advo- 
cates. People here have formed great expectations from 
our Address to the King, and the representations to the 
ministry. If they are not attended to, I fear the people 
will be thrown into despair. 

Your humble servant, 

Thomas Gushing. 
Denny s De Berdt, Esq. 


Boston, January 19th, 1768. 1 

Your favor of the 5th of October last duly came to 
hand. I entirely agree with you, that the best method we 
can take to obtain relief from our burdens, is steadily to 
persevere in our scheme of economy and the non-importa- 
tion of goods, which I am persuaded our merchants in 
general are resolutely determined to do. If any of the 
officers or the troops should be guilty of any outrage, or 
illegal conduct, we shall not incline to wait to procure 
redress in the Courts at Westminster, but the people are 
determined to prosecute them in Courts we have of our 
own. However, every thing at present remains quiet and 
peaceable. Our people behave with the greatest caution 

1 On the back of this letter is the following remark : " This letter is dated ' 
Jan. 19th, 1768. It should be 1769— for it refers—" 

Letters of Thomas Gushing. 353 

and prudence, so that I am persuaded the commanders of 
the troops and men-of-war are not a little surprised at the 
errand they were Bent upon ; they find themselves placed 
among an orderly, peaceable and well-behaved people. The 

soldiers are continually deserting. They like the country, 
and it is so wide and extensive, that it will he very difficult 
to recover those that desert ; and the charge of their being 
sent and supported here, will much exceed any revenue 
that can be raised by the late Act. 

I am glad to hear that the friends to America increase. 
The more this affair of a revenue is considered and thought 
of, the more convinced the people on your side the water 
will be of the impolicy and inexpediency of the measure. 
I shall be always ready to furnish you with all the intelli- 
gence in my power, but must beg that you would not pub- 
lish any more of my letters with my name affixed to them. 
I write to you as a friend, and in confidence, and with 
more freedom than I should choose to do, if I knew my 
letters were to be in print. I may by this means feel the 
resentment of some people which I should choose to avoid. 
I must beg, therefore, you would not suffer any more of 
my letters with my name affixed to be published. I have 
seen his Majesty's speech to both Houses, and am much 
surprised that we could have been so extravagantly misrep- 
resented, as to give occasion for him to observe that the 
capital Town of one of the Colonies (meaning, as I sup- 
pose, Massachusetts) was by late advices in a state of dis- 
obedience to all law and government, and had proceeded to 
measures subversive of the Constitution. He must have 
been egregiously misinformed. Nothing could have been 
farther from the truth than such advices. However, I hope 
time, which scatters and dispels the mists of error and 
falsehood, will place us in our true light ; and convince the 
administration how much they have been abused by false 
and malicious representations. 

In the times of the late stamp act, there were riots and 
great mischief done ; the stamp officers through the conti- 
nent were obliged to resign ; at New York, the King's fort 
was attacked. His Majesty at that time, in his speech to 
his Parliament, only just mentions that there had been 
some occurrences in America that demanded their atten- 
4th s. — vol. iv. 45 

354 Letters of Thomas dishing. 

tion. Noav, surely, no disturbances any thing like those 
above-mentioned have lately occurred in America ; and yet 
we are represented as in a state of disobedience to all law 
and government. How, therefore, can we account for this 
difference in the two speeches, but from the base and false 
representations that have been made by some people of this 
government. I hope the Parliament will make a strict and 
thorough inquiry into this matter ; and if they do, I am 
persuaded they will find that those misrepresentations have 
been made by those who, for a long time, have been set 
upon having a revenue out of America, and who expect to 
obtain great salaries out of the same. It is their interest, 
therefore, at all events, so to represent matters as to accom- 
plish their designs ; but a due inquiry will discover how 
greatly the nation has been injured, and this people abused 
by this set of people. 

While writing, I received your favor of the 18 Novem- 
ber last ; am glad to hear the petitions from the other Col- 
onies are come to hand, and that they, together with ours, 
will be brought before the Parliament. I hope not only 
a good part, but all the troops will soon be removed, as 
there is not the least occasion for them. The continuing 
any part of them here, will only serve to interrupt that 
harmony which ought ever to subsist between the two 
countries. It will keep in remembrance what ought to be 
forgot, as soon as possible, viz., the ill-treatment we have 
received, and the impeachment of our loyalty and love of 
good order. This has been a matter of grief to the people 
here, and has deeply wounded them. The removal of the 
Board of Commissioners I hope will take place at the 
same time. 

I am surprised you should think our town meeting was 
disorderly. It was remarked by several strangers that were 
present, gentlemen of very respectable characters, that it 
was one of the most regular, decent, and orderly town 
meetings that ever they were at ; every thing was con- 
ducted with the utmost propriety, good order, and deco- 
rum, and I cannot say it was in any respect culpable. 
There was one vote, recommending the inhabitants to be 
provided with arms, according to law, which I wish had 
been omitted— perhaps it was unadvised, but many people 

Letters of Tho nuts dishing. 355 

thought it prudent, as they apprehended there was a prob- 
ability of a French war, and there is no accounting for 
people's apprehensions. The public accounts afforded 
Some grounds for such apprehensions ; however, upon the 
whole, all circumstances considered, I think it had better 
been let alone. But suppose we have in any of our pro- 
ceedings been somewhat irregular and culpable, is there no 
allowance to be made for a people under such distress, and 
anxiously concerned lor the preservation of their rights 
and privileges, which they apprehend infringed by the late 
Acts — at the same time their petitions frowned upon, and 
are told unless they give up their rights they shall not be 
heard ; every attempt they make 1 to unite in their suppli- 
cations for relief, called an incentive to rebellion ; military 
and naval forces sent to execute Acts of Parliament to 
raise a revenue, not for the benefit of the nation, but to 
support a number of useless officers ; our Assembly dis- 
solved because they would not obey a ministerial order, 
which to have complied with would have been directly 
against the light of their consciences. Prav, Sir, under 
these circumstances, can it be wondered at if some disorder 
should happen, if some improprieties in conduct should 
take place 1 

In such a situation, deprived of an Assembly, what could 
be more wise than to call a Convention of prudent men 
from each town, to consult and advise for the peace and 
safety of the community ? This was done, and it had an 
happy effect ; and if the Convention was a prudent meas- 
ure, certainly the town meeting which gave rise to it can- 
not be called disorderly and culpable, for so salutary a 
measure. The Governor yesterday shew me a letter from 
Lord Hillsborough, wherein he endeavors to exculpate 
himself with respect to our petitions not being seasonably 
delivered to the King. If I remember the letter right, he 
says you never offered him the petition ; but Mr. Sayer 
being at his house, some mention was made of such a peti- 
tion by Lord Hillsborough, and Mr. Saver told him there 

I was such an one, and if his Lordship desired it he could 
let him have a sight of it. Accordingly some time after, 

: Mr. Sayer sent it to his Lordship, inclosed in a letter, (a 
copy of which he has sent the Governor,) wherein Mr. 

356 Letters of Thomas Gushing. 

Sayer desires him to present it to His Majesty. This, he 
says, was the way he received it — not directly from the 
agent, or any person that was properly im powered to de- 
liver it, and without any document to prove it to be a peti- 
tion from the Massachusetts Bay. Under these circum- 
stances he did see his way clear, as Secretary of State, 
to offer the petition to His Majesty. I do not pretend to 
give you the very words of his Lordship's letter, but this I 
think is the substance and purport of it. Inclosed you 
have the newspapers. 

I conclude with respect, 

Your most humble servant, 

Thomas Gushing. 
To Dennys JDe Berdt, Esq. 

P. S. — I have [written] you with freedom ; you will 
please therefore to show this letter with caution, and ex- 
cuse the incorrectness of it, the vessel being just upon 
sailing. Yrs,' T. C. 


Boston, November 6, 1770. 

I have received your favors of the 15 June and 4 July 
last, inclosing sundry copies of letters, for which I very 
kindly thank you. I am also obliged to you for the Pam- 
phlet handed me by Mr. Gary, entitled the Political Detec- 
tion, wrote by Junius Americanus. 1 I esteem it a valuable 
present. It is certainly very cruel and unjust, that the 
state and circumstances of the Province should be collected 
from the evidence of Bernard, Robinson, and other expect- 
ants and dependants, who are notorious for their prejudices 
and resentments against this people. It will still be more 
cruel, if the Parliament should take for fact, what they 
have represented to be so, and upon such ground form their 
future resolutions, and proceed to make any alterations in 

1 Dr. Arthur Lee. 

Letters of Thomas Cushing. 357 

the Charter of this Province*, without previously notifying 
us what charges are brought against us. The Parliament, 
if they are impartial, must determine that we ought to be 
beard before we are condemned and punished, with the 
loss of any of our privileges : the very first principles of 
justice the constant tenor of all judicial proceedings, de- 
mand this. 

The House, on the '24 October, proceeded to the choice 
of an Agent for one year. 1 repeatedly mentioned, pre- 
vious to the choice, to the members, your past services and 
exertions in behalf of the Province, as also Dr. Lee's ; but 
as you were known to but very lew of the members, and 
many of them were well acquainted with Dr. Franklin, 
upon sorting and counting the votes, it appeared Dr. Frank- 
lin had the majority ; since which, the House have made 
choice of Dr. Lee, as their Agent, in case of the death or 
absence of Dr. Franklin, which I doubt not you will 
approve of, as I know Dr. Lee stands high in your esteem. 
Your recommendation of him as a suitable person for an 
Agent, to Mr. Cary, had a considerable influence in this 

I have been informed that the ministry have given up all 
thoughts of raising a revenue out of America, as they find 
it attended with insuperable difficulties, and that they would, 
willingly put us upon the same footing we were upon before 
any of the revenue acts were passed ; but are fearful if they 
should do this, it would not make us quiet and easy, but 
we should rise in our demands and insist upon the repeal 
of the navigation acts, and be contented with little short, 
if any thing, of a state of independency. But I can assure 
you that is so far from the truth, that in case the revenue 
acts were repealed, the Board of Commissioners removed, 
and the troops withdrawn, and we were put in the same 
state we were in before the stamp act was passed, that peo- 
ple in general would be satisfied ; and so far from being 
desirous of being independent of Great Britain, that they 
would dread the very thoughts of it. The Parliament's 
repealing the stamp act was very acceptable to the Colo- 
nies, and the late repeal of the duties imposed on all the 
articles, (tea excepted,) in the 7 of Geo. the Third, has 
been considered by many people as a conciliating measure, 

358 Letters of Thomas Cushing. 

and therefore they have used their influence to put an end 
to the non-importation agreement, and that all goods, 
except dutiable articles, should be imported as usual. The 
Court have also agreed to proceed upon business, notwith- 
standing they are still restrained, by instruction, from hold- 
ing the General Court at the only established place, the 
Town House in Boston. It is therefore hoped that these 
movements will be considered by the ministry as concili- 
ating, and if they know how to improve events, I should 
think they would embrace this opportunity to retire to 
their old ground, and place us in the same situation we 
were in previous to the passing the late stamp act, and by 
this means restore tranquillity to the Colonies, and that 
union and harmony which heretofore subsisted between 
Great Britain and this country ; but if administration 
should continue these severe measures, it will be difficult 
to say what will be the consequence. 

I remain, with respect, your most humble servant, 

Thomas Cushing. 

P. S. — The House have made a grant to Mr. De Berdt, 
of £750 sterling, for his services a' November, 1767, to 
May, 1770. 

Mr. Stephen Sayer. 


Boston, Jan y 2lst, 1772. 1 


I heartily wish, with you, that some measures might be 
come into to revive the union of the Colonies. To place 
any great dependence upon the virtue of the people in 
general, as to their refraining from the use of any of the 
duty articles, will be in vain. The only thing we can at 
present depend upon, is the conduct of the several Assem- 
blies, through the continent ; and however the people in 

1 The first paragraph of this letter relates to private affairs. 

Letters of Thomas Cuskittg. 359 

general may be induced, for peace' sake, or from a sense of 
their inability to submit at present in some instances to the 
exercise of what they apprehend, the usurped authority of 
Parliament, the Assemblies ought to keep a watchful eye 
upon their liberties, and from time to time to assert their 
rights in solemn resolves, and continually to keep their 
Agents instructed upon this important subject, and to re- 
new their memorials to the King, for the redress of their 
grievances and the restoring their privileges. It might be 
well, also, for each Assembly to be considering what shall 
be their conduct as soon as a war commences. It is highly 
probable it will not be long before the nation is involved 
in a bloody war with some of the European nations, per- 
haps next spring ; upon the commencement of which, we 
may depend upon their applying to the several Colonies for 
assistance, bv furnishing them with men and money. It is 
of great importance, therefore, that the Colonics, at such a 
juncture, should act one and the same part. Is it not, 
therefore, high time that each Assembly should be meditat- 
ing what answers they should give, and what conduct they 
should pursue, in consequence of any such requisitions I 
Then, certainly, will be the time to settle matters upon a 
secure and permanent footing, especially if we can all 
agree upon one and the same plan of conduct: would it 
not then be expedient to consult one another upon this 
subject, as soon as possible. You are sensible this Prov- 
ince, by being foremost in such measures, has brought the 
whole resentment of Great Britain upon them. We suffer 
| at this day, more than all the Colonies together : would it 
i not, therefore, be reasonable that your Colony, or some 
j other, should take the lead in this matter. Pray consider 
of it, and let me know your sentiments upon this subject. 
I write in confidence, as to a friend, and therefore shall 
: depend upon your not mentioning this proposal as coming 
from me, for many reasons which I shall communicate to 
) you when I have the pleasure of seeing you at Boston. In 
• the mean [ ] remain with respect, 

Your most humble servant, 

Thomas Cushing. 

To the Honorable Roger Sherman, Esq., at New Haven f Con- 

360 Letters of Thomas Cushing. 


Boston, September, 1773. 

The latter end of June last, I wrote you that the 
House of Representatives had directed Dr. Franklin to em- 
ploy you as counsel, in support of their petition to the 
King for the removal of the Governor and the Lieutenant 
Governor ; since which I have received your favor of the 
10th June. I observe the Governor, by reviving the late 
dispute, has lost credit on your side the water, as well as 
on ours. The Ministry, I understand, are greatly chagrined 
at his officiousness, their intention having been to let all 
controversy subside, and by degrees suffer matters to return 
to their old channel. This dispute, though it may in some 
measure retard the redress of our grievance, has upon the 
whole been of advantage to America. We have gained 
ground by it. However, I entirely agree with you in senti- 
ment, (as expressed in your letter to Mr. Adams,) that it is 
not worth our while to press this matter too far, at this 
time. You justly observe that the government at home are 
daily growing weaker, while we in America are continually 
growing stronger. Our natural increase in wealth and 
population, will in a course of years, effectually settle this 
dispute in our favor, whereas if we persist in openly and 
strenuously denying the right of Parliament to legislate for 
us in any case whatever, and should insist upon their yield- 
ing up this right, they may think us very extravagant in 
our demands, and hence there will be great danger of 
bringing on a rupture fatal to both countries. Whereas if 
these high points about the supreme authority of Parlia- 
ment were to fall asleep, and Administration would desist 
from the exercise of this right, and the present system of 
American laws and regulations, adopted upon the idea of 
raising a revenue out of America, was abolished, I should 
think Great Britain would regain the affections of the peo- 
ple in America, retrieve her commerce, and recall that con- 
fidence in her wisdom and justice, which is so necessary for 
the mutual interest of both countries. 

I cannot agree with [you in] sentiment that Lord 

Letters of Thomas Cashing. 361 

Dartmouth is that kind of man that will never do any 
good. I have lately been favored with a letter from his Lord- 
ship. Sis sentiments are truly noble and generous; they 
well comport with his high station, and fully justify that 
confidence which His Majesty's American subjects repose 
in his wisdom and justice. lie seems disposed and desirous 
of having union and harmony between both countries re- 
stored upon a lair, candid and equitable foo[ting]. At the 
same [time] I am fully of opinion with you, that it is to 
ourselves we ought to trust, and not to the persons who 
may be in power on your side the water ; and I hope we 
shall always act with prudence and firmness, notwithstand- 
ing it may have been represented to His Majesty, that the 
doctrines contained in the House's answer to the Governor's 
speech, were to be imputed to a few men of artifice, who 
mislead the House. Administration ought to know, that 
the men who made and passed those answers, were not 
men of artifice, but, as Lord Coke says of ancient com- 
moners, they were grave and sad men, and men of property ; 
that they and the present House were and are willing that 
these points should fall asleep ; but when the Governor 
put them in such a situation that either they must speak 
out, or by their silence concede and give up their rights, 
they judged and will always judge it their duty, respect- 
fully and modestly, yet plainly, to assert them. 
To Dr. Lee. 


Boston, October, 177']. 

Since my last, have not received any of your favors. 
Dr. Franklin writes me that he thinks of leaving England 
very soon, and informs me that some time before his de- 
parture, he shall put the Province papers into your hands, 
and speaks very handsomely of Dr. Lee, from which I con- 
clude there is a good understanding between you and the 
Doctor, which gives me great pleasure. The Doctor has 
discovered himself to be an able, disinterested and zealous 
4th s. — vol. iv. 46 

362 Letters of Thomas Cushing. 

defender of the rights of the Americans, and I believe has 
been sincerely attached to the interest and prosperity of 
this Province. I now transmit yon the Journal of the 
Honse of Representatives for the last sessions, as also a 
sermon preached by Mr. Turner, before the General Assem- 
bly, the last May, of which I crave your acceptance. 

The Parliament, it seems, the last sessions, did nothing 
for the relief of America. I hope the Administration de- 
sign to advise to it the next session. A war, it is appre- 
hended, is near at hand ; our aids will then be wanted, con- 
sequently our friendship courted, and our claims attended 
to. It is against this event, as you justly observe, we 
should be prepared, that the opportunity it will offer of 
vindicating our rights may not pass away unimproved. 
But I am not without my fears that, when this crisis 
arrives, the Colonies, considering how differently the sev- 
eral governments are constituted, will widely differ in what 
their rights are. It would be very happy, that if, when 
requisitions may be made upon the Colonies for men and 
money, they could all agree upon one and the same answer, 
and upon insisting upon the same terms of relief or redress. 
Some have thought, that in case of war, if the several 
Assemblies through the continent should firmly agree with 
each other not to grant any aids to the Crown, in a general 
war, until the whole system of American laws and regula- 
tions, adopted upon the idea of raising a revenue out of 
America, were abolished, it would be very happy, and as 
far as it could rationally be expected, the Colonies in gen- 
eral would go, and as much as could rationally be expected 
from Great Britain at present ; that if the Administration 
once retired from this system which had occasioned so 
much trouble and uneasiness to both countries, they would 
never attempt the reassumption of them. Others have 
thought, that the Colonies ought to agree not to grant any 
aids, until the Declaratory Act, passed immediately upon 
the repeal of the Stamp Act, was repealed, and Great Brit- 
ain agreed that they had not a right to make laws to bind 
the King's subjects in America, in any case whatsoever. 
But these terms, it is thought by many, never would be 
insisted upon by all the Colonies, if by any ; and if they 
should, they [would] never be complied with by Great 

Letters tjf Thomas Cushing. 363 

Britain, but would be considered as a plain indication that 
the Colonies were not disposed to come to any settlement 
with them at all, but chose to be entirely independent of 

them, and so there might be great danger of a fatal rup- 
ture — of prematurely bringing on a contest, to which, if 

we are not found equal, that authority will by the event be 
more strongly established ; and if we should prove supe- 
rior, yet by the division the general strength of the British 
nation must be greatly diminished ; whereas the daily 
increasing strength in wealth (aid numbers and importance 
of America to Great Britain, must in a little time bring us 
all we want or can desire, and in peace and safety to both 
To Br. Lee. 


Boston, April 23, 1774. 

It is some time since I have had the pleasure of any 
of your favors. 

Our spring ships have just arrived from London. By 
them w r e are informed what reception the news of the de- 
struction of the tea at Boston, and the return of it from 
Philadelphia, has met with. The Ministry were, at first, 
very high, and threatened to use us with great severity ; 
but upon further consideration they cooled down, and it is 
; not yet known what steps will be taken by government 
with regard to the Colonies. We have also a full account 
1 of the treatment our petition for the removal of the Govern- 
or and our Agent have met with. The public papers will 
so fully inform you upon this head, that it will be needless 
i for me to enlarge. You can have no conception of the 
', rage the ministerial people have been in with Dr. Franklin, 
( on account of his transmitting the late famous letters. His 
faithful services to America, have been rewarded by the 
• Ministers taking from him the office of Postmaster General 
of North America ; he has been greatly abused and re- 

364 Letters of Thomas Cushing. 

viled ; he has resigned his Agency, having no hopes of 
being any farther useful. 

I beg leave to recommend to your friendly notice, Col. 
Jeremiah Lee of Marblehead, and Tristram Dalton, Esq., 
of Newburyport, gentlemen in trade, of fortune, and of 
good character, who are upon a tour of pleasure to the 
southward, and whose acquaintance, I doubt not, will give 
you pleasure. 

Joseph Reed, Esq. 


Philadelphia, October 23, 1775. 
Dear Sir, 

I received yours of the 24th September, on the 21st 
instant, and not before. What has delayed its passage here, 
I cannot say. I wrote you the beginning of this month, 
but have not as yet been favored with an answer ; wish our 
friends would write us more frequently. I am obliged to 
you for the inquiry you made at Dedham, for a house for 
me ; should be glad to govern myself by the opinion of the 
County, as to the place of holding the probate, provided at 
this difficult time I can be accommodated with such a place 
as will be agreeable to them. If I had been so happy as 
to have seen you before I left Watertown, I doubt whether 
it would have been proper for me to have signed any blank 
letters of administration, or letters of guardianship, before 
I had my commission, and more than a month before, by 
law, 1 could have entered upon the discharge of the office 
I was appointed to ; for, if you will recollect, you will find, 
that, by the law that was made by the General Court upon 
this occasion, none of the new appointments were to take 
place till after the 20 of September last. This matter I 
considered before I left "Watertown, or else should certainly 
have seen you previous to my departure, and have signed 
the papers you mention, which I am sensible, could it have 
been done with any propriety, would have been for the 

Letters of Thomas Cusking. 365 

ease of the County. I am much surprised that any per- 
sons among us should just now think of dividing the 
County, especially at this very critical time, when we have 
so many other matters of the greatest magnitude to engage 
our attention. Such a thing was never attempted in any 
other Count), without first notifying every town in the 
County of such an intention. Can the inhabitants of Bos- 
ton, (the shire town, whose interest it so nearly affects,) 
in their present distressed, dispersed state, attend to a ques- 
tion of such moment I Certainly not. And will the inhab- 
itants of the other Towns in the County take the advantage 
of this their distress ? or if they would, will the General 
Court attend to them at such a time ? Certainly not. 

Whenever a bill for determining what offices are incom- 
patible with each other, shall be brought into the House, 
I hope it will be considered with great attention and due 
deliberation. There are many difficulties attending such a 
measure, which at first view may not be thought of. I 
hope we shall not run from one extreme to another. I sin- 
cerely wish the Court may be directed to such a conduct as 
may tend effectually to strengthen our happy constitution, 
and be for the lasting benefit of the government. 

I am glad to find General Washington is fitting out 
some vessels of war. This is a necessary measure, as our 
enemies are daily pirating our vessels. I have frequently 
urged it here. As to the establishment of Courts of Ad- 
miralty, that will come on of course ; but it will not do to 
urge it here at present. I cannot as yet form any judgment 
when I shall be able to return. Many interesting and im- 
portant matters demand my attention and presence here. 
As, therefore, I shall be necessarily detained here for some 
time, I have no objection that, during my absence, you 
should take guardian and administration bonds, in partic- 
ular cases, where you may find it necessary ; and I doubt 
not you will take special care and caution, that in all such 
cases the bondsmen are good and sufficient. Let me know 
whether it is necessary for me to return home immediately. 
Our late President, Mr. Randolph, died yesterday, of the 
palsy. He is to be buried to-morrow. He was a worthy 
character ; he was sensible, a gentleman of an even tem- 
per and of sound judgment ; he died engaged in a good 

366 Letters of Thomas Cushing. 

cause. My friend, let us follow his example. Let us per- 
severe in supporting this good cause. Let us act with zeal, 
not rashness. Let no attachment to persons, parties, or 
factions, lead us from the path of duty ; but let us be calm, 
firm, steady, and unwearied in our endeavors to serve our 
country. In this way Heaven will smile upon our exer- 
tions, and I doubt not the good Lord will send us glorious 

I congratulate you upon your late promotion as Speaker. 
[When] my friend is honored and meets with the appro- 
bation of his countrymen, I partake of the pleasure, and 
am always highly gratified. 

I conclude, dear Sir, with the greatest esteem and [ ] 
your friend and servant, 

Thomas Gushing. 
The Honorable William Cooper, Esq* 



These papers arc copied from a folio volume of manuscripts, lettered " Papers 
relating to Canada," in the Collection of Thomas Aspinwall, one of the Publish- 
ing Committee of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1857. 


Mr. Chalmers begs leave to submit the following memo- 
randa to General Gage ; and desires the favor of such 
information, either verbal or written, as may be in the 
power or inclination, of the General to give. 

1st Query. What was the true military cause of General 
Braddock's disaster ? 

2d Qy. What were the genuine reasons of the military 
failures, or want of success, during the early campaigns of 
the war of 1755 I Is Major Mant's, or any other printed 
account of the military transactions, during those cam- 
paigns, so exact and faithful, as to merit attentive perusal I 

3d Q\t/. What was the military establishment of the 
American army, after the peace of 1763 ? How many 
troops were there in the Continental Colonies, during the 
Stamp Act disturbances'? 

4:th Q\y. What was the true object of General Mackay's 
\dsit to Boston, about the year 1768 or '69 ; and what suc- 
cess attended his intrigues ? 

oth Q'j/. Was not General Gage averse to returning to 
America in 1773 — 1 ; and did he not, for some time, decline 
to accept of the commission of Governor of Massachusetts, 
knowing, as he did, the true state of affairs, and foreseeing 
the consequences I 

368 Queries of George Chalmers. 

6 th Qy. When he did, at length, accept, by the inter- 
position of the King, were not his hands tied, by instruc- 
tions, from executing any measure, that might be deemed a 
measure of irritation % 

1th Qy. Did not the General inform Lord Dartmouth, 
in 1774, that he must consider the Revolt as universal ; that 
— — number of troops would be necessary ; and was not 
a copy of this letter sent back to the Faction at Boston ] 

8th Qy. Did not the General know that the Secretary 
of State carried on a secret correspondence with Gushing, 
during the year 1774? 

9th Qy. Was it not apparent to the General, that the 
people of the Colonies were instigated by certain persons in 
Britain ; and were not the letters of such persons found 
in Cushing's house 1 What were the dates and contents 
of such letters ? 

10th Qy. What evidence was there of the design of the 
malcontents to surprise Boston, with a view to massacre 
the troops % What number of forces were there at Boston, 
in April, 1775 % 

As Mr. Chalmers writes chiefly from written documents, 
he will be much obliged to the General, for the perusal of 
any copies of despatches, or any written memorials, with 
regard to the beforementioned interesting affairs ; and the 
General may rely on his discretion. 


1st and 2d Queries. The cause of General Braddock's 
disaster, is to be attributed, first, to the Province's disap- 
pointing him in the carriages and provisions, they engaged 
to furnish by a stated time ; by which he was detained 
several weeks, when otherwise ready to proceed ; and the 
plan he had concerted with the Governors, to march 
with expedition to Fort Duquesne, before the enemies' 
reinforcements could arrive, was, by that means, prevented ; 

Game's Anstoers to Chalmers's Queries. 369 

secondly to his being defeated near the Monongahela, the 

cause of which was his own inexperience, and that of his 

troops, of the kind of country in which the war was cur- 
ried on, and of the enemy he was to engage, whose man- 
ner of fighting was new to Europeans, though adapted to 
their circumstances and the nature of the country, in which 

heavy fires from close and compact bodies would not 

Two expeditions had been concerted in 1755; one to 
remove the French from the Ohio, abovementioned ; the 
other, under Mr. Shirley, Governor of Massachusetts Bay, 
had for object, the securing the pass into the British Prov- 
inces, by Oswego, and to remove the French from Niagara 
and Fort Frontenac, on the West and East sides of Lake 
Ontario. Two new raised regiments, with Provincial 
troops of Xew England, New York and Jersey, were 
appointed for this service ; and so much time was lost, 
through delays, mistakes, &c., in setting forward these 
troops, that the enemy had full time to reinforce and 
secure their posts, and Braddock was defeated, before they 
got to their rendezvous. General Shirley raised some works 
at Oswego, left troops to defend them, and returned with 
the rest. Having never read Major Mant's or other printed 
accounts, can only jndge, from the reports of some people 
of knowledge, who have examined them, that they do not 
merit an attentive perusal, being compiled chiefly from 
relations found in newspapers and the public orders, and 
destitute of the knowledge of the true causes of events. 

It may not be improper here to notice the origin of the 
hostilities commenced in 1755. The Indian tribes had 
long complained of encroachments upon their lands, with- 
out getting more satisfaction, than fair words and empty 
promises. Instead of doing them justice, a society called 
the Ohio Company, was formed, whose object was to obtain 
large districts of country upon or near the Ohio, for its 
members ; and it was so openly avowed, that the Indians 
became acquainted with the design. They remonstrated 
against the injustice of it, and at length, tired out, told the 
English they were an infatuated people, deserted them, and 
applied to the French for protection. 

Their entreaties first brought the French upon the Ohio, 
4th s. — vol. iv. 47 

370 Gage's Answers to Chalmers's Queries. 

who declared they came there only as friends and allies to 
the Indians, and to protect their property. Alarmed at the 
proximity of the French, the Provinces clamoured, the 
Governors applied for assistance, and troops were unfortu- 
nately sent to America. 

From the above, it may be seen that the primary causes 
of the war of 1755, which extended itself over the four 
parts of the world, are to be traced to the banks of the 
Ohio ; and that Britain was then, as she always has been, 
duped by her Colonies. 

3d Qy. The military establishment of the American 
army, after the peace of 1763, consisted of fifteen regiments, 
reduced to low numbers, which were dispersed through 
Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Canada, Illinois country, East and 
"West Florida, the Indian ports, &c. &c. ; all of them some 
hundreds of miles distant from the old Colonies. This 
was their situation, at the time of the Stamp Act; when 
no Governor would ask, it might be said dared to ask, for 
the aid of troops, nor any Council advise it. 

\tli Qy. A vessel having been seized by the officers of 
the customs at Boston, the people rose and forced the Com- 
missioners of the customs to fly to Castle William, then gar- 
risoned by a Provincial company of soldiers, and committed 
other outrages. This was the cause of sending out General 
Mackay, with two regiments, and supposed to have been 
done to show a resolution in Goverment to protect the 
crown officers. No success attended the measure. The 
Council petitioned the Governor, and also the commander 
in chief, to remove the troops from the town ; the Justices, 
in a body, refused to quarter them, and they were lodged in 
hired buildings. Broils soon commenced between the 
townsmen, ready to insult the military, and the soldiers, as 
ready to chastise an insult. General Mackay returned, 
quarrels increased, and at length the leaders of the mob 
raised a general riot. Every straggling soldier, and some 
sentinels on duty, were beat, and the guards threatened 
and pelted. The troops got under arms, the conflict grew 
warmer, and a few soldiers fired, killed or wounded six or 
seven rioters, for which Captain Preston was imprisoned 
and tried. The Town and Province insisted, that the 
troops should be removed. The Governor could neither 

Gage's Answers to Chalmers's Queries. 371 

order it, nor dissent from it. And Colonel Dalrymple, 
who commanded the troops, sent both of the regiments to 
Castle William. Tims the matter ended without farther 

5th Qfy. The General, not long from Ids command by 
leave, and still holding it. made no objection to return to 
his duty, but was averse to taking the Government of the 
Massachusetts Bay. He desired at length, that a much 
larger force, than four weak regiments might be sent out, 
and the Town of Boston be declared in rebellion, without 
which his bands would be tied up. lie was encouraged in 
the last by one of the greatest lawyers in the kingdom, 
who said in his presence, that the Boston Port Bill was 
unjustifiable, unless enacted against a people actually in 

6th Qy. The instructions were consistent with the laws 
of the constitution. Tbe rioters who destroyed the Tea, 
were to be prosecuted, according to the forms of law, and 
what is worthy of remark, is, that of the thousands con- 
cerned in that riot, or who were spectators of it, only one 
witness could be procured to give testimony against them, 
and that one conditionally, that the delinquents should be 
tried in England. 

1th Q'j/. The fullest information was transmitted home 
of the certainty of an universal revolt ; and a body of 
twenty thousand men was required to begin the war. It 
cannot be said that copies of any letters, containing such 
information, were sent back to the faction ; but they 
received such good, full, and expeditious intelligence of all 
matters transacting in England, that every thing is to be 

8th Qj/. The General did not know that the Secretary 
of State carried on a secret correspondence w r ith Cushing, 
during the vear 1774. Has heard that a letter from him, 
had been found in Cushing's house ; but neither heard the 
contents or date of it. 

9fh Q'y. It was very apparent, that the people in the 
Colonies were instigated by persons in Britain, who sent 
them the earliest and best intelligence. A letter from 
Bristol, to Doctor Cooper, signed with a fictitious name, 
was intercepted, encouraging them to take arms, and giving 

372 Gage's Answers to Chalmers's Queries. 

assurance of a rising in England, the moment blood should 
be shed in America. An instance of the intelligence sent 
them is, that on the arrival of two vessels at Marblehead, 
on the 8th of April, 1775, an unusual hurry and commotion 
was perceived among the disaffected. It being on a Sun- 
day morning, Doctor Cooper, a notorious rebel, was officia- 
ting in his meeting-house, and on notice given him, pre- 
tended sudden sickness, went home and sent to another cler- 
gyman to do his duty in the evening. He with every other 
chief of the faction left Boston before night, and never 
returned to it. The cause, at the time unknown, was dis- 
covered on the 14th of said month, when a vessel arrived 
with government despatches, which contained directions to 
seize the persons of certain notorious rebels. It was too 
late. They had received timely notice of their danger, and 
were fled. 

The letters found in Cushing's house, were shown to 
General Howe. Very few, and those of little consequence, 

were produced, till he had taken the command. D 

M , can give the best account of them. 

10th Qy. Intelligence was sent from several parts of 
the country, that something of moment was in agitation ; 
the leaders busily employed, and the militia preparing their 
arms. A gentleman in the town received repeated messages 
from a particular friend, entreating him to leave the Town, 
with his family, that they might be safe from danger ; and 
that gentleman communicated the affair to the Governor, 
requesting him, at the same time, not to despise the intelli- 
gence he gave, as his friend was acquainted with the most 
secret intentions of the rebels. Precautions were immedi- 
ately taken to defeat the design, at which the faction in the 
town showed disappointment ; and some were overheard 
talking about it, and to say, it must now be given up. No 
other evidence can be given of the design of the malcon- 
tents to surprise and massacre the troops. 

In the beginning of 1775, there were about three thou- 
sand men in Boston. More arrived between July and 

I) E S T U D C T ION O F T II E T E A , 


The three following Letters have beon transcribed from the originals. Dr. 
Franklin and Arthur Lee were Agents for the Massachusetts House of Repre- 
sentatives in London, at the time the Letters were written. 

The account of Dr. Williamson's Examination before the King's Council, has 
likewise been copied from a paper in his own handwriting. He was a passenger 
in the first ship which arrived in England from Boston, after the destruction of 
the tea. Jared Sparks. 

June 12, 185G. 


Boston, December 11th, 1773. 
Dear Sir, 

I missed the opportunity of sending you the above, 
and am now to give you an account of what has since 
happened among us. 

Upon information that the tea, with the American duty 
upon it, was certainly shipped, and might soon be expected, 
we heard of an opposition forming in New York and 
Philadelphia, and measures concerted there to induce the 
resignation of the consignees. Our patriots determined to 
second their brethren in the other Colonies, and appointed 
a meeting of the people, at Liberty Tree, at noon-day, to 
receive the resignation of the consignees for this Province. 
But they chose not to appear, upon this intimation, at that 
place. A committee was then chosen to wait on them at 
the store, where all the consignees were met, to know if 
they would resign this commission. A great part of the 
body, without a vote for it, accompanied the committee. 
The answer was rough and peremptory, "No resigna- 

374 Destruction Of the Tea in Boston Harbor. 

Soon after, the Governor called a council, and the con- 
signees petitioned that the tea, upon its arrival, might be 
under their protection. The council declined having any- 
thing to do with it. A town meeting was legally called, 
and a respectable committee chosen, who repeatedly 
attempted to obtain the almost universally desired resigna- 
tion, but without effect. The consignees insisted upon 
landing the tea, though they conceded to store it, till they 
could hear from their constituents. We soon were in- 
formed, that the consignees at New York and Philadelphia 
behaved in a soothing manner to the people, and, upon 
being assured that the tea was still dutied there, declared, 
without reserve, that they would not have the least share in 
executing a commission so disagreeable to their fellow- 

About this time a number of people assembled in the 
evening, before Mr. Clark's house, from which a musket or 
pistol was fired upon them, without any damages, and they, 
in return, broke his windows and retired. Soon after, the 
consignees, who consulted with the Governor, &c, in every 
step, returned to the castle, in imitation of the commis- 
sioners, and, with similar views and hopes, no doubt, where 
they have remained ever since, except Mr. Joshua Win- 
slow, who lately arrived from Nova Scotia, and lives at 

Upon the arrival of the tea, an assembly of the people 
w T as called— it proved as large as any ever known here — of 
which Mr. Hancock was moderator. Great numbers from 
the neighboring towns united in it, and, indeed, the people 
in the country have all along been equally zealous with 
their brethren in Boston, in this common cause ; and there 
is now established a correspondence and union between 
them, never known before. The moderator and people were 
strongly desirous of preserving the tea untouched, for the 
East-India Company. They labored this point with undis- 
sembled ardor, and great patience. They considered, how- 
ever, that landing the tea would insure the duty, that it might 
be smuggled from the castle, and that the price of tea, higher 
among us than to the southward, would be almost an invin- 
cible temptation to this. They insisted, therefore, that it 
should go back in the same bottoms. They urged this 

Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. 375 

upon the consignees with great earnestness, from an appre- 
hension thai the tea, in the present temper of the Province, 
would not be safe ; but in vain ; they could not be persuaded 
to further concessions than before. The master and owner 
were then called, who, seeing the irresistible torrent, 
engaged that the tea should return as it came. Two other 
vessels, freighted with it, arrived, and the same engagement 
was made lor them. 

There we thought the matter would have ended. But 
the Governor, consignees, revenue officers, &c, raised ob- 
stacles to this measure, and seemed to choose that the tea 
should be destroyed, and the exasperation of both countries 
heightened. Another assembly of the people was called, 
of which a country gentleman was moderator. The owner 
of the ship first arrived, appeared before them, and pleaded 
that if they held him to his engagement to carry the tea 
back, he should be ruined for want of clearances, &c. He 
was desired by the people to apply to the custom-house for 
a clearance, which he did, and was refused. He was then 
desired to wait on the Governor at Milton, for a pass at the 
castle, which was also refused. 

The people waited for his return till dark, last evening. 
As soon as the Governor's refusal was known, the assembly 
was dissolved. Just before the dissolution, two or three 
hundred persons, in dress and appearance like Indians, 
passed by the Old South meeting-house, where the assem- 
bly was held, gave a war-whoop, and hastened to the wharf, 
where all the tea ships lay, and demanding the tea, which 
was given up to them without the least resistance, they soon 
i emptied all the chests into the harbor, to the amount of 
i about three hundred and forty. This was done without 
injury to any other property or to any man's person. An 

• interloper, indeed, who had found means to fill his pockets 
' with tea, upon being discovered, was stripped of his booty 

and his clothes together, and sent home naked. A rcmark- 
l able instance of order and justice among savages. "When 

• they had done their business, they silently departed, and 
the town has been remarkably quiet ever since. 

This was done last evening, and had it been deferred a 
few hours longer, the tea, it was supposed, would have been 
taken under the protection of the admiral, at the castle. 

376 Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. 

The Governor, collector, and consignees, most certainly had 
it in their power to have saved this destruction, and 
returned it undiminished to the owners in England ; as the 
people were extremely desirous of this, did every thing in 
their power to accomplish it, and waited so long for this 
purpose, as to run no small risk of being frustrated in their 
grand design of preventing its being landed. 

The fourth, and only remaining vessel, with tea, Captain 
Loring, is ashore near Cape Cocl, the cargo likely to be 
saved ; but what will become of the tea, brought in that 
bottom, time will discover. We have no account that any 
has yet arrived at New-York or Philadelphia. It is not 
doubted, however, that, from the latter place, it will be all 
sent back, and should it be landed in the former, that it will 
remain unvented in the fort. To the warm and violent 
opposition made here, the people have been partly, at least, 
excited by their brethren in those places, and by the mer- 
chants in London ; but the principle upon which they 
acted, was a thorough detestation of the insidious design 
of Administration, to establish and increase the American 
revenue upon this article, after fair and repeated profes- 
sions of an intention to relieve us. In what manner it will 
resent the treatment we have given to this exasperating 
measure, is uncertain ; but thus much is certain, that the 
country is united with the town, and the Colonies with one 
another, in the common cause, more firmly than ever. 
Should a greater military power be sent among us, it can 
never alter the fixed sentiments of the people, though it 
would increase the public confusion, and tend to plunge 
both countries into the most unhappy circumstances. 

The tories, or tools of Hutchinson, seem struck w T ith a 
panic ; some of them own now the impossibility of support- 
ing the measures of Administration, and a necessity of its 
being changed. The longer the Governor is continued, the 
more plainly this necessity will appear. In this view, there 
are some wise friends to this country, who do not regret his 
continuance in the chair. The last hope of him and his 
friends is, to govern wholly by a military power. 

I am, &c. 

Samuel Cooper. 

Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. 371 


Boston, December 21.s7, 177o. 

Tt has been the expectation of many of the Colonists, 

that the last session of Parliament would have put a final 
end to those grievances under which they had so long been 
oppressed, and against which they had so long in vain 
remonstrated. They expected that the Revenue Acts 
would have been repealed, and that they should no more 
have had reason to complain of the unconstitutional exer- 
tions of Parliamentary power. They were naturally led to 
form these expectations from the conduct of Administra- 
tion, who lately encouraged them with assurances, that if 
all things remained quiet in America, these unhappy dis- 
sensions would soon terminate in a lasting union. But 
how, Sir, were they surprised to find they had been de- 
ceived ; to find that the Parliament, at the very time they 
expected relief, pursued new measures for effectually secur- 
ing and enhancing these oppressive revenues ; and with 
this majority, an Act,' passed the last session, empowered 
the East India Company to ship their teas to America. 

From this Act, they readily saw that they had nothing to 
hope from the favor of Administration, but that they rather 
discovered an indisposition that the Parliament should 
grant them any relief; they considered the Act as intro- 
ductive of monopolies which, besides the train of evils that 
attend them in a commercial view, are forever dangerous 
to public liberty, more especially under the direction and 
influence of government ; they also looked upon it preg- 
nant with new grievances, paving the way to further impo- 
sitions, and in its consequences threatening the final de- 
struction of liberties. 

Thrown by this idea into a state of desperation, the 
united voice of the people, not only in this Province but 
in New York and Pennsylvania, and as far as we can learn, 
in all the Colonies, was, that they would never suffer the 
tea to be landed, but would prefer any species of hazard 
and danger, to a tame submission to measures which, if 
pursued, must reduce them to a state of abject slavery. 
4th s. — vol. iv. 48 

378 Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. 

Administration could not have invented a method so effec- 
tual for raising the spirit of the Colonies, or promoting 
among them an entire union of sentiment. At the same 
time, people on your side the water have for several months 
been repeatedly informing our merchants of this manoeu- 
vre, and advising them, as they regarded their sacred rights, 
to withstand the landing of the teas by the most vigorous 

While the minds of the people were impressed with these 
sentiments, the vessels arrived with the teas, consigned to 
Messrs. Richard Clarke & Sons, Thomas & Elisha Hutch- 
inson, Benjamin Faneuil, and Joshua Winslow, Esqrs. 
Previous to this, the Town of Boston had several meetings, 
in order to induce the consignees to resign their trust, but 
to no purpose. And immediately upon the arrival of the 
vessels aforesaid, that every measure possible might be 
taken to prevent confusion and disorder, while the minds 
of all were in great agitation, the people in this and many 
of the neighboring Towns, assembled in the Old South 
meeting-house, (Faneuil Hall not being capacious enough 
to contain the people that attended,) to prevail with the 
consignees to send back the teas, and if possible to preserve 
it from that destruction, which the resentments of the peo- 
ple might justly lead them to expect. You will see by the 
enclosed papers the measures they took, and the resolves 
they passed, and will wonder, perhaps, that these resolves 
and measures were in vain. They not only treated with 
the consignees, but with the owners and masters of these 
vessels ; but all without success. 

Despairing to effectuate any method of accommodation, 
after having tried all that could be devised to no purpose, 
they dissolved the meeting, which, agreeable to their con- 
stant and declared design, had protected the teas from 
destruction. Nigh twenty days were now passed since the 
arrival of one of the tea vessels, commanded by Capt, Hall, 
at which time, according to Act of Parliament, it was in the 
power of the custom house officers to take the teas into 
their own possession, in order to secure the duties. There 
were just grounds to think, that they intended to do it the 
minute the twenty days were expired, and that they would 
attempt to land them by force, and overbear any opposition 

Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor, 

> t 

that might occur by a second effusion of blood. Under 
these apprehensions, the teas, on the evening of the L6th 

instant, were destroyed by a number of persons unknown 
and in disguise. 

Such was the obstinacy of the consignees, their advisers 

and coadjutors, such their aversion to all conciliatory meas- 
ures, that they are almost universally condemned, and some 
even of our party among us, acknowledge that the destruc- 
tion of the teas must be imputed to these obstinate enemies 
of our liberties, who never would consent to any method 
proposed for its preservation, and who perhaps wished to 
irritate and inflame the minds of an injured, oppressed 
people, to measures of violence, of which afterwards they 
hoped to make their own advantages. 

The House of Representatives, at their last session, 
appointed us a Committee to write to their Agent. In pur- 
suance of this appointment, we have given you this infor- 
mation of the present state of our affairs, and doubt not 
you wilf make such an improvement of this intelligence, 
as shall be most for the interest of this Province in partic- 
ular, and of the Colonies in general. 

We are, with respect, 

Your most humble servants, 

Thomas Cushing. 
Samuel Adams. 
John Hancock. 
William Phillips. 


Boston, December 2'M, 1773. 
! Sir, 

At the instance of my worthy friend, Mr. Samuel 
I Adams, I have presumed to take upon me to communicate 
to you what I know concerning the doings of the Town, 
and of the people, at their late meetings, respecting the 
teas exported by the India Company, in Captains Bruce, 
Hall, and Coffin. This I am the more capable of doing, as I 

380 Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. 

have the honor of being one of the selectmen of this Town : 
I am therefore personally acquainted with some facts rela- 
ting to this matter, more especially what passed between 
the selectmen and Mr. Jonathan Clarke, one of the consign- 
ees, at the interview they had with him and his brother, a 
few days before the people met on this occasion. From 
the first report of the India Company's obtaining an Act of 
Parliament to export teas to the Colonies, it threw the 
inhabitants of this and the other towns into great agitation ; 
they judging that it was altogether a plan of Administration 
to increase and secure the revenue, which for some years 
past has caused such distress and unhappiness in North 

When it was known that Messrs. Hutchinsons, Clarke, 
and Faneuil, were to be the Agents for the India Company, 
it was thought advisable to call the Town together, to 
know the minds of the inhabitants on this matter. They 
met the 4th ult, debated on the subject, and adjourned to 
the 6th. At both these meetings they manifested, by their 
votes, their detestation of the measure ; not as an act of 
the India Company, but as a scheme of Administration. 
They raised a reputable committee to wait on the con- 
signees, who, as the Town judged, treated their application 
with contempt. This being the case, the meeting was dis- 
solved. On the 18th, the Town was again called together 
to deliberate on this matter : a very great number of the 
inhabitants and of the most respectable characters appeared : 
the Town was solicitous to gain the consent of the con- 
signees to the reshipping the tea to London : they were the 
more urgent, as they knew this measure would prevent the 
destruction of the Company's property, which they judged 
would be the case if it was not sent back. 

They again raised a committee to wait on the consignees ; 
they treated this application much in the same manner as 
they did the other. The answer they sent the Town was 
looked on by them as trifling. They voted it unsatisfactory, 
and the meeting was dissolved, and no further application 
was made to them by the Town. People's minds were 
daily more and more agitated. A number of persons, 
friendly to the consignees, fearful of disagreeable conse- 
quences, endeavored to persuade them to come to a compo- 

Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. 381 

sition with the Town. Of this number T was one. We 
Bet before them the evils that must ensue, if they were 
obstinate: but if a composition took place, the property of 
the Company would be preserved, the Town would be re- 
stored to its usual tranquillity, and they themselves would 
recover their former good standing with their fellow-citizens. 
Though we labored night and day in the affair, all our 
efforts could not produce an agreement between them and 
the Town. The town's people thought they had been ill- 
treated by them at the late town meetings, therefore they 
were now on their part determined that the teas should not 
be landed ; so the consignees were on their part obstinate, 
and would he noways active in sending it back. Had the 
consignees, on the Town's first application to them, offered 
to have stored the tea, subject to the inspection of a com- 
mittee of gentlemen, till they could write their principals ; 
and that until that time no duty should be paid, which no 
doubt the commissioners of the customs would have con- 
sented to, under these circumstances : Had they made such 
an offer to the Town, at either of their two meetings, I am 
persuaded the Town would have closed with them, and 
every thing would have been preserved from destruction. 
The above doings took place before the arrival of the tea, 
and before the arrival of Mr. Jonathan Clarke, one of the 
consignees, from London. 

On Saturday the 27th ult, a few days after his arrival, 
he called on me to know if it would be agreeable to the 
selectmen for him to w T ait on them. I told him it would ; 
that if he would name his time, the Board should be sum- 
moned. According to his desire, the Board met at 4 o'clock, 
P. M. He with his brother attended. He informed the 
selectmen that he esteemed himself very unhappy in incur- 
ring the displeasure of his fellow-citizens, by his being 
appointed an agent for the India Company for the sale of 
the tea that w r as expected. He said the appointment was 
not of his seeking, that he was wholly passive in the affair, 
(this by some is said to be not true,) therefore it was un- 
reasonable that he and the others should suffer. We told 
him, that let our private opinion be what it would, by what 
we could collect, the people would be satisfied with nothing 
less than the sending the tea back. He said that was im- 

382 Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. 

possible for liim to do ; that it was contrary to the acts of 
trade ; the tea, with the vessel, would be liable to confisca- 
tion ; that in this way they should be a means of procuring 
the loss of the Company's interest, and perhaps bring 
on ruin to themselves. We told him that, perhaps some 
method might be devised that would remove the difficulty ; 
that as it could not be landed without the utmost hazard, if 
he should reship it, and protest against the obstructors of 
his regular proceedings, and return the tea to London with 
such a protest, he might save the Company's property, and 
perhaps obtain their thanks for his care of their interest ; 
whereas were the consignees to take no step for the preser- 
vation of it, they would, and very justly, incur their resent- 
ment for not preserving the tea when in their power to do 
it. We had a long conversation with this gentleman and 
his brother, on the subject. On the whole, before he left 
us, he said, that nothing should be done as to the tea, in 
any clandestine manner ; that the vessel should come up to 
town with it ; that so soon as Capt. Hall, who was hourly 
expected, should arrive, and he knew the contents of his 
letters, he would immediately hand in proposals to the 
selectmen for them to communicate to the town. 

The next day Capt. Hall arrived. The selectmen met at 
the Hall, (although Sabbath day,) at twelve o'clock, in ex- 
pectation of an application from Mr. Clarke : we sent our 
messenger to his house, could hear nothing of him. We 
adjourned till five o'clock in the evening, when we again 
met, hoping to have an application, that we might have 
time to call the Town together in the way prescribed by 
law, before any other meeting might take place. We 
continued sitting till nine o'clock; sent again to the houses 
of consignees, but could get no intelligence where they 
were. One of the selectmen, finding the storm arising, 
sent privately to Mr. Clarke's brother-in-law, desired him, 
if he had any regard for him or his connections, that he 
would find him, and get him and the others forthwith to 
apply to the selectmen, (agreeable to his promise,) that a 
regular town meeting might be called. He returned for 
answer that it was impossible for him to see them that 
evening ; but that early in the morning he would get them 
to send a billet to the selectmen with their proposals. 

Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor, 383 

Very early next morning hand bills were dispersed, by 
unknown persons, inviting the people to meet at Faneuil 
Hall, on occasion of Capt. Hall's arrival with the tea. 
This being the case, it was in vain to attempt to call the 
Town together in a legal way, which would have been 
done, had Mr. Clarke have complied with his promise to 
the selectmen, which was, that immediately on the arrival 
of Capt. Hall, he would hand in to them his proposals as 
a foundation for a town meeting. This might have pre- 
vented the event that has since taken place. The people 
of this and the neighboring Towns, met in conformity to 
the dispersed hand bills, on Monday, the 29th. A very 
great number met. so great that the town hall could not 
contain them. They were obliged to adjourn to a large 
meeting-house, where, it is supposed, that five or six thou- 
sand of respectable inhabitants met ; men of the best char- 
acter and of the first fortunes. 

The doings of this and the other meetings arc made 
public, that it will be needless for me to recite them. I will 
only say that it is the observation of persons unprejudiced, 
and of character, who attended these meetings, which con- 
sisted of all sorts, whig and tory, that the utmost decorum 
was observed ; that through the whole of their debates, 
although they were determined the tea should not be landed 
subject to a duty, yet it was apparent that their only view 
in sending it back, was not only to render the scheme of 
Administration abortive, but to preserve the tea from de- 
struction. This ran through the whole of their reasoning 
on the subject. To accomplish this, every step that could 
be taken, (consistent with their intentions of its going 
back.) was taken, to preserve it. Sometime after the peo- 
ple were assembled, I received a letter directed to me, 
signed by all the consignees, the purport of which was that 
they could not comply with the expectations of the Town 
in sending the tea back, but that they would store it, till 
they could know the mind of the India Company concern- 
ing it. 

The people ordered the letter to be read, but they were 
so irritated at the conduct of these gentlemen, that they 
acted no further on the letter than hearing it read. At 
this meeting the people required Mr. Rotch, the owner of 

384: Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. 

Capt. Hall's ship, at his peril, to return the tea on board, 
to London. He consented to it, but said he considered 
himself as under duress, and therefore, to save himself 
from blame, he should protest against the people. So far 
they were contented ; hoping they should obtain the end 
they were in pursuit of, and at the same time preserve the 
Company's property ; and that the tea would be on its 
return to London, before twenty days should expire ; that 
being the time the officers of the customs could let it lay 
on board, under a report. 

Some days after this meeting, it was evident that Mr. 
Rotch, by his conduct, had no intention of returning the 
tea in his ship to London. This being the apprehension of 
the people, it created a great uneasiness, not only in this 
but in the other Towns ; however, they waited till the 14th 
instant, but three days before the expiration of the time 
when the officers of the customs would take possession of 
it for the duties, and perhaps call in the naval and military 
force to their aid, which, since the destruction of the tea, 
has been found to have been their intention ; the Cap- 
tains of the several ships of war being ordered on board, 
and preparations were, it is said, actually made for some 
expedition, (there being then, and are now in the harbor, 
one sixty-gun ship of war, two frigates, besides several 
smaller vessels of force,) it was much feared the country 
would have destroyed the teas, even under these circum- 
stances, which would have produced dreadful effects on all 
sides. At this meeting there was a much greater appear- 
ance than at any time. People attended it from Towns at 
the distance of twenty miles. 

At this they ordered Mr. Rotch, at his peril, to carry 
back the tea to London. He told the people, that as the 
custom house officers would not clear out his ship, so long 
as the tea was on board, so neither would the Governor 
give him a pass by the castle ; therefore it was in vain for 
him to attempt it. They ordered him immediately to w T ait 
on the collector, and demand a clearance for his ship. 
The collector refused to do it. They then ordered him to 
wait on the Governor, to know if he would give his ship a 
pass by the castle ; he refused also, by saying, that as the 
ship was not regularly cleared at the custom house, he 

Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor, 385 

could not do it. The people then required of Mr. llotch 
his answer whether he would proceed with his ship, or 
order Capt. Ball, the master, to proceed to London with 

the ship, in tin 4 situation she was in. He gave for answer 
that he would not. 

On this the meeting was dissolved ; hut before the dis- 
solution of the meeting, a great number in disguise, who, 
it was said, came from the country, passed by when the 
people were assembled, and went on board the several ves- 
sels that had the tea on board, and in a very short time, 
without noise or tumult, destroyed all the tea, by throwing 
it into the sea. The people, from their first taking up this 
matter until the destruction of the tea, showed no disposi- 
tion to have it destroyed, if it possibly could be prevented, 
consistent with their intentions of preventing its being 
landed and paying the duty. They took every method that 
a people engaged in such a cause could take. They waited 
till the last moment, hoping that a compliance w r ith their 
requisition would take place, that so not only the end they 
had in view might be answ r ered, but that the India Com- 
pany's property might be preserved. Let who will be the 
persons who were instruments of the destruction of so 
large a property, almost every one look on the consignees 
as the faulty cause. Upon the whole, I do lament the loss 
of the Honorable Company ; I also lament the original 
cause of that loss, which I think is most unrighteous, and 
which has proved a source of unhappiness to the Ameri- 

Very soon, I fear, the Americans will be drove, if some 
kind interposition does not take place, to that desperation, 
Which neither the severest threats, nor the mildest treat- 
ment of the British Parliament, will control. I have, in 
the above, given, so far as I am able, an honest detail of 
! facts relating to a matter very interesting, and which may 
perhaps draw on us the resentment of Administration ; yet 
we do console ourselves that we have acted constitutionally, 
and that a good Providence will so order this matter, as 
that it may insure in great good to these Colonies. I should 
lot have taken upon me to w 7 rite on this subject, but that 
he relation I stand in to the Town ; and in hopes that a 
)lain, circumstantial narration of facts, might be of service, 
4th s. — vol. iv. 49 

386 Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. 

to a gentleman of your influence and disposition. I have 
therefore ventured on your candor, and have spoke the sen- 
timents of a heart much agitated for the welfare of this 
and our mother country ; and if my mite will serve the 
good old cause, I give it cheerfully. As I am no adept in 
letter writing, and for some other reasons, I choose to have 
my name concealed. In any other way, you may make what 
use of this letter you please. 

I am, with great regard for you, Sir, and for all the 
friends of our happy Constitution, 

Your must humble servant, 

John Scollay. 


Before his Majesty's most Honorable Privy Council, 
February 19th, 1774. — Dr. Williamson, of Philadelphia, 
being examined concerning the public transactions at Bos- 
ton, in November and December last, respecting the tea 
that was sent there by the East India Company, and de- 
stroyed in the harbor, said : 

That on the 17th or 18th of November, 1773, he arrived 
in Boston from Hhode Island, with the purpose of proceed- 
ing in the first vessel for London. Being told that the 
inhabitants were assembled in town meeting, he went to the 
public hall, for the purpose of gratifying his curiosity, by 
observing whether it was a rude collection of the lower 
class of people, or an orderly assembly of respectable 
citizens. He had been told, that the expected tea was the 
occasion of the meeting, and that there had already been 
one or two meetings on the same subject. In a few 
minutes after he entered the hall, some gentlemen, who 
were said to be selectmen, came in with a letter from the 
tea consignees. The letter was read by the clerk, and 
imported that the consignees could not then resign. It was 
voted not satisfactory. Mr. Hancock was moderator of the 

Destruction of the 'Tea in Boston Harbor. 387 

meeting. Two or three persons spoke a few minutes con- 
cerning the tea, or the contents of the letter, but he was 
too far off to hear them distinctly. The meeting was then 
dissolved. He apprehends no vote but the above was 
passed at this meeting, but believes the selectmen agreed to 
afford the tea consignees an interview, whenever the tea 
sbip might arrive, though he does not recollect bow he 
received tins intelligence. This, they said, was intended to 
give the consignees an opportunity of resigning, so as to 
escape the public odium. 

On the 29th of November, there was a meeting of tbe 
people — not a regular town meeting. He apprehends this 
meeting bad its origin in a report that the selectmen had 
not prevailed, or were not likely to prevail, on the con- 
signees, to resign. The people began to meet in the public 
hall, but soon adjourned to a large church, or meeting- 
house, at some distance. He was present while some of 
the votes were passed on that day. Mr. Jonathan Wil- 
liams acted as moderator. He remembers, in particular, it 
was voted, That the tea should be sent back, at all events, 
to the place from whence it came, or words to this amount ; 
also, That it should pay no duty; and That it should return 
in the bottom in which it came. It was also voted. That the tea 
should not be entered ; and Mr. Rotch and Capt. Hall were 
enjoined, under severe penalties, not to enter it. The speak- 
ers were very numerous on the subject of the above votes, 
but he cannot possibly recollect who they all were, for he 
only learned the names of most of them while they were 
speaking. The discourse of some tended in a very different 
direction from that of others ; for while some advised to 
moderation, and by all means to the abstaining from 
violence, a few talked in a style that was violent and 

But the men who appeared to be the leaders, and to have 

the confidence and esteem of the people, were unanimous 

in determining, at the least they seemed to determine, that 

! the tea should go back to London, and that they would 

: prevent any measures by which it might be in danger. 

From observing the countenance, and attending to the dis- 

1 course of this body of people, he was then fully persuaded, 

that the tea would not be destroved ; that it would be sent 

388 Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. 

back ; that no attempt would be made with any prospect of 
success to detain it. A watch of twenty-five men was 
appointed to take care of the ship by night, lest the tea 
should be taken out of her, or rather, (for this was given as 
the reason,) lest some enemy of the town should burn the 
ship, in order to lay the blame to the inhabitants. He 
does not remember who proposed the watch, nor who was 
the captain of it, but believes it was proposed that they 
should not be armed. He thinks there was also a meeting 
of the people on the 30th, at which he was informed they 
entered into sundry resolutions. He was also informed, for 
he was not present to see it, that the sheriff on that day, by 
order of the Governor, charged the people to disperse. He 
believes a watch was kept over the tea ships every night 
from their arrival, until that night on which the tea was 

There was another meeting of the body of the people of 
Boston, and the neighboring Towns, on Tuesday or Wed- 
nesday, the 14th or 15th of December, as he was informed. 
He heard the bells ringing, and saw people going to the 
meeting. By the report he then received, from sundry 
people who attended, he believes that the account of the 
proceedings, which was published in the newspaper of 
Edes & Gill, was just. He believes there was also an 
adjourned meeting of the body on the 16th or 17th of 
December. In the evening of that day, above an hour after 
dark, he was informed that a number of people were 
employed in destroying the tea. He immediately went, 
that he might obtain full satisfaction as to this fact, and 
from a small eminence about fifty yards from the nearest 
ship, he could observe that there were people on board, 
who, he apprehends, were disguised. He could hear them 
cut open the tea chests, when they had brought them upon 
the deck. The rioters made very little noise. On the next 
day the ships were said to be quite clear. 


That Mr. Hancock was moderator of the said town meet- 
ing at Faneuil Hall, on the 17 th or 18th of November, and 
as such, put the question. That the letter which was read 

Destruction of the Tea in Boston Harbor. )$S!) 

at the meeting, said to have been written by the tea con- 
signees, and which was voted not satisfactory, was the same, 
according to the best of his memory, with a letter which 
he now saw published in a paper, called the " Massachu- 
setts, &c. No. — ." Also that Jonathan Williams, as mod- 
erator of the said meeting, on the 29th of November, put 
the several questions, which were voted while he was 

Hugh Williamson. 



This Letter is printed from the original, which was read to the Society by 
Hon. Charles H. Warren. 

Boston, May 14, 1774. 
My Dear Sir, 

This Town has received the copy of an Act of the 
British Parliament, wherein it appears that we have been 
tried and condemned, and are to be punished, by the 
shutting up of the harbor and other marks of revenge, 
until we shall disgrace ourselves by servilely yielding up, 
in effect, the just and righteous claims of America. If the 
Parliament had a right to pass such an edict, does it not 
discover the want of every moral principle to proceed to 
the destruction of a community, without even the accusa- 
tion of any crime committed by such community 1 And for 
any thing that appears, this is in fact the case. There is 
no crime alleged in the Act, as committed by the Town of 
Boston. Outrages have been committed within the Town, 
and therefore the community, as such, are to be destroyed, 
without duly inquiring whether it deserved any punishment 
at all. Has there not often been the same kind of reason 
why the Port of London should be shut up, to the starv- 
ing of hundreds of thousands, when their own mobs 
have surrounded the King's palace % But such are the 
councils of a nation, once famed and revered for the 
character of humane, just and brave. 

The people receive this cruel edict with abhorrence and 
indignation. They consider themselves as suffering the 
stroke ministerial — I may more precisely say, Hutchin- 
sonian vengeance, in the common cause of America. I 
hope they will sustain the blow with a becoming fortitude, 

Letter from Samuel Adams to James Warren. 391 

and that the cursed design of intimidating and suhduing 

the spirits of all America, will, by the joint efforts of all, 
he frustrated. It is the expectation of our enemies, and 

some of our friends are afraid, that this Town, singly, will 
not be able to support the cause under so severe a trial. 
J)id not the very being of every sea-port town, and indeed 
of every Colony, considered as a free people, depend upon 
it, 1 would not even then entertain a thought so dishon- 
orable of them as that they would leave us now to struggle 

I enclose you a copy of a vote, passed by this Town at a 
very full meeting yesterday, which stands adjourned till 
Wednesday next, to receive the report of a committee 
appointed to consider what is proper further to he done. 
The inhabitants in general abhor the thought of paying for 
the tea, which is one condition upon which we are to be 
restored to the grace and favor of Great Britain. Our 
Committee of Correspondence have written letters to our 
friends in the Southern Colonies, and they are about writing 
to the several towns in this Province. The merchants of 
Newburyport have exhibited a noble example of public 
spirit, in resolving that, if the other sea-port Towns in this 
Province alone, will come into the measure, they will not 
trade to the southward of South Carolina, nor to. any part of 
Great Britain and Ireland, till the harbor of Boston is again 
open and free ; or till the disputes between Britain and the 
Colonics are settled, upon such terms as all rational men 
ought to contend for. This is a manly and generous reso- 
lution. I wish Plymouth, which has hitherto stood 
foremost, would now r condescend to second Newburyport. 
Such a determination put into practice, would alter the 
views of the nation, who are in full expectation that Bos- 
ton will be unthought of by the rest of the continent, and 
even of this Province, and left, as they are devoted, to ruin. 
The heroes who first trod on your shore, fed on clams and 
muscles, and were contented. The country which they 
explored, and defended with their richest blood, and which 
they transmitted as an inheritance to their posterity, affords 
us a superabundance of provision. Will it not be an 
eternal disgrace to this generation, if it should now be 
surrendered to that people who, if we might judge of them 

392 Letter from Samuel Adams to James Warren. 

by one of their laws, are barbarians. Impius hcec tarn 
culta novalia miles habebit ? Barbarus has segetes ? If 
our brethren feel and resent the affront and injury now 
offered to this town ; if they realize of how great import- 
ance it is to the liberties of all America that Boston should 
sustain this shock with dignity ; if they recollect their own 
resolutions, to defend the public liberty at the expense of 
their fortunes and lives, they cannot fail to contribute their 
aid, by a temporary suspension of their trade. 

I am your friend, 

Samuel Adams. 
James Warren, Esq. 



Tins Letter is transcribed from Vol. 193, Massachusetts Archives, pp. 33-38. 

The following is the Resolve of Congress, to which the Letter alludes, which 
was passed October 8, 1774 : " Resolved, That this Congress approve the oppo- 
sition of the inhabitants of the Massachusetts Bay, to the execution of the late 
Acts of Parliament ; and if the same shall be attempted to be carried into exe- 
cution by force, in such case all America ought to support them in their oppo- 
sition." R. F., Jr. 

Northampton, Feb. 22, 1775. 
Dear Sir, 

Since I left Cambridge, I have had many thoughts on 
the state of this Province and continent ; and suffer me to 
say, Sir, that the time is in fact arrived, when we are to 
drop all chimerical plans, and in our contemplations 
thoroughly to think down, and pervade every step that is 
proposed for practice; to judge of its practicability, and, 
as far as possible, to view all its consequences. With this 
conviction, I have been most seriously contemplating the 
commission and most important trust of our Committee of 
Safety, and especially that branch of it which relates to 
their mustering the minute men and others of the militia, 
when they shall judge that the late Acts of Parliament, viz. 
the regulation act and the murder act, are attempted to be 
carried into execution by force. 

A most critical, most important, most arduous trust this. 
Here let me observe, that the soldiers, when thus mustered 
by the said Committee, who have this power devolved on 
them by the representative body of the Province, will sup- 
pose it is their duty to fight ; they therefore will only 
deliberate how to fight to advantage. They will not con- 
sider the question, whether or not the time is, that 
4th ?. — vol. iv. 50 

394 Letter from Joseph Hawley to Thomas Cashing. 

they ought to fight ; they will suppose that the continent 
have devolved the resolution of that question upon this 
Province ; and that this Province have devolved it on the 
Committee of Safety ; and that the Committee, by calling 
them, have decided it. They will judge, that if they should 
decline fighting, when they are called for that intent, their 
honor and courage will be impeached. The soldier, there- 
fore, will probably, at all events, fall on. Thus hostilities 
will be commenced, which we must suppose will, thence- 
forward continue, and be most vigorously pushed, until 
the fate of America be decided ; hostilities, in which we 
must have a vigorous and persevering assistance of the 
other Colonies, or we must sink under them. Suffer me 
then to ask, whether it will not be the height of presump- 
tion to enter on such a scene with no other assurance or 
security of such effectual and continued aids as will be 
absolutely necessary, than what is contained in a resolution 
of about six lines, and they consisting of terms and expres- 
sions not the most definite, or of certain and precise 

The words used in the resolution, to state the case 
wherein hostilities are to be commenced, are, in my opinion, 
by far too loose, to wit, " When the acts shall be attempted 
to be carried into execution by force ; " as well as the 
words made use to secure the aid of the Colonies, to wit, 
" All America ought to support them in such opposition : " 
not that they will actually support them, but a mere 
declaration that it would be reasonable and just that such 
support should be afforded. Is this a treaty offensive and 
defensive, of sufficient precision to make us secure of the 
effectual aid of the other Colonies in a war with Great 
Britain 1 Besides, by whom was this declaration or engage- 
ment, such as it is, made 1 Was it by Delegates specially 
authorized and instructed to make an engagement of this 
sort 1 Who knows whether the respective constituent 
bodies will avow this declaration \ Moreover, it ought to 
be well considered, with regard to all the other Colonies, 
excepting Connecticut and Rhode Island, what situation 
they are in, to make an engagement of this sort, in case 
they were generally disposed to come into it. Don't we all 
say that this Province cannot levy, subsist and pay an 

Letter from Joseph llaielej/ to Thomas Gushing. 395 

army sufficient to afford us any hope of present resistance, 
without a Legislature which the people will cheerfully 
submit to I Is not that precisely the case with all the 
other Colonies, the two abovementioned excepted] Have 

they not as much to do to assume a new government, every 
one of them, in order to levy, subsist and pay their respec- 
tive quotas of an army, as we have! Nay, would not the 
success of an attempt of this sort be more precarious in 
every one of them than in this Province, as their people 
cannot be supposed so thoroughly to apprehend the neces- 
sity of it as ours may be supposed to do \ Arc they 
oppressed and affected by the new measures as we are \ 
Will not their Governors obstruct, and labor to embarrass, 
every attempt of the kind as much as ours I Will they 
not have as manv friends to government to assist them as 
there are here I Can it, therefore, be much short of mad- 
ness and infatuation in us, to enter on a scene of this sort, 
in the present state of affairs I Nay, is it not obvious, 
therefore, that actual hostilities must be suspended, if pos- 
sible, until the continent, by their representatives, shall, in 
the most explicit manner, in fact say, that the moment is 
actually arrived when the scene shall open ? 

Xo one, I presume, will say, that it will be found policy 
for us to enter on hostilities with only some prospect of 
such donations, from the other Colonies, to support the w 7 ar, 
as have been made and are making, for the support of the 
poor of Boston. Does it not infinitely import us to admit 
these and many more considerations into our minds, before 
we enter upon lasting, most important hostilities I When 
once the blow r is struck, it must be followed, and we must 
conquer, or all is lost forever. If we are not supported, 
perseveringly supported, by divers other Colonies, can we 
expect any thing else than in a short time to fall a prey to 
our enemies 1 May God make us consider it. Should 
large numbers of men come voluntarily into the province 
service, unless they should have been regularly raised, 
and proper provision made for their subsistence, and maga- 
zines of ammunition provided by the Colony, from whence 
they come, will they do any more than just look on us, 
turn about, and hasten home as fast as they came \ In 

396 Letter from Joseph Hawley to Thomas Gushing. 

order, therefore, for the necessary establishment of aux- 
iliary troops, (as I said before,) must not the other Colo- 
nies assume new forms of government, as well as we 1 Is 
it to be supposed that all this can be done suddenly ! We 
know, that according to their present respective constitu- 
tions, nothing of the sort above mentioned, to wit, the 
levying, subsisting, and paying of troops, can be done in 
a governmental way. When we shall have once made the 
hostile attack, we are, thenceforward, to look for nothing 
but fire and sword, until we have conquered or are our- 
selves vanquished. Therefore, if we, by order of our 
Committee of Safety, should begin the attack, and so bring 
on hostilities before the general and express consent of the 
Colonies that hostilities were altogether unavoidable, and 
that the time to commence them is absolutely arrived, and 
that we are actually ready, I conceive that there will be 
infinite hazard that the other governments will say, that 
we have unnecessarily and madly plunged into war, and 
therefore must get out of the scrape as we can ; and we 
shall have no other aid from them, only from some warm 
people, who will resort to us in a fit of zeal, and soon re- 
turn home again, as fast as they came, without affording us 
any real service, but will leave us in a worse state than 
we should have been if they had never come. I know 
your concern will be, that if we proceed in this deliberate 
way, the spirit of our people will evaporate and be lost. 
But let me assure you, that there is no danger of that. If 
I can make any judgment, all the danger is on the other 
hand ; that our people will rashly and headily rush into 
hostilities before they can be upheld and supported ; they 
w 7 ill consequently fail of success ; the tide will then turn ; 
a very low ebb will succeed the high tide of flood ; they 
will then give all up ; and the good cause will be lost 

I beg of you, therefore, as you love your country, to use 
your utmost influence with our Committee of Safety, that 
our people be not mustered and that hostilities be not 
commenced, until we have the express categorical decision 
of the continent, that the time is absolutely come that hos- 
tilities ought to begin, and that they will support us in 

Letter from Joseph llaw/ej/ to Thomas Cushing. 397 

continuing them. As to the courts, we must embarrass 
and retard them by preventing suitors, jurors, witnesses, 
&c, going into them, by all ways and means, that 1 have 

not time 4 now to explain. A sharp eye must be kept on 
them, that we may fully know the success of the attempts 
to establish the Regulation so far as it respects the courts. 
Sir, I think it of much importance to do this. As you 
regard your own life, and your usefulness to your country, 
you should most attentively watch all the steps and pro- 
ceedings of the court now sitting at Boston. If they get a 
grand jury, then they will probably obtain indictments of 
high treason ; and indictments will not be procured without 
a view and respect to arrests and commitments, convictions, 
hangings, drawings and quarter ings. What your chance 
will be I need not tell you. 

I am, Sir, with the most sincere regards, your most obedi- 
ent, humble servant, 

Joseph Hawley. 



The following letters from Rev. Andrew Eliot, D. D., of Boston, to Thomas 
Hollis, of England, are printed from the originals, contained in a volume of the 
Society's MSS., entitled, "Hollis Papers." 

The same volume contains many letters from Jonathan Mayhew to Thomas 
Hollis, copious extracts from which may be found in the life of Dr. Mayhew, by 
Alden Bradford. The memoirs of Hollis state that, on the death of Dr. Mayhew, 
in 1766, Mr. Hollis was " at some loss for a confidential correspondent" in Amer- 
ica. "For, great as his value was for his deceased friend, it was not the man 
or the friend that he sought to bene (it by the exertions of his benevolence, but 
the whole people of that country ; and though his bounty to the literary found- 
ations there established might have been properly received and acknowledged 
by the public curators of those foundations, yet mutual communications of the 
state of the mother country, and the Colonies respectively, required a correspon- 
dence, in the course of which interesting intelligence might be safely and dis- 
creetly interchanged, without giving fuel to party zeal or party malevolence, on 
the one side or the other."— Memoirs of Thomas Hollis, p. 377. 

With such views, Mr. Hollis addressed Dr. Eliot the following letter, dated 
September 6, 1776, which is here copied from the " Hollis Papers:" 

Pall Mall, Sept. 6, 1766. 

Sir, — The last year I returned you my hearty thanks, by Dr. Mayhew, for the 
obliging present of a curious sermon, preached on an important occasion. A few 
books, which I had intended for that excellent man, why, seemingly, no more ! 
with an addition to them, (and such political fry as the times have produced,) I 
now request place for in your study. They are sent in that kind of way always 
used by me toward my friends. The loose notes you will read, and destroy, 
burn, unseen of any one. The similarity of turn, as appeareth by your sermon, 
to my late honored friend, the regularity of your education, the fullness of your 
character, your age, station, power, will to render public service, all have con- 
curred with me, although retiring into the country, overplyed myself, to take this 
measure, otherwise it might be rather singular. It is by desire of Dr. Harris, 
an eminent dissenting minister of Honiton, in Devonshire, that I forward to you 
certain parcels, which were likewise intended for Dr. Mayhew ; and he presents 
you with his compliments. 

I am, with great respect, Sir, your obliged and most obedient, humble servant, 

T. H. 

Rev. Andrew Eliot. 

At this time, Dr. Eliot was pastor of the New North Congregational Church in 
Boston. He was ordained in 1743 ; and the result of this letter was, the commence- 
ment of a correspondence between Dr. Eliot and Mr. Hollis, which continued 
until the death of the latter, which occurred January 1, 1774. The memoirs of 
Thomas Hollis, contain the following tribute to Dr. Eliot : — " His letters bespeak 


Letters from Andrew "Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 399 

him a man of preat judgment, good sense, h benevolent heart, and andissembled 

piety. We think him, as a writer, equal at least to Dr. Mayhew; and this opin- 
ion we ground not BO much on his letters to Mr. Hollis and his successor, as on 
a long account of the effects of the dispute between America and Great Britain, 

which In 1 sent to another friend in England, in the year si.\ty-ci<iht, and which 
has been communicated to us by his respectable correspondent. In this account, 
there is a candor and moderation expressed in tin; utmost propriety of language, 
that does honor both to his abilities and his heart. The times of which he writes 
became much more critical after the death of Dr. Mayhew ; and as they grew 
from bad to worse, he was put to the proof of his magnanimity, by his sufferings 
from a licentious soldiery, irritated by the spirited resistance of Dr. Eliot's com- 
patriots; the fruits of which we may hope he is now enjoying more to his own 
comfort, not without frequent occasions of employing Ins valuable talents to the 
edification of his countrymen, m his own particular department." Pa<xc .'*?!>. 

The hope expressed in this extract, was not realized. The Memoirs of Hollis 
were published in 1780; but Dr. Eliot died on the loth of September, 177^. 
Notices of him may be found in these Collections, and especially in the 2d 
Series, Vol. I. p. 227. R. F. Jr. 


N. E.i Boston, Nov. 14, 1760. 

I received yours of September 6, a few days since, 
with the Aery kind and generous present which accom- 
panied ir^ for which I beg leave to return you my sincerest 
thanks. You will easily believe such a token of regard, 
| from a gentleman of so distinguished a character and so 
justly honored among us, gave me the highest satisfaction. 
It could proceed only from the benevolence of your heart. 
• The books with which you have favored me, are excel- 

Ilent in their kind ; some of them I have already perused 
with great pleasure. Dr. B n's Confessional is one of 
'the most valuable performances of the age, and would be 
as useful as it is excellent, if men in power did not suffer 
their own little interests to preponderate every other con- 
sideration. The imposition of subscriptions, is a yoke 
which I have long thought ought not to be borne. It can 
H answer no end but to promote bigotry and hypocrisy, and 
has occasioned more perjury and prevarication, than per- 
haps any one thing in the world. I rejoice to find the 
I |:ause of liberty undertaken by one so every way able to 
lefend it. I am surprised Dr. Rutherford ventured abroad 
I lis flimsy performance, in opposition to the manly sense 
;ind just reasoning of the Confessional. 

400 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

I am charmed with the considerations relative to the 
appointment of Bishops in the Colonies, added to the 
appeal. The Appendix is admirable. We must have it 
reprinted. The author's name will be concealed. I fear 
this excellent man has too much honor and integrity ever 
to adorn the bench of B ps. 

The pieces in the public prints I have read — some with 
pleasure and others with astonishment. In the present 
state of things, we must expect to find syndics, men of con- 
tracted minds and mean tools of power. If such men only 
were to be slaves, it might be less regretted. They deserve 
to lose their liberty, who can so tamely resign it. I should 
be sick of the world, if there was not here and there one 
of another spirit ; but upon how few can we depend, if Mr. 
Pitt, the great patriot, who seemed formed to stem the tor- 
rent of corruption, has been gained over by the northern 
Thane. May he not yet emerge and save a sinking nation ! 
I shall take care to have the piece signed A Minorite, and 
several others, inserted in our papers. I am surprised that 
we have attended so little to the settling a Popish bishop 
in Canada. I think the Church of England allows the 
validity of Popish, though not of Presbyterian, ordination. 
(If it comes from the sacred hands of a bishop, though he 
is the professed offspring of the whore of Babylon, the 
mother of harlots, it is well enough.) Our candidates for 
holy orders, who have been obliged to expose themselves, 
and to venture their precious lives, in crossing the Atlantic, 
may now avoid that danger ; they need only to take a little 
trip to Quebec, and they may be ordained to their satisfac- 
tion, and to the satisfaction of those who employ them. 

I entirely agree with you, that an interest in the public 
prints is of great importance. The spirit of liberty would 
soon be lost, and the people would grow quite lethargic, if 
there were not some on the watch, to awaken and rouse 
them. We, in America, are perhaps more obliged to our 
friends in Great Britain, who raised a spirit among the peo- 
ple, than to the P 1 who repealed the act which was 

calculated (I do not say designed) to enslave the Colonies. 

The letter from Paris, and the judicious queries rela- 
tive to the Jesuits, are quite alarming. How can our 
church dignitaries wink at such things'? It would cer- 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas ] loll is. 401 

tainly be to better purpose, to employ good missionaries, to 
preserve their own people from popery, than to send such 
as they do, to propagate the Church of England in America. 

Sacerdos Rusticus, 1 have had no opinion of sine- he 
preached the sermon before the incorporated Society, when 
he asserted, that the Episcopalians in New-England (with- 
out making the least exception) were taxed to support 
Independent ministers, which was not true. In another 
edition of his sermon, if I remember right, he says this law 
has been since repealed ; whereas he ought candidly to have 
said, there was no such law in being, when he said there 
was. His opposition to the .Vet that incorporated a Society 
among ourselves, for Propagating the Gospel, &c., was 
mean and contemptible. His attempt to disguise plain 
facts, in his answer to Dr. Maybe w, was scarcely consistent 
with common honesty. The Doctor was extremely cautious 
in his account of facts, and I am persuaded they may be all 
depended upon. 

I cannot mention the name of my excellent friend, with- 
out lamenting the loss which the cause of learning, of 
liberty, and of religion, has sustained in his death. He 
was a great and good man. His seizure was of the para- 
lytic kind. I saw him often in his sickness, but he never 
appeared to have the clear exercise of reason. The dis- 
temper attacked him with such violence, that I could not 
wish for his life, of which some entertained hopes. He 
would have been only the shadow of Dr. Mayhew. He left 
an amiable widow and two desirable children ; one is since 

I have taken the liberty to enclose a letter of thanks to 
Dr. Harris, for his obliging present, which I must ask the 
favor of you to convey to him, in such way as you think 

I send the whole by Mr. Dolbear, a modest young gentle- 
man, educated at Harvard College, but who chose to enter 
into business, rather than to follow his studies. He will 
receive your commands with pleasure. 

I am, Sir, with the greatest gratitude and respect, your 
obliged and most obedient, humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 

Thomas Hollis, Esq. 
4th s. — vol. iv. 51 

402 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

Boston, K E., Jan. 7, 1767. 

I beg leave to inform you that I have received the 
papers you was so good as to send me ; one under cover to 
Mr. Quincy, the other by Capt. Bruce. I have engaged our 
printers to publish several of the pieces I have received 
from you. Our political disputes have hitherto prevented 
them. Our people are yet too fond of Mr. Pitt, (we 
have not learned to call him Earl Chatham,) to bear any 
thing against him, fallen as he is ! The talk of a statue, 
indeed, seems to be at an end. 

It will give you pleasure to know that the generous 
addition you have made to your benefactions to the College, 
is safely arrived in Capt. Bruce. The books are not yet 
sent to Cambridge, which is the reason you hear nothing 
from the President. As a friend to Harvard College, I 
sincerely thank you for your liberality to that society. The 
books you have sent are vastly curious and valuable, and 
the binding elegant. I hope their external appearance will 
invite our young gentlemen to peruse them, which I am 
persuaded was your principal design in sending them. 

I have just seen Dr. Warburton's society sermon. I 
thought what Dr. Mayhew has written, would have cured 
both the society and their missionaries of that disposition 
they have always had, to misrepresent facts. But it seems, 
according to Dr. Warburton, we now need missionaries to 
convert us, not from heathenism, but infidelity. But if 
infidelity prevails, which the Doctor without any warrant 
says it does, the present missionaries are not like to put a 
stop to it. I am personally acquainted with the dissenting 
ministers in every place but one, where the society have 
missionaries in this Province, and it is no reflection on the 
missionaries to say, the dissenting teachers, as they affect 
to call our ministers, are much more able to defend Chris- 
tianity, or any other cause. 

Nee tali auxilis, nee defens oribus istis 
Tempus eget. 

But something must be said to amuse their hearers, and 
get their money, and it seems to me they little regard 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to 'Thomas Jfof/is. 403 

whether it be true or false. Such a conduct in the min- 
isters of religion, has a greater tendency to promote Infidel- 
ity, than all the hooks which arc said to be dispersed 
among us. 

1 again return yon my thanks for your undeserved notice 
of me, and am, your obliged, humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 
Mr. HoUis. 

Boston, N. E., May 13, 17G7. 


April 20, by Capt. Davis, I received your obliging 
letter, with the kind present that accompanied it, for which 
you have my sincerest thanks. There was also a parcel 
from Dr. Harris, to whom I have made my acknowledg- 
ments, in a letter I have taken the liberty to enclose to you. 
The book for the College at New York, I enclosed to Pres- 
ident Cooper, and sent by a safe hand. I was particularly 
pleased with ' The Ercellencie of a Free State.' I wonder 
so valuable a performance has been so long hid. The style 
and manner are far beyond the writers of that day, and the 
treatise justly gives the author a place among the most 
noble writers on government. I could have wished, how- 
ever, that when the editor mentioned him as inferior only 
to Milton, he had also inserted Sydney, " that," as you justly 
style him, kC Martyr to Civil Liberty." I am perhaps preju- 
diced in favor of that great man, because he was the first 
who taught me to form any just sentiments on government. 
The Jesuit's Oration is a fine performance, — the translation 
is a good one, but I do not think it always comes up to the 
force and beautv of the original. I could hardlv forbear 
publishing your judicious observations on the stage ; but 
thought myself bound to comply with the letter of your 
directions. I am no enemy to innocent amusements, but I 
have long thought our modern theatre, " the bane of virtue" 
Some years ago theatrical entertainments were introduced 
among us. I had such an opinion of their pernicious ten- 
dency, especially in a young country, that I exerted myself 
to procure an Act to prohibit them, and by the help of 

404 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

friends, succeeded. This does not wholly prevent them ; 
but so many are engaged to suppress them, that they will 
not soon be publicly tolerated. It gave me high pleasure 
to find my sentiments coincided with yours. 

You greatly honor me by proposing me as a correspond- 
ent to Archdeacon Blackburne. I immediately felt the 
loss of Dr. Mayhew, and imaged to myself the great 
advantage the Colonies might have reaped, by a correspond- 
ence between those great and good men. I find myself 
unequal to it, but shall willingly receive his commands, as 
well as yours, and contribute what little I can to the glori- 
ous cause in which you are both engaged. I hope you 
will favor me with the Archdeacon's character, which you 
mention in your letter. I should be glad to know every 
thing of that excellent man ; but no one can read his writ- 
ings and not be satisfied that he is one of the greatest and 
best men in England. You, Sir, and the Archdeacon, are 
greatly capable of serving the American Colonies ; suffer 
me to recommend them to your care and patronage. I am 
much mistaken if you will not find, that while you defend 
them, you are promoting the real interest of Great Britain. 
The people here have no notion of aiming at independence. 
They highly value their connection with their mother coun- 
try. They glory in the name of Englishmen, and only 
desire to enjoy the liberties of Englishmen. This, I know, 
will recommend them to your esteem — it will to the esteem 
of every good man. We have imprudent men among us, 
but the community ought not to suffer for the faults of a 

I daily mourn over Mr. Pitt, the only man capable of 
setting things right between Great Britain and her Colo- 
nies — because he had the confidence of both. I tremble 
for the nation which has so few honest patriots. These 
few, I fear, will not be able to stem the torrent of ambition, 
luxury and venality. In this Province there will be con- 
tinual altercations between our chief and the assembly. He 
has lost the confidence of the people, if he ever had it. 
But at present the people are so agreed, and so many are 
upon the watch, that no one will care to attempt any en- 

I find in your letter, and in one of the pamphlets you 

Letters from Andre ir Eliot to Thomas HolltS. 405 

was so good as to send me, that tin 4 liberty of the press 
hath been attacked, [f this refers to any late attempts, we 
have? not had any accounts in the public prints, and cannot 
tell what it intends. Nothing is of greater importance 4 
than to secure the entire freedom of publishing, without 
fear, any censures upon public measures. The liberty of 
the press is the palladium of English liberty. If this is 
gone, all is gone. I hope there is so much virtue and 
spirit in the nation, as to risk everything, rather than to 
suffer it to be taken from them. The after imprudence of 
poor Wilkes, lost a fine opportunity to fix it on so firm a 
basis as to prevent every future attempt. 

I hope your intended retreat will not be at a distance to 
prevent your affording your assistance in the cause of public 
liberty. If it will, I wish it may be protracted not only 
months, but years ! many years ! Your hint about corres- 
pondents, visitants and sermons, I shall endeavor to im- 
prove, with care and prudence, and believe, after some little 
time, you will have very little trouble in this way. One 
honest man of my acquaintance I was afraid of. He knew 
not of any correspondence between us when he went from 
hence ; and when I wrote to him, I took particular care 
not to mention your name, and to send my letters to you by 
another, who I thought had more discretion. 

April 25. — By Capt. Dashwood, I received under cover 
from you, a letter from the excellent Dr. Blackburne, and 
another to Mrs. Mayhcw, which I immediately delivered 
into her hands. The Doctor's letter is full of goodness, 
and gives me a nearer view of the virtue and abilities of 
that great man. I have taken the liberty to send him an 
answer, which I enclose to you. I have written, I fear, 
with too much freedom. My temper is frank and open ; I 
could wish both you and the Doctor knew the inward sen- 
timents of my heart. I should be quite willing you should 
open the letter, and if you approve of it, put it under 
another cover, and direct it to him. The point that gives 
me concern is this. I have spoken very freely of Bishops. 
This may look rude to one of the Episcopal persuasion, and 
who, if time should ever be that merit will recommend to 
preferment, will himself be of that order. I beg, Sir, you 
will excuse me to him, if I have proceeded further than 
was proper. 

406 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

April 28. — I received by the same conveyance, a box of 
prints and a parcel of valuable pamphlets. Such of the 
prints as you ordered for the College, I delivered to the 
President. Be pleased to accept my acknowledgments for 
those with which you have favored me; and for the Tracts, — 
they are all curious, and few of them would have reached 
us but for your benevolence. Our friends on your side the 
water, do not send even those pamphlets which directly 
attack our privileges, and in which we are deeply interested. 
Such is the inattention of mankind ! I am surprised at the 
impudence with which the papists plead for toleration. 
He must have lost all principles of self-preservation, who 
will take a serpent into his bosom, especially when he has 
felt his sting, and but just escaped with his life. I cannot 
say I am sorry Dr. Rutherford has exercised his pen. 
This is a controversy I desire to see carried through. 
Truth and liberty will be promoted. It cannot be in better 

hands than A. X). B n's — whether he will think the 

Professor's little pieces of importance enough to deserve his 
notice, I do not know. 

I am sorry you have given such strict injunctions with 
respect to the MS. Notes. Some, at least, I should gladly 
have preserved, but every direction of your's shall be 
punctually complied with, by 

My dear Sir, your very obliged friend, and most obedient 

Andrew Eliot. 

1 New England produces very little worthy attention. 
Mr. Hutchinson's History contains a valuable collection of 
facts. The respectable author had but little time to adorn 
it. The whole was almost lost to the public, when the 
Lieutenant Governor's house was destroyed. 

The good people of Boston are very careful to distin- 
guish between the 14th and the 26th of August. The 
attack on Secretary Oliver, our S — p M — r — , it is sup- 

1 The commencement of this letter is missing. 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Ilollis. 107 

posed was under the direction of some persons of charac- 
ter. It is certain, people in general were not displeased. 
The 26th of August was under a very different direction. 
It Avas a scene of riot, drunkenness, profaneness and rob- 
bery. As Mr. Hutchinson's house is quite near to A. K, 
he was an eye-witness of the whole transaction. 

There is a report, mentioned in a letter of August 22, 
(which is inserted in the Appendix to the Conduct of the 

late Administration,) supposed to be written by G r 

B d, and to refer to Dr. Mayhew, which is not true. 

" Another Congregational minister, well known by his late 
polemical writings, has as I have been told by several persons 
[who heard him], justified this proceeding, in his sermon, 
and prayed for its success." The Doctor preached a ser- 
mon on liberty, but said not one word of the attack on the 
Secretary. The next day was the 26th of August. Some 
malevolent persons charged the riot of that evening upon 
the Doctor, though the plan was laid before, and it is ques- 
tioned whether one of the rioters had ever heard of the 
Doctors sermon. The Doctor's tender spirit was much 
moved with such a report. He preached the next Sunday 
a sermon against abusing liberty to licentiousness. Some 
now charged him with contradiction. He thought himself 
much injured, as he undoubtedly was. " Of the 14th of 
August, I choose to say nothing," said he to A. E., not 
long before his much to be lamented departure, " the pro- 
ceedings of the 26th I abhor, from my very soul." His 
sermon on the Stamp Act, was by far the best that was 
published. The authors of some of the others would not 
like to hear this. 

Tis wished the Parliament may not do something that 
may produce fresh disturbances. 1 They take too much 
notice of the sallies of some warm party-men. The people 
in general are quiet. If the Parliament did not take care 
to keep them awake, the danger is that they would soon 
sink into security, and suffer their privileges to be taken 
from them, without opposition. Good often comes out of 
evil ! 

Boston, August 27, 1767. 

1 The business of White rose is, to inflame every where ! of that A. E. thinks 
not. — Note by Hollis. 

408 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

Boston, Nov. 13, 1767. 

Accept my acknowledgments for your kind present, 
by Capt. Scott, which I received October 27, together with 
your obliging letter, dated May 11, 1767. I rejoice that 
the excellent Archdeacon has taken in hand those triflers 
who have written against The Confessional. Such feeble 
attempts can serve only to raise the reputation of that in- 
comparable book. It would be easy for a much inferior 
writer to show the futility of their remarks. But no one 
seems to have so thorough an acquaintance with the sub- 
ject as the Doctor hath. He adds some new light every 
time he takes up his pen. The fugitive pieces that worthy 
man writes in the papers, are admirably calculated to pro- 
mote the cause of truth and liberty. Venerable Mr. Flem- 
ing, is an excellent second. I am particularly obliged to 
you for that gentleman's Root of Protestant Errors Exam- 
ined. I had before observed, with surprise, that passage 
in Mosheim, upon which he animadverts in such a masterly 
manner. The Note of the translator displeased me still 
more. I had always considered Mr. Maclaine as out of the 
pale of the Church of England. Sure I have been mis- 
taken ! No Protestant, that was not enlisted under the 
hierarchy, could write as he does, of " a noble edifice, a 
solemn music, a well-ordered set of external gestures," that 
" they elevate the mind, give it a composed and solemn 
frame, and thus contribute to the fervor of its devotion." 
Such empty pageantry can produce only a mechanical kind 
of devotion, entirely opposite to the rational, manly relig- 
ion which Jesus Christ inculcates on his followers. I 

heartily pray those great and good men, Dr. B n and 

Mr. F g, may live to be a scourge to bigots of all de- 

You are quite right in supposing the people of N. A. 
would lose their fondness for a late Great Commoner. His 
patriotism is no longer mentioned. His name is sunk into 
oblivion. It was almost in the power of that unhappy man 
to have saved the nation ; and so meanly to desert it at 
such a time, will make him the object of the execrations 
of an injured people, to the latest posterity. I should be 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Mollis. 409 

glad to know the author of that spirited Elegy on Mr. Pitt, 
which you was so good as to send me some time since. It 
is certainly much superior to the common poetical produc- 
tions of the present day. Mr. Wilkes has been mentioned 
among us as the author. I pity that unfortunate, though 1 
fear imprudent man. 

I was greatly surprised that so many of your letters 
to the President had been unanswered. The Corporation 
have always been careful to vote their thanks for every 
single hook sent by you, as well as for your many greater 
benefactions to the College. Immediately on the receipt of 
yours, I waited on the President at Cambridge. He com- 
pared your dates with the College records. He found that 
all your favors had come safe, and assured me that he had 
written answers to all your letters. There must have been 
some unhappy accident. Two letters, I am pretty certain, 
he hath sent since the time you mention. 'Tis very possi- 
ble he may have omitted to send answers to some of your 
letters. That good gentleman is near eighty. His memory 
fails more than any of his powers of body or of mind. He 
is really an honest, worthy, eatholie man. When he was 
chosen President, which is now more than thirty years, 
there was a struggle between bigotry and Catholicism — his 
election was a victory gained by the latter. He has engaged 
to send you copies of all his letters which you have not 

I am obliged to you for your anecdote concerning Dr. 
Warburton. I remember to have seen the book you men- 
tion in the college library, viz., A Philosophical Enquiry, 
Sec. But as I never was charmed with his w r ritings, I had 
no inclination to read it. My curiosity is now excited. I 
wonder among his numerous opponents, no one has 
attacked him on this head. 

I have been this week at the College, to assist in the 
disposing your last generous donation. The books you 
send are all admirably chosen, and must have cost you 
much pains to collect. They make a fine appearance, and 
I am persuaded will be the most useful part of the 

In one of the boxes we met with a beautiful edition of 
the Greek Testament, and some other valuable books, sent 
4th s. — vol. iv. 5ii 

410 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

by Mr. Boivyer, a benefactor for whom we are indebted to 
you. There was a polite and elegant Latin inscription on 
the blank leaf of the New Testament. The good opinion 
of a gentleman of his learning and abilities, cannot but 
afford the sincerest pleasure to the friends of that seminary. 
It will, I hope, be a stimulus to both instructors and pupils, 
to merit the distinction he so obligingly gives us. The 
indisposition or absence of some of the members of the 
Corporation, is the reason that thanks are not sent to you 
and him by this conveyance. If you think it best, you 
will let that good gentleman know that his kind donation 
has been received, and that we have the most grateful sen- 
timents of his candor and generosity. Please to present 
my particular acknowledgments to him. He may expect 
very soon to hear from the President, and to receive the 
thanks of the College in a more proper way. 

While at Cambridge, I received a parcel from you, under 
the protection of the reverend President ; for this additional 
instance of your kind regard I heartily thank you. I have 
had time only to peruse the Society's sermon, and a most 
extraordinary one it is ! I do not wonder they endeavor to 
conceal these annual productions. They are such miser- 
able performances in themselves, so full of falsehood, 
scurrility and pious fraud, that they are not fit to see the 
light. I am glad, however, that our missionaries have 
sent so few accounts, or that the Society are so wise as not 
to publish them. I particularly observed the passage you 
marked, relative to a Bishop of Canada. These gentlemen 
seem to have lost all modesty. They first, contrary to all 
law, policy and religion, send a bishop to encourage the 
inhabitants of this newly conquered country in their fatal 
superstitions ; at least, they do nothing to prevent it ; and 
then argue from thence, that the hierarchy must be estab- 
lished in the other Colonies. Was not this the main thing 
they had in view in sending this popish bishop 1 How 
many consequences is this event to draw after it ! Lord 
Taajfe argues, that because they have a bishop in Canada, 
the Papists ought to be tolerated in Ireland. Bishop 
Ewer, from the same indulgence, argues that a Church of 
England bishop ought to be sent to the other Colonies. 
Others, perhaps, as justly think it had been much the best if 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. Ill 

the first of these events had not taken place; but that the 
making one wrong step, is no reason for taking another. I 
hope there has been no agreement between tie.' bishops and 
the Papists — but if 1 hear of a bishop sent to America, I 

shall fear there is a concatenation of causes and effects, and 
shall expect soon to hear that popery is tolerated in Ireland. 
then in England. I hope in (jod it will never he estab- 
lished ' But may not some future archbishop (we must not 
suspect any such thing of the present ! ! ) again bring on 
the scheme of uniting the two Churches, the popish and 
the protestant, and become papa alterius orbis ! How futile 
the pretence of the hardship put upon the missionaries, 
that they arc obliged to cross the Atlantic! They have 
a line opportunity of seeing Great Britain. Their charges 
are home by their parishioners. It is, on the whole, an 
agreeable amusement. If this was all the objection I had 
to conforming, you would see me in England before many 
weeks. This is all a mere pretence. They who plead so 
strongly for an American bishop, have other ends in view ; 
to make a more pompous show, by which they hope to 
increase their faction ; to add to the number of Lord 
Bishops ; to extend their episcopal influence ; to subject 
the American dissenters to their yoke ; to tyrannize over 
those who yet stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ 
hath made them free ; and — as Dr. Blackburne judiciously 
observes in the letter I had the honor of receiving from 
him — to prevent any reformation at home. God prevent 
the execution of their pernicious designs ! 

I see by the title page of one of your last pamphlets, 

that the incomparable Dr. B n is again attacked. Be 

it by Leviathan himself, or by any, by all his dependents, I 
have no fear for the event. The Doctor will shake them 
off with as much ease as St. Paul did the viper, without 
receiving the least harm. His cause is good, and he is 
quite able to maintain it, I wrote to you and to the 
Doctor by Capt. Marshall ; both which I enclosed in a 
parcel directed to Israel Mauduit, Esq., and which I hope 
you have received. By the same Captain -Marshall, who is 
returned to America, under a cover superscribed by your 
well-known kind hand, I have a receipt for a box directed 
to me. Capt. Marshall unfortunately had the small-pox 

412 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

on board, and hath been obliged to keep below some time. 
His vessel is just come up. The box, I doubt not, will be 
speedily delivered. You may expect very soon to hear 
again from, 

Dear Sir, your obliged friend and very humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 

It ought to have been mentioned above, that four boxes 
arrived in Capt. Scott. Mr. Hubbard was informed of the 
notice you took of his letter of advice. 

To T. Hollis, Esq. 

Boston, December 10, 1767. 
Dear Sir, 

In my last, of November 13, I acquainted you that 
Capt. Marshall was arrived. November 17, I received the 
box, for which 1 had his receipt. 

Your letter to Mrs. Mayhew, I delivered the same day in 
which I received it ; and forwarded that to the President, 
to whom also I conveyed the book which came to me for 
the College, in Capt. Scott, and the eight books I found 
directed to Harvard College, among those with which you 
have been pleased to enrich me. You have laid me, Sir, 
under greater obligations than ever, by this generous pres- 
ent of some of the most valuable books in the English 
language. You will allow me to accept the Sermons from 
the great Leviathan's down to poor Mr. Parsons's — a worthy 
piece, truly ! to be dedicated to a monarch of Great Britain ! 
What a specimen this of the taste of the age ! 

Harrington, Sydney, Locke, almost any man may study 
his whole life to advantage. I am particularly obliged to 
you for Milton's prose works. They who consider that 
very great man only as a poet of the first rank, know less 
than half his character. He was every thing. I have often 
read detached pieces of his, and shall never be weary of 
his Defensio Populi Anglicani, &c. I have been told, that 
Salmasius fell into a languishment upon reading that book ; 
he must have been without sensibility, if he long survived 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas HoUis. \ 1 :} 

it. I blush to own that I have never gone through the 
whole of these prose works. I have lost a great deal. 
Perhaps my pleasure is the greater now. Milton wrote 
Latin so well, that it seems a pity he should be read in any 
other language. But his sentiments are so just, and his 
attachment to liberty so firm, that he ought to be open to 
every Englishman. 

I thank you, Sir, for the character you have so oblig- 
ingly given me of the excellent Dr. Blackburne. His 
writings prove it a just one. Perhaps the condescending 
goodness with which that great man has treated me, may 
have rendered me a little partial ; but I had before con- 
ceived the highest opinion of his abilities and integrity. 
Your account, you will easily believe, hath not lessened it. 
I am sorry to find he is so far advanced in life, because the 
world will be too soon deprived of one who can ill be 
spared out of it. I hope in God he will live to see some 
happy effect of his excellent labors. I received the Doc- 
tor's letter through your hands ; it is, like himself, replete 
with good sense, and breathes the same excellent spirit 
there is in every thing he WTitcs. 

I have read Dr. Rotherams artful performance. He 
might have help from Sacerdos Rusticus, but the cause they 
are engaged in, needs still greater abilities, or it will sink. 
Dr. Dawson's answer is a proper rebuke of such high- 
church rant. I shall be glad to find the author (Rotheram) 
still further chastised by the other excellent men you men- 
tion. If I may judge, this piece can impose on those only 
who are willing to be deceived ; there is some sophistry, 
but little solid reasoning. Pie or they, who wrote it, seem 
in a panic, lest they should lose their dear establishment. 
I wish there was more reason for those fears. I am per- 
suaded Christianity would be in no danger, though the 
whole body of canons, and articles, and subscriptions of 
every kind were wholly abolished, and the hierarchy itself 
leveled to the ground. 

It grieves me that you find yourself so pressed. But, 
dear Sir, is there no medium'? I fear the absolute retreat 
of a gentleman so well employed as you have always been, 
might have an effect very different from what you, and all 
your friends, would wish. I am mistaken if you could be 

414 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

content with an inactive life. God forbid, that your life 
should be cut short, like excellent Dr. Mayhew's ! — but I 
am sure you would prefer his fate, to a useless, insipid old 
age. [Otium cum dignitate, Doctor] 1 ] 

I am sorry you are still troubled with impertinents. I 
have taken every method which I thought would be agree- 
able to you, to procure you rest, and hoped I had effected 
the end. No one on this side the water will have the 
courage [imp-d— ce] to speak disrespectfully of Mr. Hol- 
lis. I shall be more free in letting your mind be known. 
I wrote with the utmost freedom to the excellent A. D. B., 
and find by his answer it was not displeasing to him. That 
is certainly a singularly good man ! 

If I understand your hint about " the friends of the 
people of N. E.," you are entirely right. It is a matter 
which hath given great pain to me, and many others. But 
what can be done 1 The managers of our public affairs, 
like those on your side the Atlantic, are governed by pri- 
vate views and the spirit of a party. Few have any regard 
to the good of the public. Men are patriots till they get 

in place, and then are ! ! ! anything. The corruptions 

of such men have, however, their use — they watch the con- 
duct of men in power, and by their opposition, keep off 
many evils which could not be prevented without them. 
One Ag — t we had some years ago, who, I believe, was the 
only one we have chosen, who had capacity and inclination 
to serve us ; a gentleman of learning, leisure and inde- 
pendence, and who perfectly understood American affairs. 
He was dismissed just when we most needed one of such a 
character. I wish I had any prospect of better times ! 
I carefully observe your direction about loose notes, Sec, as 
I do every command of yours. I should gladly preserve 
some, but with whatever reluctance, I burn them at the 
time you appoint. Harpocrates himself was never more 
silent than I am, about every thing you write, except where 
the nature of the thing directs that it must be communi- 

I have observed, with pleasure, the care taken by Parlia- 
ment, one branch at least, to have a list taken of the 
papists. I wish success to every attempt to curb the inso- 

1 A remark by Hollis. 

Letters from And me Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 11") 

lence of those enemies of truth, of liberty, of mankind. 
Every attempt to alarm the nation is laudable. We are 
not to be weary in well-doing. But what ran be expected, 
while the ministry is so unfixed. The bishops, who should 

load in this important cause, rather clog and hurt it; and 
an invisible favorite governs all ; who, it seems, is most per- 
versely bent to oppose every salutary measure. Is there 
no way to break the charm i I wait, with impatience, to 

hear what is like to he 4 the event of a new Parliament. 
But how strange is it, that a scnsihle people should sell 
themselves and their country ; that they should suffer them- 
selves to he purchased by those, who they are sure mean to 
carry them to market. It seems too easy for a minister to 
gain a majority to favor any measures he is pleased to pro- 
pose. 1 fear this one thing- will be the ruin of the Eng- 
lish nation. What cannot a K — g, a M-n-st-r do, that has 

a Parliament devoted to him, and a standing army to 

1 dare not write what I think. I wish the time predicted 
by the almost inspired Montesquieu, may be very distant. 

I have no personal connection with Isrl Mdt, and know 
very little of his character. Our patriots were extremely 
desirous of choosing him Ag — t, when his brother resigned. 
One great plea was, that he was a Dissenter of vast inter- 
est. He hath been kind in procuring [purchasing] books 
for the College. My only correspondence with him has been 
to convey catalogues to him, and to receive the books when 
sent. I w r as just sending a new catalogue to Mr. Mdt, 
when I wrote to you, and thought it would be a safe con- 
veyance. I am obliged to you for your hint. I should 
alway choose to convey what I write in that way that would 
be most agreeable. 

Mr. Wheelock is a gentleman who discovered a warm, 

enthusiastic spirit, in the time of our late religious com- 

1 motions. The ministers of Boston, and the Commissioners 

I for Indian Affairs, appointed by a corporation in London, 

i (among whom was Dr. Mayhew, and of which Board I 

have also the honor to be a member,) at first encouraged 

i this school which Mr. Wheelock set up ; not because we had 

any great opinion of him, but because we were willing to 

. try every method to serve the poor Indians. We soon 

found that he had great, and as we feared, romantic 

416 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Ilollis. 

designs ; and besides, he was, as we thought, very unrea- 
sonable in his charges. We therefore withdrew ourselves. 
Mr. Wheelock went on to bring Indian lads from their own 
country, which is some hundred miles distant from the 
place where he resides. He collected large sums in Great 
Britain, under the influence of Mr. Whitefielcl, who is a 
great promoter of the scheme. He, Mr. Wheelock, or 
some of his missionaries, went through New England and 
procured considerable help, though I believe but little in 
Connecticut, which is his own Province. This money he 
took into his own hands, and expended as he pleased, with- 
out being accountable to any. This was thought too great 
a trust to be in one man's hands. No one charged Mr. 
Wheelock with applying the money to any other purpose 
than that for which it was collected; but it was appre- 
hended that others should be joined with him in the 
direction of the school, and that he ought to be account- 
able somewhere. This has generally been the case, when 
money has been given to public uses ; and we had not such 
an opinion of his judgment and prudence, as to think he 
ought to be an exception. However, although the minis- 
ters of this Town had scarce any of them any raised 
expectations from Mr. Wheelock's school, yet they had not 
light to oppose it — and the Commissioners gave fifteen 
pounds sterling per annum, till they were expressly forbid 
by their constituents in London. 

Mr. Occum, who is now in England, was born at Mohe- 
gan, an Indian Settlement in Connecticut, surrounded with 
English Towns. He has spent most of his life there, or 
near it. He understands no Indian language but that of 
the place where he was born, where they also converse in 
English, and where the Commissioners had lecturers and 
schools long before he came on the stage. He was, as I 
am told, educated by Mr. Wheelock, with a view to the 
ministry, but years before there was any particular school 
for the education of Indians — and I know of no difference 
between him and any English lad that might have been 
taken from our own settlements, except that he is of a 
darker complexion. He was employed for many years to 
preach, and keep a school, in some Indian settlements in 
Connecticut and on Long Island, till he expressed a 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas J foil is. 11 

Willingness to go among the Six Nations; he tarried there 
but a few weeks, and I have not heard that he ever 
returned. When he was going to England, neither he, 
nor anv for him, applied to the ministers of Boston to 
recommend the design upon which he was going. I sup- 
pose they concluded they should fail of success, if they did 
apply. We are ignorant of the plan, we have no great 
opinion of the projectors, nor of the methods that are 
taken to procure money — for what purpose is Mr. Occum 
sent to England, &c. I It is true he is an Indian, but 
there is nothing extraordinary in his being able to preach 
in the English tongue ; he learned it in bis childhood. 
Could not an Englishman have told the errand, as well 
without as with him I He is no Mohawk ; he knows 
nothing of their language ; he is no better qualified to be 
a missionary than any English person would be ; nor do I 
believe be has fortitude enough to tarry long among the 
wild savages. When he preached in the Massachusetts, the 
people generally looked upon him as a Mohawk ; as one 
just come out of heathenism ; as the produce of Mr. 
Wheelock's Indian school ; neither of which is the truth 
of the case. I hope such stories are not propagated in 
Great Britain. I detest frauds of every kind, especially in 
religion. I shall be glad if any good comes of the vast 
collections that have been made. But I fear this projection 
will turn out like Mr. Whitefield's orphan-house. I am 
glad the money collected in Great Britain is to be kept 
there. Dr. Harris writes me, that Mr. Whitaker, and 
Occum, cast reflections on the ministers of Boston for not 
recommending them. I shall write a vindication of our- 
selves to him. If we are to blame, it is that we did not 
set matters in a just light before. The Commissioners 
did indeed write to their constituents a plain narrative of 
facts relative to Mr". Occum. I wish it had been printed. 
I forgat to mention that no one minister of Boston invited 
Occum to preach in his pulpit, except Mr. Moorhead, an 
Irish Presbyterian. 

When I received Dr. Ewer's sermon from you. I intended 

to have published some remarks upon it in the public 

prints, as you advised. But my worthy friend Dr. Chauncy, 

to whom 1 lent the sermon, expressing an inclination to 

4th s. — vol. iv. 53 

418 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Ilollis. 

write an answer at large — I gave my copy to him. This 
was the only one which was to be come at in this town, or 
any where else, except at College, so that we are entirely 
obliged to yon for the knowledge of the aspersions that 
are cast upon us, and for the opportunity of vindicating 
ourselves from them. The Doctor is now publishing some 
remarks, which from what he has communicated to me, 
appear to be written with freedom and manly sense. If 
these remarks are out in season, I shall send some copies 
by this conveyance. After I knew the Doctor's design, I 
gave over the thought of publishing in the papers, lest he 
should think it interfered with him. 

I was so taken up with the vastly superior authors you 
had favored me with, that I did not for some time look into 
the A-b-p's sermons. I had seen his Society sermon form- 
erly, and indeed that whole volume. His Grace, after the 
College was burned, sent one volume of his sermons to the 
Library. When I bad perused his sermon, I immediately 
wrote some remarks, which I designed for the press, but 
upon communicating this sermon to Dr. Chauncy, he said 
he would insert some marginal notes relative to it. I 
thought he would do the business more effectually than I 
should, and besides, was fearful he would not take it well 
if I interposed just when he was publishing on the subject. 
I send you a copy of what I designed to put into the prints, 
which you are at liberty to make what use of you please. 
I also lent Dr. Warburton's sermon to Dr. Chauncy. 

The people in this Town are not pleased with the late 
regulations of Parliament — the new burthens laid upon 
them. They have voted that they will suppress all mobs 
and riots, but they have ordered a subscription paper to be 
carried through the Town and to be sent to all the Towns 
in the Province, in which the subscribers engage not to use 
a variety of enumerated articles, which we used to import 
from Great Britain. Some articles are included which are 
quite necessary, at least which custom hath made so. It 
may have some effect, and cause us to retrench some 
extravagances. Some have great expectations that these 
measures will alarm the manufacturers in England, and 
that we shall have relief that way, as we had in the Stamp 
Act. Few of the trading part have subscribed. Some are 

Letters from Andrew "Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 119 

of opinion, that if, instead of this bluster, we had exerted 
ourselves to promote those manufactures which we are 
capable of introducing, it had been better. The plan might 
then have been durable, whereas now it cannot last very 
long, and it is feared that the people of England will look 
upon it as an empty threat, and despise it. Whereas, by 
engaging vigorously in manufactures, Great Britain would 
soon feel the importance of the Colonies, and find a very 
sensible lessening of their exports. 

The present burthens may possibly be borne without any 
great opposition ; I believe they will ; but it is easy to see 
that the people are sullen, and think themselves ill-treated. 
They cannot be persuaded that the Parliament hath a right 
to impose taxes upon them. They imagine that the consti- 
tuting Provincial Assemblies, with power of taxation, in 
the very nature of the thing , supposes that they are not to 
be taxed by others. The distance of the Parliament, they 
think, renders it incapable of judging* what the Colonies 
are able to pay, and what taxes are proper and would not 
be oppressive. Besides, the members of the House of 
Commons, who originate taxes, cannot have a fellow-feeling 
with their brethren in the Colonies, as they have with those 
who are near them, whose difficulties they see and whose 
complaints they hear. Every burthen laid on the Colonies 
would tend to ease those upon whom the members of the 
House of Commons depend ; at least they would think so. 
The Colonists are also of opinion that they do already pay 
their full proportion to the taxes of the nation, by the con- 
sumption of her manufactures ; in this way they maintain 
great part of Britain, and enable the inhabitants to pay 
taxes, excises, duties, &c. All our money now goes to the 
parent country ; they cannot have it both ways. If they do 
not tax us, we shall lay out all our superfluous cash, and 
should do it if there was ten times as much, in the manu- 
factures of Britain. The present turn of the people is to 
cultivate their lands, and not to go into manufactures — and 
by these means they may be said to maintain a number of 
industrious people in England, &c, who would otherwise 
find it hard to subsist. If Great Britain takes away our 
money in taxes, we mast go into manufactures, and instead 
of contributing to the support of honest, industrious labor- 

420 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

ers, which we are willing to do, we shall be obliged to 
maintain a parcel of pitiful sycophants, court parasites, and 
hungry dependents, in luxury and extravagance ; and who 
will probably be sent over to watch and oppress those who 
support them. 

I hope the scheme of giving salaries to our Governors 
and Judges will not take place, or th|tt they will not be so 
large as hath been proposed. The Judges ought to be in- 
dependent ; but I wish some other way may be found out to 
make them so. In a little time it is likely the people will 
see the importance of it, and will do it of themselves. But 
if large salaries are given, we shall have needy, poor law- 
yers from England, Scotland, or some tools of power of our 
own, placed on the bench. Our Governors will be men 
who, having answered the ends of some Minister, will be 
sent here for a reward of their despicable services ; these 
being hackneyed in the paths of deceit and avarice, will 
be fit tools to enslave and oppress an honest people ; or 
else we shall have some noble scoundrel, who has spent his 
fortune in every kind of luxury and debauchery. 

Unreasonable impositions tend to alienate the hearts of 
the Colonists. We are not ripe for a disunion ; but our 
growth is so great, that in a few years Great B — — n will 
not be able to compel our submission. Whereas, if they 
treat us as brethren and friends, it will be the interest, and 
the inclination of the Colonists, to be united with their 
parent country, even though they were ten times as big as 
they are. 

The Colonies, if disunited from Great Britain, must un- 
dergo great convulsions before they would be settled on a 
tirm basis. Colony would be against Colony, and there 
would be in every one furious internal contests for power. 
We had a specimen of the former the last year, when the 
people on the borders of New York and the Massachusetts, 
(which Provinces have no great affection for each other,) 
contended even to blood about boundaries. I hope this 
dispute will be amicably settled. The latter we have seen 
something of in Rhode Island, where they elect their own 
Governor. They are divided into furious parties ; they 
bribe, they quarrel, they hardly keep from blows. The 
parties are so nearly equal, that they change Governors and 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to TkomctS II oil is. 121 

Magistrates almost every year. If things are so bad in that 
tittle government, what would they be in greater. I hope 
not to live to see the American British Colonies discon- 
nected from Great Britain*, But whatever changes there 

may be, I shall always remain, with the sincerest gratitude 
and respect, 

Dear Sir, your very obliged friend and humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 

In my last I mentioned four boxes of books that came 
in Capt. Scott, — I perceive since, that two came in Capt. 

Dr. Chauncy's Answer to the Bishop is out. I believe, 
when you have read it, you will not think it necessary to 
publish the hasty remarks I have sent, upon the Archbish- 
op's sermon. However, they are in your bands ; you may 
do witb them what you think best. I designed them for 
the public prints, and therefore aimed at conciseness. It 
would not have been taken well, if I had published them 
here, just at this time. If there is a good opportunity, it 
may be done hereafter. 

The clergyman who had the diploma from Oxford, was 
Mr. Fayerweather, missionary at Xarragansett, in Rhode 
Island government — almost the only place in Xew T England 
where I can excuse the Society's sending a missionary — and 
he is as poor a one as they could well send. 

Boston, N. E., Jan. 5, 1768. 
Dear Sir, 

I have written so often of late, that I fear I shall 
become quite troublesome. The affair of a Colony Bishop, 
seems to be coming very soon to a crisis. I send you an 
artful pamphlet, which I have just received from New 
York. It has gone through the hands, it is supposed, of 
all the missionaries, so that you have the whole strength 
of the party. And from many circumstances, it is con- 
cluded, that Leviathan himself has given it some gentle 
touches. I very much suspect he wrote some parts himself. 

422 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

You will see by this pamphlet, how we are cajoled. A 
Colony Bishop is to be a more innocent creature than ever 
a Bishop was, since Diocesan Bishops were introduced to 
lord it over God's heritage — and the effects of his coming 
to America, are to be everything that is good. Can the 
A-b-p, and his tools, think to impose on the Colonists by 
these artful representations. I expect this book will be 
reprinted with you, before this can have reached you. 
The people of New England are greatly alarmed ; the 
arrival of a Bishop would raise them as much as any one 
thing. I hope an answer will be written to the southward. 
I expect one from among ourselves. I am not certain by 
whom. Dr. Chauncy is directly attacked ; if he does not 
choose to write, another person will. I beg, dear Sir, 
nothing may be neglected on your side the Atlantic, to 
prevent the threatened evil. Our General Court is now 
sitting. I have hinted to some of the members, that it 
will be proper for them to express their fears of the setting 
up an hierarchy here. I am well assured a motion will be 
made to this purpose. Our Assembly is greatly warmed 
with the late Acts of Parliament. I wish some hot spirits 
do not break out into a name and produce a general con- 
flagration. There are men with you, and men with us, 
who regard no consequences, if they can but gratify their 
passions. I may be mistaken, but I am persuaded the dis- 
pute between Great Britain and her Colonies will never be 
amicably settled. It might easily, if both were wise, and 
would set down where they are, with a uti possidetis. But 
I expect the Parliament will proceed further, and God 
knows what will be the event. I sent you a few hasty 
remarks on the A-b-p's sermon. I have since looked 
more carefully into it, and find other passages full as ex- 
ceptionable as those I have remarked upon, which I shall 
give you my thoughts upon. I write for your amusement 
and my own, rather than from any thought that these 
remarks will be worthy the public notice. Something, 
however, I shall put into the prints. 

I am more and more convinced of the meanness, art — if 
he was not in so high a station, I should say, falsehood — of 
that Arch-Pr-1-te. I am too much provoked to say more. 
I do not expect you to answer all my scrawls ; it will be 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 128 

enough if you let me know you have received them, and 
are not displeased with the frequent intrusions of, 

Sir, your very obliged friend unci humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 

Boston, N. E., April 18, 1768. 

Dear Sir, 

I received, by Capt. Jenkyns, your agreeable letter of 

December 18, with the very kind present accompanying it; 
and by the same conveyance, a note dated December 26, 
with a receipt for the above parcel. I am exceedingly 
obliged to you for this repeated instance of generosity and 

The Anti-Confessionalists seem determined to overcome 
the good Archdeacon with numbers, since they cannot any 
other way. They gather upon him like enraged wasps, 
whose quiet has been disturbed. But, thanks to Heaven, 
they have lost their sting. If the clergy had now, as for- 
merly, the command of the civil arm, that excellent man 
would soon feel the weight of their resentment; possibly 
their impotence makes them the more outrageous. I re- 
joice that there are any who dare to come to his help, 
against spiritual wickednesses in high places. It must 
give him great satisfaction to find such worthy seconds. I 
shall wait, with impatience, for the A-d-n's own appear- 
ance. I hope he will write at large, and fully expose his 
adversaries. They will melt like wax before the sun. 

I received your commission concerning the New-England 
coin, with the greatest pleasure, but am greatly disap- 
pointed in the execution of it. I can find no one who hath 
ever heard of Massachusetts in pourtraiture of the good 
Samaritan. I believe it must have been a medal struck 
on some particular occasion. The sixpence and the penny, 
some tell me they have seen ; but I cannot at present pro- 
cure them. If they are in New England, 1 shall have 

Our silversmiths are so careless that they melt up all the 
Did pieces of silver that come into their hands. They tell 

424: Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

me of many curious pieces which they have destroyed in 
this manner. I rescued a crown piece of Edward VI., 
which, though something worn, has all the figures and 
letters visible, date 1551 — as also a fine medal of George I., 
struck on occasion of Sir George Byng's victory over the 
Spaniards in the Mediterranean, anno 1718. This medal 
is quite fresh. So unknowing am I in things of this na- 
ture, that I know not whether these are any curiosity on 
your side the water or not. I have also all the other New 
England coin ; they are all scarce, except the pine-tree 
shillings and sixpences, which are plenty. I have several 
two-pence and three-pence, very well preserved. I have 
no use for any of these ; if they will be agreeable to you, 
or your friends, they are entirely at your service. I beg, 
dear Sir, you would command me with the greatest free- 
dom. No commission from you can give me any trouble. 
It would be one of the highest pleasures I can have in life, 
to be able to oblige you. There are New England shillings 
of four or five different dies, which are common. 

The subject of New England coins brings to mind an 
anecdote 1 have often heard of Sir Thomas Temple, brother 
to Sir William Temple, which I suppose to be true. That 
gentleman resided several years in New England, in the 
time of the interregnum ; after the restoration he returned 
to England ; the King sent for him and conversed with him 
concerning the state of affairs in the Massachusetts, and 
discovered great warmth against that Colony. Among other 
things, he said they had invaded his prerogative, by coining 
money. Sir Thomas, who was a real friend to the Colony, 
endeavored to soften His Majesty. He told him the people 
had but little acquaintance with law, that they had no bad 
design, and thought it was no crime to make money for 
their own use. In the course of the conversation, he took 
some of the money out of his pocket, and gave it to His 
Majesty. One kind of the pines, is a good deal thick and 
bushy. The King inquired what tree that was. Sir 
Thomas, artfully taking hold of that circumstance, informed 
His Majesty it was the Royal Oak. The Massachusetts 
people, says he, did not dare to put your Majesty's name 
on their coin, and so put the oak which preserved your life. 
The King was put into a fit of good humor, said they were 

Letters from Andrew "Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 425 

a parcel of honest d— gs, and was disposed to hear favorable 
things of them. 

I formerly wrote you that the people in Now England 
would submit to the new burthens laid upon them. 1 
thought so at that time ; 1 have different sentiments now. 
The Commissioners are objects of the public odium. Rep- 
resentations are made 4 by our Assembly against the new 
taxes. If these do not succeed, I tear very disagreeable 
consequences. Things are hastening last to a crisis. What 
will be the event, God knows. If there is any prudence in 
those who hold the reins on your side the water, they will 
be very careful not to drive matters to extremity. 

A piece was published in one of the papers, which was 
supposed to reflect on the Governor. Few approved of it. 
But perhaps the wisest method had been to have treated it 
with neglect. The Governor thought otherwise, and laid 
it before the General Assembly, who were then sitting. 
You will see by the prints, that the two Houses were of 
very different sentiments. The Governor treated them very 
differently in his last speech. The Superior Court sat 
directly. It was given in charge to the Grand Jury to pre- 
sent the piece as a libel ; they could not find a bill, and so 
the matter rests ; several counsellors arc threatened at the 
next election. I am no friend to licentiousness ; but the 
liberty of the press must be preserved sacred, or all is 
over ! 

By Capt. Cazneau, I had the honor of sending you Dr. 
Chandler's Appeal to the Public. I now send you, my 
worthy friend Dr. Chauncy's answer, which I believe you 
will think solidly done. He would, perhaps, have written 
with more spirit before he was so far advanced in life. I 
take the liberty to inclose a copy of the same for worthy 
Dr. Harris. I wrote to the Doctor and the excellent Arch- 
deacon by Capt. Cazneau. 

The Episcopalian controversy at present engrosses the 
attention of the public. The papers at New York and 
Philadelphia are rilled with it. So much the better. The 
ministry will see that a Colony Bishop will not be easily 
introduced. I suppose Dr. Chandler's artful performance 
was designed to feel the pulse of the people. I have put 
up a sermon by a worthy minister in the country, by which 
4th s. — vol. iv. 5 1 

426 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Ilollis. 

you will see something of the spirit which is raised against 
the Episcopal party through the Province. 

The President informs me he has a receipt for a box of 
books which you have been so good as to send to the Col- 
lege. The box is not yet sent to College ; when it is, you 
will hear from that good gentleman. 

The vessel by which I hope to send this, is like to sail 
sooner than I expected. I have time only to add, that I 
am, with the greatest respect, 

Your obliged friend and humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 

I forgot to mention that Mrs. Mayhew has lately buried 
her father, in an advanced age. 

Boston, Sept 27, 1768. 1 
Dear Sir, 

I received yours by Capt. Bruce, the 24th instant, 
together with your very agreeable present, for which I 
heartily thank you. 

The Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law was not 
written by the late Mr. Gridley. I have been privately but 

1 The following- memorandum appears in Dr. Eliot's handwriting : 

Massachusetts Gazette, June 23, contains a very extraordinary Circular Letter 
from L : Hillsborough. It came from Rhode Island to us. It is very diverting to 
hear R— de Island commended for their " reverence for the laws." No one Col- 
ony hath taken such liberties as they have from their beginning ; but the scheme 
was to soothe the other Colonies, that Massachusetts might be alone. How it 
succeeded, the letters from the Colonies will show. That from Virginia is excel- 
lent ; one can scarce conceive a more innocent letter than that which Lord 
Hillsboro' so highly censures. 

July 7, contains the Governor's Message to the House, with Lord Hillsboro's 
Letter to him, requiring the House to rescind resolutions which had been passed 
by a former House, and which must already have had all the effect they could 
have ! This paper also contains the proceedings of the House. Six of the towns 
whose members voted for rescinding, have disapproved of their conduct, and 
voted thanks to the ninety-two anti-rescinders. These towns are marked in the 
list of the seventeen. The glorious ninety-two is the reigning toast. No meas- 
ure could have been more impolitic than this of Lord Hillsboro's. I was fearful 
that the other colonies would blame Boston, for so open opposition to the laws of 
trade, and leave us to bear the weight of ministerial vengeance. But this letter, 
and the consequent dissolution, has taught them that it was a common cause, and 
has effectually united them. A. E. 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. T27 

authentically informed that the author was Mr. Adams, 

(not our Representative, who penned the address to the 
King, and the letters contained iii the first part of the col- 
lection, but) a young gentleman of the law, who hath lately 
removed from the country into Boston, and is likely to 
make a shining figure at the bar. 

The parcel you have intrusted to me for the College, I 
shall carry thither in a few days. I fear you have not 
heard from the President of the receipt of some of your 
last benefactions to that society. That good gentleman 
hath been extremely ill, and continues yet very weak. I 
shall make inquiry of him at the next corporation meeting, 
which will be this week. 

Capt. Deverson did not arrive till some days after Capt. 
Bruce, so that I have not received your favor by him. 
When your letter, of which you arc so good as to inform 
me, comes to hand, I sliall soon make my acknowledgments. 

Things are far from being in that happy state in which 
you, and all friends to Great Britain and her Colonics, wish 
them to be. You will see, by the papers, something of the 
confusion we are in. But you cannot well conceive of our 
distress. We expect every hour two regiments from Hal- 
ifax. The Governor warmly insists that one should be 
quartered in the Town. The Council are determined to 
keep them both at the castle. The latter, you easily per- 
ceive, will not answer the end for which it is supposed they 
are sent, which is to introduce the Commissioners into the 
Town, who are yet at the castle. Both the Governor and 
the Council arc high. We expect two other regiments 
from Ireland. What will be the event, God knows. If 
the Commissioners should return to Town, it seems to mc 
they will be in a very uneasy situation, much worse than 
they were before they left it. They are so much the objects 
of popular odium, that they will be in actual danger if 
they go without their guards. 

At present, people do not seem disposed to resist the 
troops, but their tempers are in such a ferment, that they 
may easily be pushed on to the most desperate measures ; 
and if the troops attempt to quarter in the Town, I greatly 
fear the consequence. I hope the commanding officer will 
conduct with prudence and caution. 

428 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

To have a standing army ! Good God ! what can be 
worse to a people who have tasted the sweets of liberty ! 
Things are come to an unhappy crisis ; there will never be 
that harmony between Great Britain and her Colonies, that 
there hath been ; all confidence is at an end ; and the mo- 
ment there is any blood shed, all affection will cease. 

The Committees from the several Towns are now met in 
convention, between 80 and 90. I know not how this 
step will be approved on your side the water. Their 
chairman (Mr. Cushing) assures me their determinations 
will be moderate, and their session short ; and that they 
will not attempt any acts of government. But if the 
troops arrive before they break up, I will not be bound for 
their moderation. The people have, at present, great con- 
fidence in them. A gentleman well acquainted with the 
secrets of the times, just now informed me, that there 
were three parties in the convention. One, who were 
fearful of the legality of their proceedings, and would 
gladly break up without doing any thing. Another party 
would willingly leave the people to themselves, and not 
lay any restraints upon them. A third desire to sit till 
the troops come, and to take the direction of affairs into 
their own hands. Which party will prevail is uncertain. 

I just returned from a journey into the country. I find 
the people through this Province, are ripe for almost any 
thing. But how it is with other Provinces, I cannot say. 
They write well, but do nothing. I fear we must stand 
the brunt of ministerial vengeance, unless there is some 
great change at home. What can we do ! Tamely to 
give up our rights, and to suffer ourselves to be taxed at 
the will of persons at such a distance, and to be under 
military government, is to consent to be slaves, and to 
bring upon us the curses of all posterity ; and yet how 
unable to cope with Great Britain ! How dreadful the 
thought of a contest with the parent country, in whose 
calamities we have always borne a part, and in whose 
peace we have enjoyed peace. Whatever distresses come, 
we shall not suffer alone ; whatever evils come on the 
Colonies, Great Britain will sensibly feel ; and our increase 
is so great, that time will be, when we shall be free. 
How impolitic to precipitate a disunion ! 

Letters fiot/i Andrew "Eliot to Thomas Ilol/is. 429 

Our hopes are great from the agreement not to import 
goods. No measure would have more important effects, if 
we had virtue to stand to it; but I four it will be broke 
through. En short, dear Sir, we have every thing to fear, 

and scarce any room to hope but in the power and good- 
ness of the almighty Governor of the world. Days of 

fasting and prayer arc 4 appointed in many towns, and will 
be general. I am sure this will put you in mind of 1611. 
What news 1 shall write you next, Ciod knows; hearing 
of a vessel just ready to sail, I snatched a few moments to 
give you this sketch of our public affairs, and to assure 
that 1 am, with the greatest gratitude and esteem, 

Dear Sir, your obedient, humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 
To Thomas Hollis, Esq. 

Boston, N. E., Oct 17, 1768. 
Dear Sir, 

Your kind and excellent letter, dated May 25, 1768, 
I received by Capt. Dcverson, and am extremely obliged 
to you for the very valuable present which accompanied it. 
The books you have enriched me with, are all curious ; 
many of them are excellently adapted to the present state 
of this country. I shall not fail to put them into the 
hands of those who will knoAv how to make a proper use 
of them. Our connoisseurs are vastly pleased with the 
fine representation of William Tell, who laid the founda- 
tion of the liberties of Switzerland. Such a man deserves 
the highest honors through all generations ! How much 
greater a character to be the saviour of mankind, than to 
be their tyrant and oppressor ! I am also obliged to you 
for the print of the late excellent Dr. Mayhew. This, and 
the print of yourself, are finely designed ; but I am not 
quite master of all the decorations. 

The incomparable Arch-Deacon holds out, with surpris- 
ing firmness and ability. The high-flying clergy arc terri- 
bly alarmed. They unite in their opposition to The Con- 
fessional, as if the church was in the greatest danger ; but 

430 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

they are extremely various in their method of attacking 
that truly excellent performance. If I was to judge by 
the zeal and assiduity of the friends of the hierarchy, I 
should hope that book was like to have some great effects ; 
but I fear the reformation of the Church of England is a 
thing to be wished for, rather than expected. 

We are greatly obliged to Mr. Fleming for his learned 
and judicious answer to Dr. Chandler's Appeal. That 
venerable, good man, deserves the thanks of every friend 
to truth, to virtue, to liberty, for his steady adherence to 
the glorious cause and his constant endeavors to promote 
it, at a time of life when almost any other man would 
desire to rest from his labors. 

I find you are still determined to retire. I heartily con- 
gratulate you, that you have been able to carry your plan 
into execution — a plan so benevolently laid, so wisely and 
steadily pursued, that it will afford you the most agreeable 
reflections throughout life, which I pray God may be long, 
and as easy and happy to yourself, as it will be useful to 

Your hint concerning an Agent is wise and important. 
It is exceeding difficult to persuade people to see and pur- 
sue their own true interest. I have been always of the 
opinion that if Mr. B — 11 — n had been continued in his 
agency, many of the disputes we have had with Great 
Britain, and which it is probable we shall have, would 
have been prevented. He was perfectly acquainted with 
our affairs, would have been able to convince the ministry 
of the impolicy of their measures, if they were at all open 
to conviction, and would have taught his constituents here 
to conduct with caution and prudence, which certainly are 
not inconsistent with a firm adherence to our rights. I 
freely spake against that gentleman's dismission as an im- 
prudent step ; now it is too late ; others see and own it to 
be so. The Speaker of the late House of Representatives 
hath told me more than once, that he heartily wished they 
had taken my advice. Party views influenced them, as 
they generally do. We have no General Assembly, and 
no one can tell when we shall have. I fear whether any 
Agent we could now choose, would be able to serve us. 
Jacta est alea : We must wait the event. 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 431 

The new College to be erected in Rhode Island Colony 

will be, I suppose, about sixty miles from Cambridge. It 
was at first designed to be on a catholic plan, and all de- 
nominations united to promote it. It was supposed Mr. 
Condy, a Baptist minister of great candor, learning and in- 
genuity, would be the first President. He would have been 
an honor to that or any other seminary. Mr. Condy did 
not approve the alteration that was made in the plan and 
in the charter, lie desired the College might he on a 
broad bottom ; and that the direction of it might not be 
qonfined to any particular denomination, as it now is too 
much. This excellent man (Mr. Condy) is lately deceased, 
lie was a truly good man, a warm friend to both religious 
and civil liberty. As I lived in a happy intimacy with him, 
I have often heard him lament, that things were not order- 
ed with respect to that College as he hoped they would 
have been. When he saw that he could do no good, he 
silently withdrew, as did all the Presbyterian or Congrega- 
tional ministers, who had been nominated to be Trustees. 
One Mr. Manning was elected President. I do not mention 
these things, to raise any prejudice against this new sem- 
inary. Your observation is quite just and weighty : " If 
youth arc but fairly grounded in learning, the best of them 
will make out their way to purest knowledge and truth." 
Besides, a Baptist College may answer some particular, 
valuable ends. Those of that denomination among us, have 
generally decried human learning, as they term it. And 
though they have had some men of eminence in the learned 
world, yet their teachers have generally been illiterate men. 

This College, the charter of which is so favorable to that 
i denomination, may possibly remove their prejudices against 
learning. They will be more likely to send their children 
to this seminary than to Cambridge, although the educa- 
tion there is quite free. 

I heartily rejoice to hear the scheme of cpiscopizing 
America, is not likely to succeed. Some things have been 
written on this side the water, as if w r e would be content 
with a Bishop who had only the powers of ordination. 
For my own part, I dread a Bishop of the Church of Eng- 
land, in any shape. If such a creature comes among us, 
pretences will not be wanting to enlarge his power ; and 

432 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

no one here believes the Episcopalians, when they tell us, 
this power of ordination is all they desire. The death of 
the Archbishop occasions no lamentations here, except 
among the high-church party. I hope in God the place 
will be filled with a person of more candor, and one who 
will not be so eternally contriving to advance the hierarchy ; 
one who will improve his power and influence, to reform 
a church which, if it is not declining in wealth and gran- 
deur, is evidently declining in piety and virtue — and not 
one, who, like the last, will set himself to oppose every 
thing that looks like alteration or reformation. 

The inquiry concerning the Papists has turned out much 
as I feared it would. No wonder they grow more insolent. 
They are not ashamed, neither do they blush, to fry in the 
face of all history, and to assert the most infamous false- 

I wish, dear Sir, it was in my power to give a more 
comfortable account of our public affairs. They are in an 
unhappy state. Two regiments are landed in Boston. The 
commander refuses to go to the castle, where there are 
barracks — eight or ten ships of war lie before the Town. 
When the troops landed, there was no opposition. Two 
more regiments are expected from Ireland; if they are 
quartered in Town, it will be a perfect garrison. The Con- 
vention, of which I wrote you in my last, broke up very 
harmlessly. There is no more talk of resistance. The 
present disposition is to treat them, the troops, with civility, 
but to provide nothing. All is at present quiet ; but there 
is a general gloom and uneasiness. The soldiers begin to 
desert — no one will betray them — about forty are gone 
already. We are threatened with further marks of minis- 
terial anger. I know not what is designed ; but am of 
opinion Great Britain will sooner or later repent her 
mistaken policy. Every thing hath not been conducted 
here with that prudence it might have been. But we are 
hardly treated, and the people feel it. The Commissioners 
are still at the castle. It is supposed they will soon return 
to Town. This will occasion great uneasiness, but no 
violence. The troops make all quiet. 

I am extremely sorry I did not know sooner of your 
connection with Mr. Birch ; the least intimation at his first 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 433 

coming, would have procured him a very different reception, 
and have introduced him into an acquaintance that would 

have made his situation much more agreeable. I have 
never seen him, but have heard him spoken of with great 
respect by some who have been conversant with him. I 
believe his character stands fairer than most of the other 
Commissioners. At present there is no possibility of treat- 
ing him as I should be glad to do. When he comes to 
Town I shall watch every opportunity to serve him. 

We are told, that Dr. Chandler is preparing an Answer 
to Dr. Chauncy. Whoever writes, we shall have the whole 
strength of the party. 

The Centinel is a very sensible paper, written at Phila- 
delphia against Dr. Chandler, by one Mr. Bryant, as I 
was lately informed by a minister from that city. Some 
say Mr. Dickinson assists. 

The good President hath been ill some months, and re- 
mains in a very feeble state. His death would greatly 
embarrass us. The place is important. Some upon whom 
the eyes of the people are fixed, will not be willing to 
undertake the charge, or their parishes will not consent 
to their removal. It will be very difficult to fill the place 
to satisfaction. 

General Gage arrived at Boston from New York, the 
15th instant. The Governor has summoned the Coun- 
cillors from all parts of the Province, to meet the 19th, 
when it is supposed he will open his wdrole budget from 
Lord Hillsborough, which he intimates contains matters 
of very great importance. People wait with anxious ex- 
pectation. The Governor, we are told, is soon to go from 
us. He hath but few friends ; most suppose that he is, in 
a great measure, the author of our difficulties. Whether 
there is real ground for this prejudice, I cannot tell, but 
am persuaded he hath been more minute in his representa- 
tions home, than was any way necessary, and that many 
things have been noticed, which might very well have been 
passed over. It is said Lieut. Governor Hutchinson is to 
succeed as Governor in chief. I cannot say I wish it for 
his sake. He is, I believe, a sincere friend to his country; 
but in the present situation of things, it will not always 
be easy to determine what is right and best. A Governor 
4th s. — vol. iv. 55 

434 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

must obey orders from home, however disagreeable to the 
people, or even to himself; and it will be quite impossible 
to give satisfaction on both sides the water. 

I have now authority to inform you that the Dissertation 
on the canon and feudal law, was written by John Adams, 
Esq., a young gentleman of the law, who lately removed 
from the country into Boston. As I have the pleasure of 
an acquaintance with this gentleman, I presented him one 
of the copies you was so good as to send me, and let him 
know how favorably it was received in Great Britain. He 
also wrote the piece signed, Sui Juris ; but though he 
seemed in that to promise more, he has not written any 
thing further. He has large practice, and I am mistaken 
if he will not soon be at the head of his profession. This 
information is not designed to be kept secret. 

The academical honor you mention was a thing I 
neither sought nor desired. I have a less opinion of it 
than ever, since I found by the Arch-Deacon's last book, 
that he writes only M. A. That incomparable man de- 
serves the greatest honors this world can afford. He is as 
much superior to them, as he is unlikely to receive them, 
in a church where a mean servility to superiors, and a 
bigoted zeal against all reformation, are almost the only 

I am very sorry the persons to whom I committed my 
letters have proved unfaithful. They have always given 
me the strongest assurances of care and prudence. I hope, 
under the present direction, the conveyance will be easy 
and safe. 

I am, dear Sir, your obliged friend and obedient servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 
Thomas Hollis, Esq., London. 

Boston, Jan. 29, 1769. 
Dear Sir, 

By reason of the President's illness, your kind letter 
of July 1, with the pamphlets which accompanied it, did 
not come to hand for some considerable time after Capt. 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas IIo/l 


Deverson's arrival. Thai good gentleman is better, but 
still very feeble. 

Mr. Howe, who writes in the Episcopal controversy, with 
which yon was so good as to favor me, is a sensible spir- 
ited writer, and has given a just castigation to a little nar- 
row bigot, who foolishly exposed himself. The person who 
last took up the cause, appears to have some reading, but 
is excessively dull. 1 hope Mr. Howe will again take up 
his pen, which he knows so well how to use. 

Among the many valuable books with which you favored 
mo the last summer, I am particularly obliged to you for 
the excellent Arch-Deacon's Considerations, and Mr. Iler- 
port'a on Oaths. Nothing could be better calculated to 
give a just view of Popery, and the danger of its prev- 
alence, than the A-D-N's book. It is clear, sensible, judi- 
cious, and at the same time concise, and would alarm those 
who have the guidance of affairs, if they had any concern 
about the true interest of the nation. The Bishops, where 
are they? Would it not be of advantage to have some 
intelligent persons constantly employed to find out and 
counterwork Popish agents \ If they want money for 
such a purpose, they might borrow of the Propagating 
Society, who certainly cannot find a good use for theirs, 
or they would not dissipate it so shamefully as they do. 
When I find how admirably the A-D-N is employed, I do 
not wonder that I have not heard from him for a long 
time. I hope I shall not wholly lose a correspondence 
which does me so much honor. 

Mr. Herport's book is upon a most interesting and im- 
portant subject. The venerable author has not only said 
many things that are well worthy the attention of every 
state where oaths are imposed, but he has expressed him- 
self with the greatest decency and solemnity. What de- 
mon possessed the magistrates of Berne ! They ought 
rather, if 1 may borrow your significant expression, to 
(have crowned) '" crown him with oak leaves" or to have 
made the remainder of life easy to the good old gentleman 
by an honorable pension — instead of this, they have per- 
secuted him to death. Cursed be their anger, for it was 
fierce ; and their wrath, for it was cruel ! None deserve 
contempt and detestation more than intolerant magistrates, 

436 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

men who try to suppress all free inquiry. What a miser- 
able place would this world be, if such as these bore a 
universal sway. Honest Mr. Herport, one would have 
thought, had said enough to have satisfied any one, of 
whom the lust of domination had not taken full possess- 
ion, p 209. Every man has a right to speak his mind. I 
would not have burnt the book for that unhappy passage, 
but I sincerely wish the author had himself expunged it. 
Not long before I received this book, I had been reading 
honest General Ludlow's account of the generous protec- 
tion afforded him by the magistrates of Berne, and felt a 
secret pleasure in the thought that there was such a land 
of liberty to be an asylum to patriots and virtue in dis- 
tress. But it seems the state of things is changed infi- 
nitely for the worse — their true glory is departed. I hope 
the world will be favored with a more complete account of 
the extraordinary proceedings against this martyr in the 
cause of truth and virtue. 

The Episcopal controversy makes but little noise in our 
Province ; indeed, if we write, we are not likely to have 
any antagonists among us worthy notice. Our mission- 
aries are not able to make any tolerable figure. At New 
York it is otherwise. I send you some papers written 
there against Dr. Chandlers Appeal. Some of them, I be- 
lieve, will not be unacceptable. They are not all written 
with equal spirit. Mr. Livingston and Mr. Scott, both 
gentlemen of the bar, are supposed to be the principal 
authors. Dr. Chandler purposes an answer to Dr. Chaun- 
cy ; he takes time enough to do his best, and perhaps to 
consult his superiors. The Episcopalians at New York 
have taken every low method to blacken Dr. Chauncy. 
His character is too well established to be injured by their 
malicious attempts. If our Episcopalians should begin to 
stir, they would soon be taken down. I am glad my 
friend Mr. Adams's Sermons proved agreeable. The law 
fixing grammar schools in every Town, you justly esteem 
a prime law. By means of it the seeds of knowledge are 
scattered through the land. Scarce any are to be found 
among us, even in the obscurest parts, who are not able to 
read and write with some tolerable propriety. And it is 
besides a happy provision for our young gentlemen, when 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas 1 To 1/ is. 4^7 

they leave college, and prevents their hurrying into the 
learned professions, as they must otherwise do for a sub- 
sistence. Some sordid, niggardly souls, enemies to all 
learning, of which there 1 arc 1 always enough in our General 
Assembly, have ever looked upon this Law with envy, and 
have desired to get it repealed. We were alarmed when a 
considerable Town instructed their representative to move 
for a repeal. The ministers openly appeared in defence of 
it. Having occasion to preach before a number of the 
representatives, on one of our public Thanksgivings, I en- 
deavored to show the advantage of this Law. Hie Sermon 
was desired for the press. 1 have an aversion to such pub- 
lications ; however, should have yielded, if it had been 
necessary. But by conversing with some of the leading 
members of the Assembly, we so effectually secured our 
cause, that a motion was never made ; and there is no dan- 
ger, at present, that it will meet with success, if it should 
be made hereafter. 1 have sent you a sermon of the late 
Dr. Colman, in which you will see what a superiority he 
supposes this law gives us over the parent kingdom ; you 
will find the passage p. 11, 12. There is nothing else 
remarkable in the sermon. The person ordained is a wor- 
thy, ingenious, learned man. 

I have made diligent inquiry concerning Mr. Cotton's 
Abstract of Laws and Government, and have found one 
copy in Mr. Mather's library, bound up with some other 
pamphlets, which has exactly the title you have transcribed. 
I have formerly seen a MS. in Mr. Cotton's hand-writing, 
which I believe was a first draught of this. It was cor- 
rected by our excellent Governor Winthrop, who wisely 
erased many sanguinary passages. This copy was in the 
possession of the Lieutenant Governor, but I fear was lost, 
with many other valuable papers, in the unhappy catastro- 
phe of his house. 

There is no remarkable alteration in our public affairs. 
We have four regiments and part of a fifth. One regiment 
is at the castle, the rest are in this Town. The soldiers 
are in raptures at the cheapness of spirituous liquors among 
us ; and in some of their drunken hours, have been inso- 
lent to some of the inhabitants ; but in general the Tow 7 n 
is surprisingly quiet. The discipline is so shockingly 

438 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

severe, that the common men are afraid to offer the least 
insult. The officers are most troublesome, who, many of 
them, are as intemperate as the men. Col. Pomroy, the 
present commander of the troops, and Commodore Hood, 
of the ships, have the character of prudent, discreet men. 
But upon the whole, the people are very uneasy with the 
company of these armed men. There is, however, no dis- 
position to oppose them. We are still deprived of a Gen- 
eral Assembly, and have no expectation of having one until 
the General Election in May. 

The Council you will see, by their late proceedings, have 
changed their note. It is by no means a well constituted 
body, chosen annually by the representatives and hy them- 
selves ! subject to a negative from the King's Governor. 
Sometimes they are intimidated by the House of Represen- 
tatives. At other times they are under the awe of a nega- 
tive. This precarious situation makes their conduct fickle, 
uncertain and inconsistent. At one time this motive pre- 
ponderates ; at another, that. A few years since, when 
some interesting point was depending, the Council were 
menaced by the Governor on one hand, and the House on 
the other. An honest old Councillor broke out in that 
homely language, " In short, we are like a turnip, squeezed 
between two trenchers." Besides, they often hold places, 
or have expectations for themselves and their friends, which 
renders them still more dependent. At present there are 
but few men of abilities among them. One or two chang- 
ing sides, the rest follow. I speak freely to you, Sir, because 
I know I speak safely. The papers they have lately com- 
posed, are said to be written by Mr. Bowdoin, a gentleman 
of learning, integrity and fortune. At present the Board is 
under his influence. I wish they may never be under a 
worse direction. Bad as the constitution of the Council is, 
if they are appointed from home, it will be still worse — we 
shall have strangers, crown officers, pensioners, court depend- 
ents, and what not I 

Lord Hillsborough's Letter to the other Colonies, has 
had a very different effect from what the ministry proposed. 
They have one and all, who are not under military govern- 
ment, sent respectful answers to the Massachusetts Letter, 
and have united in their petitions and remonstrances home. 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas I In/ /is. 439 

The ministry could not possibly have contrived a more 
effectual method to unite tin 4 Colonics, than the writing 
that Circular Letter. The several Assemblies see it is now 
a common caihc and nothing will prevail with them to 

rescind or to give up any of their rights. The second 

resolve of New York is higher than anything that has 
passed in the Massachusetts Assembly. 

We lane just had the King's speech, and the echo of the 
Lords and Commons. They are exceeding high against 

this Town and Province. What can the ministry propose 
farther I We have troops. We do not resist them. The 
duties, unreasonable as we think them, arc paid without 
opposition. Perhaps the Town has not in every thing 
acted with that prudence that might be wished ; but what 
could be expected from a people struggling for liberty and 
made almost desperate by the measures taken with them. 
I will not say we have none among us of malevolent dis- 
positions, but, in general, I believe the King has not more 
loyal subjects in any part of his dominions. The letters 
from Great Britain give us very different, contrary repre- 
sentations of the disposition of the Parliament, and of the 
people on your side the w T ater — w r e scarce know w 7 hat to 
believe. Our Agent writes smooth things to us, but I have 
long thought that good old gentleman knew very little of 
the matter. The alienation between Great Britain and her 
Colonies, seems to be increasing fast ; can this be for the 
advantage of either \ A wise ministry, methinks, would 
endeavor to contrive some lenient healing measures. Only 
let us be put in the situation we were before the unhappy 
Stamp Act, and I hope all will be well, though I must ow T n 
my opinion is the Colonies will never be so easily managed 
as they were before that fatal aera. We are told the 
Parliament will offer us a share in the representative body. 
Will they incorporate us, and allow a free trade, as they 
allowed Scotland I If they do, they will soon lose the 
trade of the Colonies, who can purchase much cheaper 
elsewdiere. If they do not, we shall not think we are 
upon an equitable footing. In short, our local circumstan- 
ces render a representation impracticable, and there are 
very few in this or any of the Colonies that would accept 
it, or would not think it better to submit to the acts of 

440 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

which we complain, than agree to such a compromise. 
Could we find men to represent us, of such virtue that they 
could not be seduced, or of such abilities that they could 
not be deceived, (which in the present state of human 
nature is too much to expect,) yet what a small proportion 
would they bear in a British House of Commons. The 
most, by far, would be unacquainted with our circumstan- 
ces, and could not feel our grievances ; and as they would 
then claim an unlimited right to tax us, might think to 
recommend themselves to their constituents by laying bur- 
thens on the Colonies, [though in truth Great Britain will 
not be the better for any monies raised from us. They will 
certainly lose it all in their commerce, and instead of easing 
the nation, it would be disposed of to some hungry depend- 
ents or ministerial tools. How little is Great Britain served 
by the large sums given away in pensions from the revenue 
in Ireland.] Besides, what confusion would it introduce to 
have a representation in Parliament, and at the same time 
have Assemblies of our own X What uncertainty about 
the power of the one and the rights of the other ! What 
a clashing of measures ! while the poor Colonists must be 
under the control of both, and be liable to have their 
money taken away by both. But I fear I trouble you too 
much with these matters. The situation of my country, 
and the present aspect of things, lies near my heart — and 
I write with the utmost freedom to you who have such just 
sentiments of liberty, and so entire an abhorrence of tyranny 
and oppression, in whatever form it appears, and of every 
invasion of the rights of mankind. 

Before I finish this long epistle, I beg leave to return 
you my sincerest thanks for your very obliging letter, and 
present, by Capt. Scott, which I have just received. Gov- 
ernor Pownal's book is curious, and contains many valuable 
thoughts. No man has had greater advantages to know 
the state of the Colonies than that gentleman. What his 
present views are, it is hard to say. Whether, as you hint, 
" the being sent as Mentor to a young Personage of very 
high rank ;" or to be one of our Eepresentatives, if that 
scheme should take ; or if it should not, to be employed as 
Agent for this Province, or rather as General Agent for all 
the Provinces. Certain it is, that he is carrying on a secret 

Letters from Andrew Elidt to Thomas I loll is. I n 

correspondence with some leading men in tliis Province, 
and I am told in the other Colonies. We ought to be sat- 
isfied of tin 4 integrity, as well as abilities, of those whom 
we trust with our interest; an ambitious, crafty, designing 
man, would only carry us to market, and make the best 
bargain he could for himself. 

It" you should hate occasion to write to Dr. Harris, be so 
good as to lot him know 1 have received his kind present, 
and shall soon answer his obliging letter. 

I have sent the parcel to Cambridge, which you put 
under my care for Harvard College. All your generous 
donations to that society, mentioned in yours of Nov. 1, 
1768, have been received, and acknowledgments made by 
the corporation. The President is very forgetful. I im- 
mediately gave notice to him of the omission. You have 
in this parcel a letter from him, which I conclude will con- 
tain the good gentleman's apology. 

I must ask your pardon for detaining you so long, and 
am, with the sincerest gratitude and affection, your obliged 
friend, and humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 

Boston, July 10, 17G9. 
Dear Sir, 

Our good President was taken from us the first of 
June, in the eightieth year of his age and thirty-second of 
his Presidentship. I am at a loss who will be his success- 
or — probably it will be Mr. Winthrop, Hollis Professor of 
Mathematics. His learning and abilities are unquestion- 
able. He is older than we should choose, and is frequently 
taken off from business by bodily infirmities ; but it is 
difficult to find one every way qualified, and who would be 
willing to undertake such a trust. 

The inclosed vote ought to have been transmitted sooner; 
the President's ill state of health prevented. [For books 
sent by Capt. Scott, to the care of Rev. Dr. Eliot.] 1 

The state of our public affairs is still uncomfortable ; 

1 Note by Hollis. 
4th s. — vol. iv. 5fi 

442 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

the ministry act a very weak, impolitic part ; they keep the 
Colonies in a ferment, and the nation gains nothing. I 
have sometimes given offence by opposing some measures 
among us which I thought rash ; but I begin to think I 
have been mistaken. Every step the ministry takes, serves 
to justify our warmest measures — and it is now plain that 
if they had not had their hands full at home, they would have 
crushed the Colonies ; and that if we had not been vigor- 
ous in our opposition, we had lost all. I fear nothing is to 

be expected from the justice or equity of P 1. The 

treatment of the Colonies on your side the water, tends 
greatly to alienate them from the parent country, and to 
hasten that independency which at present the warmest 
among us deprecate. Things will not be settled till we 
have an American bill of rights. 

Governor Bernard is just leaving us. I wish he had 
taken his departure years ago. Though he is going, our 
House of Representatives have petitioned the King to re- 
move him. In their petition, I am told, they have treated 
him with great freedom. His conduct deserves it. I send 
you a copy of his letters and the proceedings of the Coun- 
cil, so far as they are printed — they are as yet private 
among us. I procured them by Mr. Adams's interest. 

Two of our four regiments are gone to Halifax. We 
are encouraged to hope for the removal of all. It is not 
easy to divine what they came for. I send in the papers, 
the Messages of the Governor and the Answers of the 
House, and such other publications as we have. Dr. 
Chauncy will soon reply to Dr. Chandler. I have taken 
the liberty to inclose a small parcel to Dr. Harris. 

I am, dear Sir, with the greatest sincerity, your obliged 
friend and humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 

Boston, N. .E., Sept. 7, 1769. 
Dear Sir, 

Your very acceptable letters of May 10, 1769, and 
June 26, 1769, I have received, with the kind and gener- 
ous present which accompanied each ; for which please 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to TIiohkis Hot lis. 1 |:> 

to accept my sincere acknowledgments. We should 
be quite ignorant what is said for or against us in Great 
Britain, if it were not for your obliging care I have put 
these publications into the hands of those who are able 
to make the best use of them, and have inserted the extracts 
from your public prints in our weekly papers. 

The letter from the late A-B-P, relative to an American 
bishop, is like the man. smooth, plausible and artful. You 
cannot have one in that high station so well versed in the 
art of wheedling and cajoling. I look on his removal as a 
signal favor of Providence. Dr. Chandler must have seen 
this epistle, or the substance of it, before he wrote. There 
is scarce anything material in the Doctor's long, labored, 
dull performances, but it is to be found in this. What an 
innocent animal is our American bishop to be ! Such a 
bishop as the world scarce ever saw, if it was in his power 
to be greater. A bishop of the Church of England with- 
out temporal power or worldly pomp ! ! ! Surely the A-B-P 
must have much too contemptible an opinion of the under- 
standing of the Americans, to imagine they would suffer 
themselves to be imposed upon by such flimsy pretexts. 
If we have a bishop, he will be like the rest of the order ; 
once introduced, there will never want pretences to increase 
his power — therefore we will not have one, unless we are 
compelled ; no, not so much as to ride through the coun- 
try to confirm. Our Episcopalians, except a very few, 
would not give sixpence to feel his holy hands on their 
heads. They have no value for that paltry rite ; and if a 
bishop must come, it would be quite as acceptable to have 
his lordship of Quebec, as an English bishop. The letter 
to the bishop of Albany, is excellently calculated to expose 
the scheme. I have given it to the printers ; it will be 
attended with some remarks on the negligence of the 
society in omitting to send missionaries to Canada — while 
so many are sent among the Presbyterians in New England. 

Your sentiments of an Agent are quite just. But party 
and parsimony prevail. Mr. Adams's reputation is so 
high, that I believe he might obtain the Agency. But as 
he has not been long in business, he has at present other 
view r s. 1 am mistaken if his abilities and integrity do not 
soon raise him to a station of eminence. 

444 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

I fear for the nation. It is unhappy that there is no one 
in whom they can put confidence — there can be no danger 
from a change of ministry — we cannot easily have a worse. 
The Colonists have great expectations that their affairs will 
issue well. The ministry certainly had a design to new- 
model our constitution, at least in this Province ; but they 
have had business enough at home — this has been our 
security, and we think will be. Our people begin to des- 
pise a military force. The troops desert in great numbers ; 
it is common to hear that six or eight go off in a night. 
When the officers behave ill, as they often do, no one 
scruples to take the advantage of the law, which to their 
great mortification has its course, notwithstanding all their 
efforts. Things cannot long remain in the state they are 
now in ; they are hastening to a crisis. What will be the 
event, God know r s. 

The President's chair is still vacant, several in the cor- 
poration, who have been thought of, have utterly declined 
that trust ; among the rest, Mr. Winthrop. I know not 
where we shall look next. At the desire of the corpora- 
tion, I transmit to you their vote of thanks. 

The Lieutenant Governor is about to publish a volume 
of ancient papers. I have not seen them, but understand 
Mr. Cotton's laws are among them — perhaps not from the 
best copy. When the book is finished, I hope to have the 
honor of sending it to you. 

I have endeavored to prevent, as far as lay in my power, 
your being troubled with American visitants or corres- 
pondents. I hope you will not take it amiss, that I men- 
tion to you a worthy young merchant, Mr. Samuel Eliot, a 
nephew of mine and peculiarly dear to me, who has lately 
sailed for London. He was brought up under the minis- 
try of the late excellent Dr. Mayhew. If it should be in 
your way to serve him, I shall take it as a great favor. He 
knows nothing of my mentioning him, and has no expecta- 
tion of your notice. 

I am, dear Sir, with the greatest gratitude and respect, 
your obliged friend and humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 

To Tho's Hollis, Esq. 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to 'Thomas Hollis. 445 

Boston, N. E., Dec. 25, 17(5!). 
Dear Sir, 

The box of books and tracts which you sent by ('apt. 
Allen, to be forwarded by me to Harvard College, I re- 
ceived, and have conveyed to Cambridge, Inclosed you 
have a copy of the corporation's vote 1 of thanks. I heart- 
ily thank you for the parcel in the box directed to me, 
which I found to contain a number of valuable hooks and 
tracts — and for your very obliging letter, dated Aug. 12, '69. 
I hope you have received the several letters and little par- 
eels I had sent before the receipt of yours — in which I 
have acknowledged the receipt of those letters you men- 
tion in your last. 

I trust this will find you returned from Dorsetshire. It 
is my sincere desire that you may meet with a situation 
that is agreeable to you, and that will confirm the health 
and protract the life of one who has been so unwearied in 
his endeavors to promote the public good, and to whom I 
am under the greatest personal obligations. 

What you mention with respect to Mr. Kearsley, may be 
of importance to both countries. I have written to my 
kinsman, whom I formerly took the liberty to mention to 
you, and who is now in England, desiring him to see Mr. 
Kearsley and to settle a correspondence with him. I know 
no one more capable of discharging such a trust, or who 
will more readily undertake it. I wish some personal 
scurrilities were omitted in our papers ; however, these had 
better be tolerated, than the liberty of the press, that palla- 
dium of every thing valuable, should be invaded. I am 
glad Mr. Kearsley has avoided these. The public trans- 
actions of the Colonies ought to be known in England — 
and it will be of great service to us, to have some of our 
best political pieces republished there. 

It is a great pity the Favorite ever returned to create 
suspicions and jealousies in the minds of a people already 
sufficiently exas perated. But it is to be feared, there is 
something more than jealousy in the sentiments the nations 
have of this mischievous Thane ; that he has too much 
influence in the public measures. 

The Conduct of the Earl of Chatham, a pamphlet you 

446 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

was so good as to send me, though evidently written by 
some tool of the ministry, yet I fear contains some alarming 
truths. What a situation is the nation in, if one, who 
owes his all to the free choice of the people, is no friend to 
their freedom ! God grant he may have juster notions, 
before it be too late. I heartily pray, God save the King 
from arbitrary principles, evil counsellors, a corrupt Parlia- 
ment, and unconstitutional measures. If the King can do 
no wrong, his ministers may ; and when they do wrong, 
they ought to be h-g-d. 

The affair of Lutterell, is one of the greatest insults on 
common sense I ever knew. It is high for the House of 
Commons to assume a power of determining who shall not 
sit — but it is insufferable, when they take upon them to 
impose members who have, never been elected. 

The Colonies wait with patience to hear the result of 
Parliament. Lord Hillsboro' has written a letter to soothe 
them, wherein he promises a repeal of the duties on glass, 
paper and painters 1 colors, but leaves out tea. The Colonies 
will never be easy without a repeal of the whole. How 
weak is the conduct of the ministry ! They show by their 
condescensions that they are afraid of driving things to 
extremities in the Colonies, and yet know not how to give 
up with a good grace. The Americans are determined to 
hold out. I wish in some things they were more temper- 
ate — but certainly it is best for Great Britain to repeal the 
obnoxious Acts. The non-importation takes place through- 
out almost all the Colonies. By what I can learn, there is 
greater opposition to it in Boston, than there is in any of 
the Provinces that have come into the agreement. Our 
first subscription was to continue till the first of January, 
1770. The merchants afterwards renewed it, and engaged 
not to import till the Acts should be repealed. A number 
who came into the first agreement, refused to subscribe to 
the second — several of these latter have goods, imported 
since the agreement took place, and have resigned them to 
the care of the merchants who have stored them. When 
the first of January arrives, the owners will insist upon it, 
that their engagement is at an end — and seem determined 
to expose their commodities to sale. This will occasion 
warm debates, and much altercation. I know not what 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas 1 loll is. 44-7 

will be the event — but things must come to some crisis — 
and if the acts are not repealed, I am very fearful of the 
consequence. The minds of people arc in a great ferment. 

Our Assembly is to meet in about a fortnight. It is diffi- 
cult to guess in what temper they will come together. 
Personal resentment against Governor Bernard has some- 
times Led to warm measures, that might not have taken 

place, if he had been out of the chair. As lie is gone, 
that occasion of offence is removed. The Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor has many enemies ; he has also many friends. He 
must not attempt any thing against our liberties. I hope 
he is not disposed — that he has a real regard for his coun- 
try. At all events, the Assembly will stand by their rights; 
they dare not give up the least iota. There is one thing 
which threatens a contention at the very beginning of the 
session. Last summer the Assembly refused to do business 
in Boston, because the main guard was placed just over 
against the court-house. The Governor, to end the dis- 
pute, carried the Court to Cambridge. The guards still 
remain. The Speaker tells me the House will not proceed 
to business, unless they are removed. I believe the Lieut. 
Governor will endeavor to fix the guard-house in some 
other place. I am doubtful whether this will be sufficient. 
I shall be sorry if the Court should be at Cambridge. It 
hinders the scholars in their studies. The young gentle- 
men are already enough taken up with politics. They 
have catched the spirit of the times. Their declamations 
and forensic disputes breathe the spirit of liberty. This 
has always been encouraged ; but they have sometimes 
wrought themselves up to such a pitch of enthusiasm that 
it has been difficult to keep them within due bounds. But 
their tutors are fearful of giving too great a check to a dis- 
position which may hereafter fill the country with patriots, 
and choose to leave it to age and experience to correct 
their ardor. 

The corporation have at length chose a President. His 
name is Locke — a truly venerable name ! This gentleman 
is minister of a small parish, about twenty miles from 
Cambridge. He has fine talents, is a close thinker, had at 
College the character of a first rate scholar ; he is possessed 
of an excellent spirit, has generous, catholic sentiments, is 

448 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

a friend to liberty, and is universally acceptable, at least so 
far as I have heard. He has not conversed so much with 
the world as I could wish, and perhaps has not a general 
acquaintance with books ; but he loves study, and will 
have opportunity at College to improve, being not yet forty 
years old. We know not whether he will accept. I am 
to set out, with a committee of the overseers, on the mor- 
row, for Sherburne, where Mr. Locke lives, to make the 
invitation in form. 

I am, dear Sir, with great respect, your obliged friend 
and humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 

Boston, Feb. 1, 1770. 
Dear Sir, 

I am loth to trouble you so often, but was desirous 
you might see what Dr. Chauncy had written against Dr. 
Chandler, as soon as possible. The Doctor writes solidly, 
rather than correctly. The piece published in the Appen- 
dix, gives a further specimen of the spirit of the Episco- 
palians. I send one of these pamphlets, directed to Dr. 
Harris. If it will give you the least inconvenience to send 
it to that worthy gentleman, please to dispose of it else- 

I wrote you in my last, that Mr. Locke was chosen Pres- 
ident. We are to receive his answer next week. 'Tis 
supposed that he will accept. 

A gentleman of character from Canada, has been in 
Town ; he informs that the popish interest in that Prov- 
ince has gained ground amazingly, since the introduction 
of a bishop, which w T as a favor the Canadians did not at 
all expect. Since his arrival, the Papists are insolent ; 
refuse their churches to the Protestants, which these had 
freely used before. Instead of our gaining proselytes from 
them, great numbers [disbanded soldiers and others] are 
gone over to them, and discouragements are thrown in the 
way of those who would renounce Popery. There is cer- 
tainly, of late years, a secret influence in the British court 
in favor of the Romish church. I wish in the end it may 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas ] loll is. 11!) 

not have sonic terrible effect which is not at present 
thought of. 

I am, with the greatest esteem, your obliged friend and 
bumble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 

Boston, June 28, 1770. 
I )i:ar Sir, 

Your very obliging favor dated December 5, 1769, I 
received, with the kind present which accompanied it. 
Please to accept my hearty acknowledgments. 

A-D-X Blaokburne's Commentary on the A-B-P's Letter 
to Mr. Walpole is, like himself, excellent throughout. The 
Americans read it with avidity, and hold themselves ex- 
tremely obliged to the incomparable author. Be so good, 
if you have opportunity, to make my particular acknowl- 
edgments for this unanswerable performance, to that worthy 
man, whom I shall always reverence and honor. May he 
Ion"- live to be a scourae to bigoted and insidious church- 
men, and to defend the rights and liberties of mankind ! 
I immediately sent a copy to New York, where this contro- 
versy is more warmly agitated than it is with us. [Our 
churchmen cannot write.] Dr. Hodgers, a worthy Presby- 
terian minister in that city, writes in return, " I am much 
obliged to you for Dr. Burton's panegyric on the A-B-P, 
though I am much disgusted with it ; and think that he 
has, whatever Dr. Markham may have done, indeed injured 
him by his assistance." A-D-X B — ne's critical Commentary 
on Dr. Seeker's Letter, gives me a pleasure I cannot ex- 
press. I think it is very plain that the A-B-P set Dr. 
Chandler to work, and highly probable that he furnished 
him with a copy of his letter to Mr. Walpole, as the 
ground- work. But I hope a gracious God has defeated 
the baleful design, of both the principal and his second. 
We think that the spirited opposition that has been made 
to an American Episcopate has, if not entirely defeated the 
measure, yet, delayed its execution — and we hope for half 
a century at least, which is a great thing — and the future 
friends of the cause of liberty will be under great advan- 
4th s. — vol. iv. 57 

450 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

tages for its defence against any future attempts on it of 
the like nature. 

Dr. Stiles, of Newport, writes, " I received great pleas- 
ure from the remarks on A-B-P Seeker's Answer to Mr. 
Walpole's Letter, upon the subject of an American Epis- 
copate, and am highly obliged to you for it. I shall lend 
it to some of our church tories. It will be a good dose for 
them. He has opened the cabinet, the Pandora's box, and 
discovered the latent intrigues of this A-B-P. I have often 
heard Dr. Johnson, of Stratford, speak of this Seeker, with 
high encomiums, being, like himself, a convert from us, 
cotemporary in age and conversion, resident at the Univer- 
sity of Oxford, 1723, when Johnson was there. I mention 
this to show that the A-B-P might at that time, and from 
acquaintance with Cutler and Johnson, first conceive his 
favorite notion of episcopizing New England and America. 
It was, as I understood, in 1748, by letters of correspond- 
ence between Dr. Johnson and this said Dr. Seeker, B-p 
Oxon, that Tho' Brad: Chandler was proselyted — learn- 
ing or imbibing then, an assurance that in his day the 
hierarchy would be erected here, and that the young adven- 
turers had a fair chance of becoming bishops and other 
dignitaries in the church. The same bait was at that time 
offered to me. I did not indeed see, though I easily might 
have seen, those letters. This piece satisfies me, that 
Seeker and the rest of the B-ps even, gladly encouraged 
and brought forward the Popish Episcopacy at Quebec. I 
was not so clear before, that Dr. Chandler was excited to 
write by this A-B-P. I think the author enters well into the 
objections of the Americans. "We are all obliged to him 
for developing sundry things, which, though we believed 
before, yet were in the dark. The Antigua affair, joined 
with that at Hopkinton, narrated by Dr. Mayhew, gives a 
proper idea of commissary authority. Could Seeker be in 
earnest for tory bishops 1 Burton's panegyrick, betrays his 
high Oxonian domination and tyranny over conscience. 
The remarks are a good antidote for this piece of extrav- 
agant adulation. What will Dr. Chandler say, at an Epis- 
copal divine so boldly and authoritatively deciding the 
dispute, with a declaration of the futility of his reason- 
ings I " 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas 1 loll Is. 451 

I have endeavored to make a proper use of the hint you 
have given concerning political publications. Several gen- 
tlemen have engaged to send for them. I have often ex- 
pressed in)' surprise, that no care has been taken, to know 
what has been said for and against us in Great Britain. 
Few of our merchants are readers, and others are out of 
the way of procuring. Our accounts of things arc chiefly 
by private correspondences. The popular side have de- 
pended chiefly on Governor Pownal, Mr. Bollan and Mr. 
D'Berdt. The first is capable enough of giving intelligence, 
but, unless 1 am greatly mistaken, he is a thorough modern 
politician. Mr. Bollan Ihave always esteemed a gentleman 
of learning and integrity. Good Mr. D'Berdt did as well 
as he could ; he would not willingly deceive, but perhaps 
was often deceived. 

I find the catastrophe of the fifth of March has reached 
London. We are yet at a loss what will be the effect. It 
was an awful scene. There had been such an animosity 
between the inhabitants and the soldiery some time before 
this tragedy, that I greatly feared the event. The people 
seemed determined to "be rid of such troublesome inmates, 
as soon as possible, but were generally careful not to be 
the aggressors. Capt. Preston, who commanded the party 
that fired on the unarmed inhabitants, had the character of 
a benevolent, humane man ; he insists on his innocence, 
and that his men fired without his order. The evidence 
will be perplexed, if not contradictory. His trial, which, 
in common course, would have come on very soon after the 
action, has been deferred from time to time. It was ad- 
journed to the beginning of this month ; but one of the 
judges falling from his horse, the court could not proceed, 
and it is deferred to next term, which will be in August. 
People complain of the delay of justice. Perhaps it was 
best to defer the trial at the first — the minds of men were 
too much inflamed to have given him a common chance. 
But they are as calm now, as they arc like to be at all — 
and if judges have power to delay trials as long as they 
please, it certainly is in their power to say whether there 
shall be any trial at all. It is my hearty prayer that he 
may have a fair and impartial hearing, and that justice may 
take place. It is said, if he is convicted, he will be par" 

452 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

doned. This will give great uneasiness. In case of mur- 
der fully proved, it may be doubted whether any power on 
earth has a right to pardon. The action, let who will be 
guilty, cannot be justified ; and it can answer no good end 
to palliate it. The passions of the inhabitants were raised 
that evening almost to madness, and it is amazing that they 
were kept from rushing, unarmed as they were, on the 
troops — -in which case the consequence must have been 
dreadful. The whole serves to show the impossibility of 
our living in peace with a standing army. A free people 
will sometimes carry things too far ; but this remedy will 
always be found worse than the disease. Trenchard's His- 
tory of standing armies, with which you formerly obliged 
me, is excellent. Some are ready to represent the whole as 
a scheme of the Commissioners, without the least reason. 
But this shows the prejudice there is against them — which 
is such that there is no safety in conversing with them, or 
showing them the least respect. I do not hear that they 
have of late given any offence, either in their private or 
public character. But the office is detested, and they must 
be removed. I have been of the mind that no affront 
would be offered them, and I believe that it was not the 
intention of the leaders of the opposition to have the least 
injury done them. But Mr. Hulton's house, about four 
miles out of Town, has been attacked by a small party, 
and some windows broke. All parties disapprove the 
action. Mr. Birch and his lady resided with Mr. Hulton. 
They are all retired to the castle. We are at present in a 
state of confusion. There seems to be no government. 
The General Court refuse to do business at Cambridge. 
The Governor says he cannot bring them to Boston. I 
had rather they were anywhere than at College. 

Unless there is some great alteration in the state of 
things, the aera of the independence of the Colonies is 
much nearer than I once thought it, or now wish it. It is 
for the interest of both countries to be united, if it can be 
on equitable terms. May God give wisdom to the Adminis- 
tration at home and prudence to the Colonies, or these 
disputes may end in the hurt if not ruin of both. In the 
present state of things, you may easily imagine what would 
be the consequence if Administration should send a Col- 

Letters from Andrew EltOt to Thomas I loll is. 458 

ony Bishop. I much question whether the prayer put into 

his mouth in the print before 4 the Political Register for Sep- 
tember would be answered — whether he would be Buffered 
to depart in peace. 

What changes in your political world. Dr. Blackstone, 
whose Commentaries show how well he understood the 
constitution of England, votes and writes in favor of Lut- 
trell ; and Mr. Grenville, the 4 author of our miseries, is in 
favor of Wilkes and the Colonies. Put L-d H-lsb-gh out 
of place, and he will turn patriot. Your great men do not 
even save appearances. We are glad however to have 
advocates, from whatever principle they act. If it were 
not for the opposition, the nation would be enslaved and 
the Colonies crushed. Our good ancestors nsed to say, 
u The earth helps the woman," and unless Providence 
makes use of bad men. the Lord have mercy on Great 
Britain ! for among the great, I fear, there is scarce a vir- 
tuous character to be found. I should be glad to hope it 
was better among the other ranks, but the people could not 
be sold if they did not first sell themselves. I am sorry, 
dear Sir. you are almost alone ; but a man of understand- 
ing and virtue, who will not run headlong with party, 
per fas #• nefas, will find few in the present times with 
whom he can unite. May God preserve you till you see 
England virtuous and happy, to the utmost of your wishes ! 
and all the disputes between the parent country and their 
Colonies, settled agreeably to eqnity and justice ! and may 
a constitutional harmony subsist between them through all 
generations ! 

Mr. Locke was installed President March 21. I hope 
he will fill the place well. Lie is a gentleman of abil- 
ities and a good share of learning — of great prudence and a 
fine mind, and which is a great thing at this time, agreeable 
to all parties — perhaps his greatest defect is, that he does 
not quite know the world in all its departments — having 
lived in retirement. His introduction into snch a public 
station wiD give him an opportunity to cultivate a more 
general acquaintance with men and things. His age will 
admit of improvements. He is under forty. 

I find by the papers that worthy Dr. Harris has departed 
this life. The world can ill spare men of abilities, integ- 

454 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

rity and fortitude. But ive must resign, when Heaven claims 
their souls. 

Amidst the present confusions in England, I do not 
wonder you are fond of retiring ; but cannot wish it, for 
the sake of your friends and the public. 

I am, dear Sir, with the greatest gratitude and respect, 
your obedient, humble servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 

Boston, Janry 26, 1771. 
Dear Sir, 

I ought long ago to have acknowledged the receipt of 
your kind 'favor of June 2, 1770, but a very ill state of 
health rendered me almost incapable of writing at all. I 
was once obliged to retire in the midst of divine service. 
I thank God my health is pretty well restored. I return 
you my hearty thanks for the many curious pamphlets with 
w T hich you have enriched me. Every thing relative to the 
Long Parliament, and the succeeding times, ought to be 

I am glad the volume of " original papers " proved ac- 
ceptable. I am uncertain whether Mr. Hutchinson will 
publish another volume. He hath it in contemplation, 
and would himself choose to publish, as he sets a great 
value on these ancient relics ; but there are but few who 
have a taste for such publications, or that enough consider 
the importance of marking the beginnings of a people. Mr. 
Hutchinson is, as you say, a gentleman ; he certainly wishes 
well to his country — perhaps he had been more happy if 
he had been employed only as Chief Justice, in which sta- 
tion all parties were charmed with his abilities and integ- 
rity. But in the chief seat of government, it is impossible 
to give satisfaction on both sides the water, especially at 
such a time ; and it is difficult for the best minds to keep 
themselves pure. Places, pensions and salaries bias men 
without their knowing it ; and human nature is too easily 
warped by interest, connections, &c. I never, for his own 
sake, desired to see him Governor, lest it should destroy 
his comfort, and affect the purity of his heart. But since 

Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hoi Us. l.V> 

it ivS so ordered, I hope it will turn out well for himself 
and his country. 

Nothing ever gave me a higher opinion of your wisdom 
and integrity, than your declining every public station. 

Your noble reason 1 for not seeking a ploee [seat] in the 
House of Commons, will be to your everlasting honor. 

You Mas quite right in supposing the public eonfusions 
would soon put an end to the controversy with the Episco- 
palians — the annual sermons keep an American Bishop 
in sight — the design will never he abandoned — we fear a 
coup de main. Our friends, we trust, will he on the watch. 
I have endeavored to disperse the A-D-N's admirable 
Critical Commentary among our public libraries, especially 
those in the Colleges, where I thought it would be most 
read, and be most useful. 

Another controversy hath unexpectedly arisen, w T e judge, 
from the Episcopalian quarter, although they do not ap- 
pear in it. Our Baptist brethren, all at once, complain of 
grievous persecutions in the Massachusetts ! These com- 
plaints were never heard of till we saw them in the public 
prints. It was a great surprise when we saw them, as we 
had not heard that the laws in force w T ere not satisfactory. 
There was soon reason to suspect that the whole originated 
among us with a young Baptist minister from Pennsyl- 
vania, who has lately been introduced into this Town ; and 
we were informed by our friends in that Colony, that the 
Baptists there had formed a coalition with the Episcopa- 
lians, and had refused to join the Presbyterians in oppos- 
ing an American Episcopate. The truth of this you will 
easily believe, w 7 hen you read an extract, which I now 
inclose, from one of the Philadelphia papers, which was 
lately published here. [Evening Post, Jan. 1-1, 1771.] I 
wish I could send you the w r hole of the abusive things that 
have been published there against this Province, on this 
subject ; but it is not at present in my power. I w r ish our 
fathers had contrived some other way for the maintenance 
of ministers, than by a tax. Thank God, we have none in 
Boston. I do not like any thing that looks like an estab- 
lishment. But in the way in which our ministers are gen- 

1 I saw it in the North Briton. 

456 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

erally maintained, the Baptists can have very little reason 
to complain. For as soon as any produce a certificate that 
they are Baptists, they are excused from all ministerial 
taxes. The certificate is to be given by persons of their 
own denomination, who are hereby made the only judges, 
and who it is to be supposed (like all others) will be fond 
of increasing their party. There is no doubt that this 
exemption induces some to profess themselves Baptists. 
There may have been some particular acts of hardship and 
injustice, but they must have proceeded from some acci- 
dental cause. There is nothing in the present complexion 
of this country, that looks like persecution. Both magis- 
trates and ministers are as free from it as they ever were 
in any age or country. If it were not so, I should detest 
New England as much as now I love it, and if possible 
would leave it. I waited on Mr. Stillman, a Baptist min- 
ister in my neighborhood, as soon as I saw the complaints 
in the public prints. I complained in my turn of the 
injury he did the country. I told him that if there was 
any thing wrong, we would join with him in getting it 
redressed. I spake to Speaker Gushing, Mr. Adams and 
others of the Assembly, who promised to look carefully 
into the matter, to have the law altered so as to give all 
reasonable satisfaction to the Baptists. Other ministers 
joined with me ; and yet, after this, we found another ad- 
vertisement wherein they mentioned that they had chose 
an Agent to repair to England to address His Majesty. 
We thought it very hard that they should apply against 
their own country at a time when there was such an 
unfavorable disposition towards us in the court of Great 

In the public papers at Philadelphia, (for they attack us 
at a distance,) we are threatened with the loss of our char- 
ter, for our treatment of the Baptists. This hath raised a 
spirit against them among our sons of liberty — as I am in 
friendship with both parties, I converse with both. Many 
among the Baptists in this Town, are much displeased with 
the publications, and insist that their ministers shall excul- 
pate themselves from being the authors of these cruel 
charges against their country. Both the Baptist ministers 
have declared to me that they are sorry they have proceed- 

Letters from Andrew 'Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 451 

ed so far, and that fchey will publish no more. The scheme 
of sending to England is, I hope, at an end, and that all 
will be amicably settled. It will be, unless the Episco- 
palians stir up the Baptists at the Southward. You a\ ill 
excuse my enlarging on this head ; the reason is, that I 
fear some malevolent persons have sent false accounts to 
England. If there arc any charges brought against us 
there, we shall be glad to be made acquainted with them, 
that we may have opportunity to vindicate ourselves. I 
hate every species of persecution, and cannot bear that a 
people should be accused of it that in my conscience I 
believe pre free from it. 

On all accounts I dislike the Court's setting at Cam- 
bridge, especially in the College. Happily they have not 
yet convened in so cold weather as to have a fire, and I 
trust effectual methods will be taken to prevent it, and to 
remove them at least from the College buildings. 

I mourn the death of the late excellent Dr. Harris. I 
hope the remainder of his history is left so as that the 
public will be favored with it. I pray for the continuance 
of worthy Dr. Fleming. The times are not worthy of such 
men, but they need them the more. 

Things are with us in a more quiet state than they have 
been. But it seems to me that our patriots have managed 
with less policy than usual. The non-importation scheme 
is given up with an ill grace. I knew our merchants, &c, 
could not hold out much longer — and therefore thought it 
best, when the Parliament repealed all the duties except 
that on tea, to put on a show of good humor, and to import 
every thing but that article. This would have saved ap- 
pearances ; whereas now, I fear we shall be thought entirely 
vanquished. New York throws the blame on us, and ac- 
cuses this Town of treachery. That there hath been deceit 
among some individuals, cannot be doubted. But the 
Town in general has been honest, and has suffered incredi- 
bly ; more, I am persuaded, than any Town on the conti- 
nent. I wonder, however, they do not vindicate themselves. 
In short, some who have been leaders, would have been 
glad to have held out longer, but persons in trade were 
weary, and, as interest is generally their god, began to be 
furious. The zeal of the populace, by which they had 
4th s. — vol. iv. 58 

458 Letters from Andrew Eliot to Thomas Hollis. 

been restrained a great while, gradually abated, and it was 
impossible to prevent a general importation. 

Our friends in England will be surprised at the acquittal 
of Capt. Preston and the soldiers. Had they been tried 
soon after the tragedy was acted, they could not have been 
saved. If they had been acquitted, I verily believe there 
would have been at that day, something similar to the exe- 
cution of Capt. Porteous, in Edinburgh. But the passions 
of men soon subside. The trial was very long. The pris- 
oners had secured the ablest and most popular counsel. 
In Capt. Preston's trial there was some little suspicion of 
unfair management in impannelling the jury, and yet peo- 
ple seem more satisfied with his acquittal, than with the 
acquittal of the soldiers-— where the jury were generally 
spoken well of. Some reflections are cast on the court. 
On the whole the evidence turned out very differently from 
what was expected. But people out of doors think it very 
hard the inhabitants s